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Full text of "Hall's journal of health"

Industry ^^ N .y. 

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HALL'S 



JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



FOR 1863. 



"HEALTH IS A DUTY."— Anon. 



"men consume too much food and too little pure air; 
thby take too much medicine and too litlle exercise." — ed. 

"I labor for the good time coming, when sickness and disease, except con- 
genital, or from accident, will be regarded as the result of ignorance or animalism, 
and will degrade the individual in the estimation of the good, as much as drunken- 
ness now does." — Ibid. 



EDITED BY 

W. W. HALL, M. D., 



VOL X. 



NEW-YORK : 

'PUBLISHED BY THE EDITOR, AT NO. 42 IRYLtfG PLAOB, 

AND BY 
TRUBNER & COMPANY, NO. 60 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON. 

1863. 









' 



1JT T 



- 






INDEX 



HALL'S JOUMAL OF HEALTH. 



VOL. X. 1863. 



PAGE 

Apprentices, 31 

Anecdotes, Ill, 112 

Agreeableness,. . .... » .262 

Autocrat's Death, . .. 269 

Baldness, 22 

Bible Confirmations, 50, 79 

Burns, 85 

Bilious Diarrhea, . . 163 

Blind Boy, 237 

Catching Cold, 13 

Corns, 19 

Cherished Flower, 51 

'Cute Things, , 66 

Clay, Henry,. 83 

Cures, 84 

Coffee, 91, 122 

Changing Clothing, 86, 115 

Constipation, 138 

Cholera, 161 

Central Park, 167 

Croup, 177 

Children, 205 

Children's Feet, 282 

Clerical Support, 229 

Curious Epitaph, 231 

Cottage, Sea, 238 

Consumption Detected, 245 

Cancer, 267 

Dress, 17 

Daughters, 30 

I>irt, 47 

Dying, 58, 126 

Drowning, 156 

Dieting, 156 

Diphtheria, 159 

Dysentery, 162 

Disinfectants, 164 



Eating, . . . . 9, 116, 216 

Eyesight,. ... 101 

Emanations,. .155 

Exercise,.. .219 

Evermore,. 243 

Eloquence, . . . 265 

Farmer Health, .5 

Farmers' Wives Overtaxed, 35 

Facts, Interesting, 72 



Great Eaters, .216 

Gruels and Soups, . *, 283 

Housewifery, 20 

Household Yermin, 92 

Haunted Houses, 95 

Household Economy, 142 

Head Vermin, 182 

Insanity, 218 

Ill-Nature, 257 

Life Wasted, 89 

Loose Bowels, 160 

Logic B,un Mad, 217 

Lung-Measurement, 221 

Loss of Children, 205, 265 

Mothers' Influence, 28 

Making Money, 176 

Medical Items, 214, 284 

Month Malign, 215 

Manners, 261 

Music Lessons, 263 

Natives and Foreigners, 60 

Nicholas of Russia, 269 

Notices, 285 



IV 



INDEX. 



PAG 13 

One Acre, 113 

Paine, Thomas , 52 

Poverty and Disease, 93 

Parental Corrections, 191, 232, 253 

Potatoes, 21 

Premature Deaths, 25 

Pulpit Power, 48 

Public Schools, 61 

Poisons, 90 

Philosophy, Ill 

Piles, ...119 

Purgative Medicines, 12V 

Physicians, 143 

Pew System, 149 

Physiological Items, 165 

Physiology of Worship, 213, 266 

Poetry, its Hygiene, 

Kesponsibility of Writers, 27 

Kecreation, 71 

Reformers, i 74 

Randolph, John, ; 76 

Rosetta Stone, 79 

Religious Papers, Age of, ......... . 81 

Resignation, 125 

Raising Children, 205 

Revenges,. '. . .256 

Shoes for Winter,. 19 

Success in Life, 25 

Sabbath Observance,. . . . . 57, 166 

Spot, The One, 67 

Schools, 61, 88 

Sad Reflection, 82 

Soldiers, 93 



PAGE 

Surgery, 102 

Specifics, 112 

Spring-Time, 114 

Sibley, Major, 130 

Summer Drinks, 158 

Summer Recreations, 204 

September,. 215 

Summer Mortality, 220 

Spirometry, 221 

Sill, Door, '. 239 

Style, •. 263 

Stammering, . . . 281 

Soups, 283 

Temper Controlled, 29 

Thorburn, Grant, 55 

Tumors, 105 

Temper and Health, 264 

The Young Suicide, 276 

Unskilled Labor . . . , 31 

Ventilation, 65 

Vital Capacity, 245 

Wise Workers, .................. 57 

Woolen Clothing,.. 86 

White Washes, ....... 87 

Worth Remembering, 212 

Wife Dying, . . . . . .v.. 241 

Wedding-Ring, 242 

Wealth, 259 

Weather, 268 

Youth and Age, .240 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless: for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 



WE AIM TO SHOW HOW DISEASE MAY BE AVOIDED, AND THAT IT TS BEST, WHEN SICKNESS COMES, TO 
TAKE NO MEDICINE WITHOUT CONSULTING A PHYSICIAN. 



Vol. X.] JANUARY, 1863. [No. 1. 



PARMER HEALTH. 

In passing through a lunatic asylum, the visitor is sometimes 
surprised to learn that the most numerous class of unfortunates 
are from the farm ; and yet in England, in 1860, but one fifth 
of the population were agricultural. ISTor do farmers live the 
longest. Travelers and natural philosophers average a greater 
age. The clergyman who devotes his life to study and late 
hours ; who spends three fourths of his existence in-doors ; who 
does not average two hours' muscular exercise in twenty four ; 
who is compelled to an inactivity of body which would seem 
enough to undermine any constitution, to say nothing of the 
many depressing influences connected with his office in listen- 
ing to the troubled, in counseling the sick, and in waiting 
on the dying and the dead, even he often survives the 
farmer who rises with the lark to breathe the pure out-door air ; 
whose undisturbed nights; whose supposed independence of 
the world ; upon whose table is daily placed the fresh butter 
and the new-laid eggs, with pure rich milk from the spring- 
house, all cool and sweet, vegetables just dug from the ground 
or pulled from the vine, and melons taken from the garden, 
berries from the bending bushes, and fruits, luscious and perfect 
and ripe from the orchard within the hour ; in short, a class of 
men whose entire surroundings of quiet and plenty and inde- 



6 

pendence would seem to guarantee a healthful and happy old 
age, do not attain it as often as some other classes whose habits 
and modes of life are not, other things being equal, as favorable 
to longevity. In the light of these statements, it is proposed to 
inquire. 

First : Why is the farmer more liable to insanity than the 
citizen ? Second : Why does he not average a longer life ? 

Incessant thinking on any one subject tends to craze the 
brain ; and it does unhinge the intellect of multitudes, as wit- 
ness the fate of men of " one idea ;" of inventors ; of inveterate 
students of prophecy; of those who abandon themselves to 
thinking of the loved and lost ; of the victims of remorse or 
mortified pride ; or of those who feed* on sharp-pointed memo 
ries. Learned physicians of all civilized countries agree that, 
in cases like these, it is best to divert the mind, by travel, to a 
new class of thoughts, to a greater variety of objects of con- 
templation. It is known that within a short time the attention 
of the French government has been officially drawn to the 
fact that one in ten of the young gentlemen who are educated 
for the army, in the mathematical department, becomes de- 
ranged ; this is because the mind will not bear exclusive action 
on one subject. This is the key to the so frequent cases of in- 
sanity and suicide among farmers ; their subjects of thought are 
too few ; their life is a ruinous routine ; there is a sameness and 
a tameness about it, a paucity of subjects for contemplation, 
most dangerous to mental integrity. 

It is too much the case with our farming population that they 
have no breadth of view ; they can not sustain a conversation 
beyond a few comments on the weather, the crops, the mar- 
kets, and the neighborhood news. And it is worthy of note 
that their remarks on these subjects are uniformly of the com- 
plaining and unhopeful kind, as if their occupation and their 
thoughts were on the same low and depressing level. This is 
because the mind is not used enough ; is not waked up by a 
lively interest in a sufficient variety of subjects to promote a 
healthful tone. 

The proper and the all-powerful remedy against the sad ef- 
fects of a plodding, routine existence, is a higher standard of 
general intelligence and a livelier attention to what is too often 
derisively styled " book-farming." The highest form of human 



FARMER HEALTH. 7 

health is found in those who exercise the brain and the body in 
something like equal proportions. If the greater share of the 
nervous energies is sent out through the muscles, they will 
be largely, even preternaturally, developed ; but then the brain 
languishes for want of its due amount of aliment, vigorous 
thought, while that same body, having been unduly worked, 
wears out before its time and prematurely decays. It is even 
better for the mind and body both, that if either has the larger 
share of exercise it should be the brain, for thereby the chances 
of longer life are increased, since statistics clearly show that, as 
a general rule, the most intellectual live the longest. Prof. 
Pierce, of Cambridge, after having examined the subject closely 
in reference to the young gentlemen pursuing their studies at 
Harvard University, remarks, as the result of his observations, 
that : " Taking classes in the average, those are the first to die 
who are the dullest and most stupid ; while, as a general rule, 
those who exercise their brains most constantly, thoroughly, 
and faithfully, are the longest lived." 

The lamented President Felton was accustomed to urge upon 
the young gentlemen of his classes, with great earnestness, as a 
means of high health, that they should " use the mind ;" use it 
actively, and on a variety of subjects, so as to avoid any dull 
routine. 

It is an observed fact that many of those sent to peniten- 
tiaries for long terms, or for life, become idiotic; but that 
among the number there is seldom found one who had even 
small pretensions to a liberal education or to mental culture in 
any direction. The gifted and unfortunate Mary Queen of 
Scotts, after lingering eighteen years in prison, came forth to 
the block with that vigor of mind and clearness of intellect and 
composure of manner which bespoke a healthful brain. Mul- 
titudes of distinguished men have passed a large portion of 
their lives in prisons, yet maintained their mental integrity, and 
lived long enough afterwards to accomplish great deeds. Count 
Confalioneri, having rendered himself obnoxious to the Aus- 
trian government, was confined in a dungeon ten feet square 
for six years, with so dim a light that he could not distinguish 
' the features of the solitary companion of his misfortunes ; after 
which time he remained nine years longer, entirely alone. He 
writes of himself : " Only one event broke in upon my nine 



8 

years' vacancy. One day — it must have been a year or two 
after my companion left me — my dungeon -door was opened, 
and a voice, I knew not whence, uttered these words : ' By 
order of his Imperial Majesty, I intimate to you, that one year 
ago your wife died.' Then the door was shut I heard no 
more. They had but flung this great agony in upon me, and 
left me alone with it again." Without a book, without a com- 
panion, without any intelligence from the outer world, confined 
in a dark dungeon, living on the coarsest food, having those in- 
ward resources which a superior education gave, he fed upon 
them, and thus maintained both mental and bodily health ; 
while the uninstructed farmer, who can feed on the fat of the 
land, who passes near three fourths of his existence in the 
blessed sunlight, greedily drinking in the luscious out-door air 
in all its purity, with no restraint of bodily liberty, so abandons 
himself to the dull routine which comprises almost nothing but 
to work and eat and sleep, often finds in a less time than fifteen 
years, that vigor of mind and health of body are both on the 
wane. But a better time is coming, through the influence of 
our glorious Public-School system, when it shall no longer be 
considered an all-sufficient qualification for a farmer that he 
have a vigorous frame and intelligence enough to skillfully 
wield an ax or turn a furrow or drive a team. Men are al- 
ready beginning to perceive that encouragingly remunerative 
farming is the reward of those who have made themselves fa- 
miliar with the analysis of soils, who have some knowledge of 
botany and vegetable chemistry, who have given some study to 
ascertain the surest way of obtaining the best seeds and the 
best breeds, and who have "method in their" book "madness," 
in the selection of cions and grafts and roots and plants. 
Such men not only make money by farming, but have a posi- 
tive delight in their labor, and in waiting for results ; for one 
of the sweetest sensations possible to the human mind is the 
development of useful practical facts as the result of trials and 
experiments. If the young farmer then begins life with a 
better literary education, and every farm-house is regularly 
visited by some well-conducted agricultural periodical, the 
mental horizon of the hard-working tiller of the soil will soon • 
become so extended that a demented farmer will become the 
rarest of sights. There is another item in reference to the 



FARMER HEALTH. 9 

farming population of this country, which certainly adds to the 
number of its lunatics ; it is that grim specter, Debt, which is 
voluntarily set up in the households of three farmers out of 
four, whether in the cabin of the thriftless squatter or in the 
mansion of the princely planter. It is generally a very grave 
mistake, in the hope of making money by the rise of land, to 
purchase more than can be conveniently paid for on the spot, 
or more than can be advantageously cultivated with the force 
at command. This demon of debt, with its " interest" eating- 
out the farmer's substance ceaselessly and remorselessly, day and 
night, summer and winter, in sunshine and in shade, is in multi- 
tudes of cases a vain sacrifice to the Moloch of gain, a yawning 
maelstrom, pitiless and inappeasable ; it eats out half the joys 
of many families, by reason of the self-denials, the always losing 
" make-shifts," the working to disadvantage and consequent 
extra labor, with those anxieties and solicitudes which are ne- 
cessarily imposed, and which, in their turn, induce irritation of 
mind, irascibility of temper, and that forgetfulness of those do- 
mestic amenities which many times convert a trouble into a 
pleasure and alleviate or take entirely away half the burdens 
of life. These acerbities of temper grow by what they feed 
upon, and seldom fail in the end to leave an evil impress on the 
character of those upon whom the disturbing consciousness of 
debt presses with the weight of the nether millstone, impelling 
too ofteu to the razor, the river, or the halter ; for it is not an 
unknown thing, by any means, that the hard-working farmer 
becomes a suicide. The whole subject is presented, with addi- 
tional thoughts, in the eighth volume of Hall's Journal of 
.Health, New- York, page forty -two ; to make this article more 
specifically practical, the attention of farmers' families is invited 
to the chief and direct causes of nine tenths of the diseases which 
cloud their happiness, which interfere with their prosperity, and 
often largely add to discouraging expenditures of the means 
which it caused so much labor to acquire ; and first to 

EATING. 

The stomach has two doors, one for the entrance of the food, 
on the left side, the other, for its exit, after it has been pro- 
perly prepared for another process. As soon as the food is 
swallowed, it begins to go round and round the stomach, so as to 



10 

facilitate dissolution ; just as the melting of a number of small 
bits of ice is expedited by being stirred in a glass of water ; the 
food , like the ice, dissolving from without, inwards, until all is 
a liquid mass. 

"When food is unnaturally detained in the stomach, it pro- 
duces wind, eructations, fullness, acidity, or a feeling often de- 
scribed as a " weight," or " load," or " heavy." But nature is 
never cheated. Her regulations are never infringed with im- 
punity ; and although an indigestible article may be allowed to 
pass out of the stomach, it enters the bowels as an intruder, is 
an unwelcome stranger, the parts are unused to it, like a crumb 
of bread which has gone the wrong way by passing into the 
lungs, and nature sets up a violent coughing to eject the in- 
truder. As to the bowels, another plan is taken, but the object 
is the same — a speedy riddance. As soon as this unwelcome 
thing touches the lining of the bowels, nature becomes alarmed, 
and like as when a bit of sand is in the eye, she throws out 
water, as if with the intention of washing it out of the body, 
hence the sudden diarrheas with which persons are sometimes 
surprised. It was a desperate effort of nature to save the body, 
for if undigested food remains too long, either in the stomach 
or bowels, fits, convulsions, epilepsies, apoplexies, and death, 
are a very frequent result. 

As a universal rule in health, and, with very rare excep- 
tions, in disease, that is best to be eaten which the appetite 
craves or the taste relishes. 

Persons rarely err in the quality of the food eaten ; nature's 
instincts are the wise regulators in this respect. 

The great sources of mischief from eating are three : Quam 
tity, Frequency, Eapidity ; and from these come the horrible 
dyspepsias which make of human life a burden, a torture, a 
living death. 

Eapidity. — By eating fast, the stomach, like a bottle being 
filled through a funnel, is full and overflowing before we know 
it. But the most important reason is, the food is swallowed be- 
fore time has been allowed to divide it in sufficiently small pieces 
with the teeth ; for, like ice in a tumbler of water, the smaller 
the bits are, the sooner are they dissolved. It has been seen 
with the naked eye, that if solid food is cut up in pieces small 
as half a pea, it digests almost as soon, without being chewed 



FARMER HEALTH. 11 

at all, as if it had been well masticated. The best plan, there- 
fore, is for all persons to thus comminute their food ; for even if 
it is well chewed, the comminution is no injury, while it is of 
very great importance in case of hurry, forgetfulness, or bad 
teeth. Cheerful conversation prevents rapid eating. 

Frequency. — It requires about five hours for a common 
meal to be dissolved and pass out of the stomach, during which 
time this organ is incessantly at work, when it must have re- 
pose, as any other muscle or set of muscles, after such a length 
of effort. Hence persons should not eat within less than a five 
hours' interval. The heart itself is at rest more than one third 
of its time. The brain perishes without repose. 

All are tired when night comes ; every muscle of the body 
is weary and looks to the bed ; but just as we lie down to rest 
every other part of the body, if we, by a hearty meal, give the 
stomach five hours' work, which, in its weak state, requires a 
much longer time to perform, than at an earlier hour of the 
day, it is like imposing upon a servant a full day's labor just 
at the close of a hard day's work ; hence the unwisdom of eat- 
ing heartily late in the day or evening ; and no wonder it has 
cost many a man his life. 

No laborers or active persons should eat an atom later than 
sun-down, and then it should not be over half the midday 
meal. Persons of sedentary habits, or who are at all ailing, 
should take absolutely nothing for supper beyond a single piece 
of cold stale bread and butter, or a ship- biscuit, with a. single 
cup of warm drink. Such a supper will always give better 
sleep and prepare for a heartier breakfast, with the advantage 
of having the exercise of the whole day to grind it up and ex- 
tract its nutriment. 

Quantity. — It is variety which oftenest tempts to excess. 
Many a man has been about to push himself back from the 
table, with a feeling as if he did not want any more, when the 
unexpected appearance of some favorite dish has waked up a 
new appetite, and he "disposes" of an amount almost equal to 
that already taken. To prevent over-eating, take food de- 
liberately, keep up a lively conversation on pleasurable sub- 
jects during the entire repast, and avoid a variety of dishes. 
For ordinary purposes, there should be on the family table but 
one kind of bread, one kind of meat, one kind of vegetable. 



12 hall's journal of health. 

one kind of drink, and one kind of fruit or berries, as dessert ; 
butter, olive-oil, salads, cream, salt and pepper not being 
counted, but to be used as desired. 

The most ruinous practice in reference to this subject is eat- 
ing in a hurry, or under the influence of any disagreeable 
mental excitement, whether of anxiety, passion, or grief, for 
many have died within an hour by so doing. 

Multitudes bring on themselves the horrors of a life-long 
dyspepsia by drinking large quantities of cold water at their 
meals, because by cooling the contents of the stomach, which 
maintains a heat of ninety-eight degrees, to that of the water 
drank at forty — ice-water being about thirty -two — digestion is 
as instantly arrested as a burning coal is extinguished by a dash 
of cold water ; and this process is not resumed until heat enough 
has been drawn from the other parts of the body to raise the 
whole mass to its natural temperature ; but this leaves the 
other parts of the system so cold that those who have not 
robust health sometimes rise from the table in a chill ; at other 
times the general system, from want of vigor, has not been 
able to furnish the amount of heat necessary, digestion is not 
resumed, and diarrhea endangers life or convulsions destroy it 
within a few hours. Large quantities of hot drinks, at regular 
meals, will with equal certainty destroy the tone of the stomach 
and lay the foundation for tedious and painful diseases. In- 
valids should never take any cold drink at meals ; and whether 
hot or cold, they are wise and safe who never allow themselves 
over a quarter of a pint of any liquid at a regular meal, or 
within an hour afterwards. A good position for the first half- 
hour after eating is either to stand or sit erect ; better still, walk 
leisurely in the open air, if not too cold, or across the room 
with hands behind, chin a little elevated, maintaining an agree- 
able frame of mind. Particularly avoid a stooping position in 
sewing or reading for the first hour or two after meals, and also 
heavy lifting, hard study, or any intense mental emotion ; these 
are all destructive of health ; and although a single slight error 
may do no appreciable injury, it never fails to make an impress 
for ill, until at last there is one repetition too much, and a pain- 
ful sickness, a life-long torture, or a speedy death from heart- 
disease, hemorrhage, or apoplexy winds up the sad history. 



FARMER HEALTH. 13 

Never force food on the stomach. Never eat without an ap- 
petite. Never eat between meals. 

Always take breakfast before leaving the house in the morn- 
ing ; this will prevent an easy and early tiring, while the testi- 
mony of observant farmers of education, corroborates the teach- 
ings of the best medical minds, that by strengthening the 
stomach and sending invigorating nutriment to the whole sys- 
tem, weakened by the long fast of the night, there is generated 
a power of resistance against the onsets of disease from the cold 
of winter and from the malarias and miasms of summer, espe- 
cially in all flat, damp, and luxuriant soils, which can not be 
adequately expressed in language ; while both experience and 
experiment have combined to show that by the simple expedient 
of an early breakfast, individuals and families and neighbor- 
hoods have exempted themselves from that scourge of all new 
countries, " Fever and Ague," especially if followed by a supper 
a little before sundown, from May to November. 

CATCHING COLD. 

Experienced physicians in all countries very well know that 
the immediate cause of a vast number of cases of disease and 
death is a " cold ;" it is that which fires a magazine of human 
ills ; it is the spark to gunpowder. It was to a cold taken on 
a raw December day, that the great Washington owed his death. 
It was a common cold, aggravated by the injudicious advice of 
a friend, which ushered in the final illness of Washington Irving. 
Almost any reader can trace the death of some dear friend to a 
" little cold." 

The chief causes of cold are two : first, cooling off too soon 
after exercise ; second, getting thoroughly chilled while in a state 
of rest without having been overheated ; this latter originates 
dangerous pleurisies, fatal pneumonias (inflammation of the 
lungs,) and deadly fevers of the typhoid type. 

Persons in vigorous health do not take cold easily ; they can 
do with impunity what would be fatal to the feeble and infirm. 
Dyspeptic persons take cold readily, but they are not aware of 
it, because its force does not fall on the lungs, but on the liver 
through the skin, giving sick-headache ; and close questioning 
will soon develop the fact of some unusual bodily effort, fol- 
lowed by cooling off rapidly. 



14 ■ hall's jouknal of health. 

A person wakes up some sunny morning, and feels as if he 
had been " pounded in a bag ;" every joint is stiff, every muscle 
sore, and a single step can not be taken without difficulty or 
actual pain. • Eeflection will bring out some unwonted exercise, 
and a subsequent cooling off before knowing it — as working in 
the garden in the spring-time ; showing new servants " how to 
do;" in going a "shopping" — an expedition which taxes the 
mind and body to the utmost ; the particular shade of a ribbon 
the larger or smaller size of a " figure " on a calico dress, or a 
camel's hair shawl ; whether the main flower of a bonnet shall 
be " Jimpson " or a rose-bud ; whether the jewelry shall sport 
a Cupid's arrow or a snake's head ; these and similar debatable 
points on a thousand "little nothings," rouse' women's minds to 
a pitch of interest and excitement scarcely excelled by that of 
counselors of state in determining the boundaries of empires or 
the fate of nations, to return home exhausted in. body, depressed 
in mind, and thoroughly heated ; the first thing done is to toss 
down a glass of water to cool off, next to lay aside bonnet, 
shawl, and "best dress," and lastly, to put on a cold dress, lie 
down on a bed in a tireless room, and fall asleep, to wake up 
with infinite certainty, to a bad cold, which is to confine to the 
chamber for days and weeks together, and not unseldom, carries 
them to the grave ! 

A lady was about getting into a small boat to cross the Dela- 
ware ; but wishing first to get an orange at a fruit-stand, she ran 
up the bank of the river, and on her return to the boat found 
herself much heated, for it was summer, but there was a little 
wind on the water, and the clothing soon felt cold to her ; the 
next morning she had a severe cold, which settled on her lungs, 
and within the year she died of consumption. 

A stout, strong man was working in a garden in May ; feel- 
ing a little tired about noon, he sat down in the shade of the 
house and fell asleep ; he waked up chilly ; inflammation of 
the lungs followed, ending, after two years of great suffering, in 
consumption. On opening his chest, there was such an exten- 
sive decay, that the yellow matter was scooped out by the cup- 
ful. 

A Boston ship-owner, while on the deck of one of his ves- 
sels, thought he would " lend a hand " in some emergency ; and 
pulling off his coat, worked with a will, until he perspired free- 



FARMER HEALTH. 15 

Iy, when he sat down to rest awhile, enjoying the delicious 
breeze from the sea. On attempting to rise, he found himself 
unable, and was so stiff in his joints, that he had to be carried 
home and put to bed, which he did not leave until the end of 
two years, when he was barely able to hobble down to the 
wharf on crutches. 

A lady, after being unusually busy all day, found herself 
heated and tired toward sundown of a summer's day. She con- 
cluded she would rest herself by taking a drive to town in an 
open vehicle. The ride made her uncomfortably cool, but she 
warmed herself up by an hour's shopping, when she turned 
homeward; it being late in the evening, she found herself more 
decidedly chilly than before. At midnight she had pneumonia, 
(inflammation of the lungs,) and in three months had the ordi- 
nary symptoms of confirmed consumption. 

A lady of great energy of character lost her cook, and had to 
take her place for four days ; the kitchen was warm, and there 
was a draft of air through it. When the work was done, warm 
and weary, she went to her chamber, and lay down on the bed 
to rest herself. This operation was repeated several times a 
day. On the fifth day she had an attack of lung fever ; at the 
end of six months she was barely able to leave her chamber, 
only to find herself suffering with all the more prominent symp- 
toms of confirmed consumption ; such as quick pulse, night and 
morning cough, night-sweats, debility, short breath, and falling 
away. 

A young lady rose from her bed on a November night, and 
leaned her arm on the cold window-sill to listen to a serenade. 
Next morning she had pneumonia, and suffered the horrors of 
asthma for the remainder of a long life. 

Farmers' wives lose health and life every year, in one of two 
ways ; by busying themselves in a warm kitchen until weary, 
and then throwing themselves on a bed or sofa, without cover- 
ing, and perhaps in a room without fire ; or by removing the 
outer clothing, and perhaps changing the dress for a more com- 
mon one, as soon as they enter the house after walking or work- 
ing. The rule should be invariable to go at once to a warm 
room and keep on all the clothing at least for five or ten min • 
utes, until the forehead is perfectly dry. In all weathers, if you 
have to walk and ride on any occasion, do the riding first. 



16 hall's jouenal of health. 

An engineer, in the vigor of manhood, brought upon himself 
an incurable disease through a cold taken by standing on a zinc 
floor as soon as he left his bed in the morning, while he washed 
himself. Many a farmer's wife or daughter has lost her life by 
standing on a damp floor for hours together on washing-days. 

A young lady, the only daughter of a rich citizen, stood an 
hour on the damp grass, while listening to the music in the 
Central Park ; the next day she was attacked with inflamma- 
tion of the lungs, of which she died within a week. 

An estimable lady, a farmer's wife, busied herself in house- 
hold affairs on a summer's day ; late in the afternoon, having 
perspired a good deal, and being weary, she rode to town in an 
open vehicle to do some shopping ; finding herself a little chilly, 
she walked rapidly on leaving her carriage, and soon became 
comfortably warm again. While shopping it rained. After 
the shower, she started homeward in a cool wind ; this checked 
the perspiration the second time, and with all available precau- 
tions she reached home, chilled through and through, and died 
the victim of consumption within the year. 

A farmer's daughter "went a-berrying ;" the ground was 
flat and a little marshy ; her shoes were thin, and by the ex- 
citement of company she remained several hours. She was ill 
next day. Four years later she stated to her physician that she 
had not seen a well hour since. She was then in the last stages 
of a hopeless decline, and died soon after. 

A little attention would avert a vast amount of human suf- 
fering in these regards. Sedentary persons, invalids, and those 
in feeble health, should go directly to a fire after all forms of 
exercise, and keep all the garments on for a few minutes ; or, 
if in warm weather, to a closed apartment, and, if any thing, 
throw on an additional covering. When no appreciable moist- 
ure is found on the forehead, the out-door garments may be re- 
moved. The great rule is, cool off very slowly always after 
the body has in any manner been heated beyond its ordinary 
temperature. 

The moment a man is satisfied he has taken cold, let him do 
three things : First, eat nothing ; second, go to bed, cover up 
warm in a warm room ; third, drink as much cold water as he 
can, or as he wants, or as much hot herb-tea as he can ; and in 
three cases out of four he will be almost well in thirty-six 



FARMER HEALTH. 17 

hours ; if not, send for an educated and experienced physician 
at once, for any "cold" which does not "get better" within 
forty-eight hours, is neither to be trifled with nor experimented 
upon. 

DRESS. 

The main object of dress is not to impart warmth, but to 
keep the natural warmth about the body ; and thus prevent 
those sudden and fatal changes from heat to cold, which occur 
in passing from an in-door temperature of sixty-five degrees to 
that of zero or lower, without, as in mid- winter. The' temper- 
ature of the Northern States varies over a hundred degrees dur- 
ing the year, sometimes nearly half that within twenty-four 
hours. Dress provides against these destructive sudden changes, 
by maintaining the warmth of the skin at its natural state, 
which is ninety-eight degrees, whether a man is on an iceberg 
in Greenland, or on a sand-island in a tropical sea. The mate- 
rials of clothing which best keep the heat about the body are 
called non-conductors, such as furs and woolens, while the con- 
ductors are such as cool the body, by conveying the natural 
heat from it with great rapidity ; the greater conducting ability 
is measured by the greater coldness which an article causes on 
the first instant of its application. In* the very coldest weather, 
fur and woolen flannel appear but a little cool, and that but for 
an instant, and the next, there is a sensation of increasing, com- 
fortable warmth ; cotton flannel feels colder than woolen ; silk 
colder than cotton ; Irish linen colder than silk, and damp Irish 
linen greatly colder than either. A damp woolen shirt feels 
but a little cold, and begins to get warm and dry in an instant ; 
even if the person is in a profuse perspiration ; while an Irish 
linen or silk shirt, if damp with perspiration or otherwise, feels 
cold and clammy and sepulchral on the instant of its touching 
the skin, and will remain so for hours, without getting dry, 
never failing to leave a cold in some troublesome or even dan- 
gerous form ; hence, as persons perspire easily and profusely in 
summer, Irish linen can not be worn in warm weather with im- 
punity by the working classes, and those liable to perspiration 
from a little walking or exercise. Thus it is that British sailors 
in the navy are compelled to wear woolen flannel shirts all the 
year and in all latitudes ; in the north, because it keeps the 
natural warmth from escaping from the body, thus maintaining 



18 hall's journal of health. 

a temperature of ninety-eight degrees about the skin ; and in 
hot climates in summer, because although woolen is a bad con- 
ductor of heat, it is a good conductor of water, for if a woolen 
blanket is thrown over a sweating horse, in a very short time 
his hair and the inner side of the blanket will be dry, while the 
microscope will discover the whole outside surface spangled with 
millions of tiny drops of water. For these reasons, woolen flan- 
nel should be worn next the skin by all our people, from one 
year's end to another — a gauze material in summer ; in winter, 
a more substantial article. White flannel fulls up, and becomes 
hard and stiff, unless about a fifth of it is cotton. Colored flan- 
nel, especially the red, always remains soft and pliable. These 
things are indisputably true, and a practical attention to them, 
on the part of all hard -working people, would prevent an amount 
of pain and sickness every year which figures can not express. 
This would be especially true, if in warm weather, when fires 
are not needed in the house, farmers and other laborers would 
wear a moderately stout article of red woolen flannel as a shirt, 
with nothing over it, while at work, but at other times a thin 
coat over that. Any flannel garment worn during the day 
should be hung up to air at night, while the night-gown all the 
year round should be of stout cotton shirting, for if woolen is 
worn next the skin all the time, it makes it callous, and is oth- 
erwise injurious. The best, safest, and most healthful head- 
dress for farmers and workmen, all the year round, is a common 
easy-fitting wool or felt hat; in winter it keeps the head warm, 
in summer it is a great protection against sun -stroke, especially 
if a silk handkerchief or a few leaves of a tree are worn in the 
crown ; such a hat is a great preventive of baldness, if worn 
from early youth, because it allows the blood to flow freely to 
and from the scalp ; but if the vessels are compressed, as is done 
by the common unyielding silk hat, the free circulation of the 
blood is obstructed, and the nourishment of the hair-roots or 
bulbs being cut off, the hair perishes irretrievably, causing all 
the discomforts and inconveniences of baldness. 

Death often comes to the honest laborer, as well as to others, 
through the feet, either by tightly-fitting shoes, which, by ob- 
structing the circulation, keep the feet cold, thus laying the 
foundation for troublesome diseases, or by shoes which do not 
keep out the dampness. In purchasing new shoes or having 



FARMER HEALTH. 19 

the measure taken, put on two pairs of woolen socks, without 
the knowledge of Crispin, and the new pair will feel from the 
first " as easy as an old shoe." 

A piece of tarred or pitched cloth sewed between the layers 
of the shoe-sole is a great protection against dampness from 
without ; or take pitch not hot enough to burn the leather, and 
apply it to the bottom and edges of the sole with a rag, let it 
dry thoroughly, and repeat the application thus three or four 
times ; it is contended that a sole thus treated will not only be 
impervious to water and dampness, but will wear nearly twice 
as long as a sole not thus treated. It is an excellent plan to 
have two pairs of shoes, to be worn on alternate days, so as to 
have a perfectly dry pair to put on every morning, allowing 
the unworn ones to remain in a warm, dry place. Washing 
the feet every night in warm weather, and soaking them in 
warm water for ten minutes three times a week in winter, ad- 
mirably promotes that warmth, pliability, and softness of the 
skin of the feet, so indispensable to health and comfort, saying 
nothing of the cleanliness of the practice, and its tendency both 
to prevent and to cure corns. But after all washings of the 
feet, it is of the first importance after wiping them well, to hold 
them to the fire and rub them with the hands until perfectly 
dry and warm in every part. 

It will be useful to add here, in reference to corns, that they 
are caused by pressure and by friction also, hence they may be 
the result of a shoe that is either too tight or too loose. They 
can be always either permanently cured or kept within bounds 
by simply soaking the corn in hot water twenty minutes every 
night, and then patiently rub a few drops of sweet oil on the 
top of the corn ; repeat the oil in the morning, and continue 
these until the core of the corn can be picked out with the fin- 
ger-nail ; nothing harder or sharper should ever touch a corn. 



HEA LTH TRACT, N o. 122. 

HOUSE¥IPEET. 

The earlier the breakfast, the more work will be got through with during the day, 
and the better health will the whole household have, because food or warm drink 
in the stomach antagonize the disease engendering damps, fogs, and miasms, which 
impregnate the air about sunrise, in all countries, especially in warm weather. 

Quinces baked in sugar and water, or syrup, or simply baked and eaten with pow- 
dered sugar, make a good substitute for baked apples. 

Potatoes may be kept a very long time from rotting, in a cellar protected against 
frost, by dusting the floor or bin with lime ; then put down a layer of potatoes six 
inches thick ; then dust with lime, another layer of potatoes, etc. One bushel or 
more of lime to forty of potatoes ; they sprout least in darkness. 

Woolen Flannel is the best protection against taking cold, in all seasons, if kept 
pliable by washing it in strong, hot soap-suds, without wringing, merely squeeze, 
then rinse in clear, warm Avater, and hang on a line to drip dry. 

Silks are best, next the skin, for some persons. Wash them by spreading on a 
board smoothly ; rub on white soap ; brush with a hard brush, then brush off with 
cold water, applied to both sides. A little alum in the last water prevents colors 
from " running." Grease-stains are removed from silks by using equal parts of al- 
cohol and camphene ; never wring silk after washing, because the creases thus 
made will always remain. While " burning-fluid," which is a mixture of alcohol 
and turpentine, removes grease and other stains from light-colored silks and gloves, 
sour milk is good for bleaching linen ; but grease is best removed from carpets 
with strong, cold soap-suds, thus avoiding the danger of camphene. Life has been 
lost by keeping oxalic acid in the house, to remove ink and iron stains ; but as it 
is only suitable for white fabrics, (it should be plainly labeled and marked " Poi- 
son," in large letters, if kept about the house,) it is better to use, the juice of lemons 
or of sorrel leaves, especially as the oxalic acid eats the fabric, unless immediately 
and thoroughly washed off. 

Persons have been suffocated by inhaling the fumes of burning sulphur, when 
used to bleach out colors and stains of fruits and vegetables particularly, hence the 
fumes should be conveyed to the stained spot by means of a funnel-shaped paper 
roll ; but it is safer to dip stained fabrics in sour milk, then dry in the sun, repeat- 
ing the operation* until the bleaching is perfected, 

Flannel Shirts, or other woolens, should have grease spots removed without 
fulling them up, thug : Put one ox-gall in three gallons of cold water, in which im- 
merse the garment, and squeeze or pound (not wring) it, until the spots are remov- 
ed ; then thoroughly wash in cold water, else the odor of the gall becomes very 
disagreeable. 

If burning -fluid or benzole are used to remove grease or other stains, let it be at 
least two yards from any blaze of candles, gas, lamp, or fire. Valuable lives are 
lost every year by neglecting this precaution. 

Eggs are good which are diaphanous, or show a faint reddish color, when held 
in a dark place, toward a candle or other light, when held in the circle made 
by the thumb and forefinger ; they are bad in proportion as they seem black. This 
is an infallible test. 

Milk is kept good longer, if it is boiled, evaporated, condensed, or kept^ still at 
a temperature of about forty degrees. If heated three days in succession in sum- 
mer, and two in winter, (as per Guy Lussac's experiments,) up to the boiling-point, 
it will keep two months without souring. 

The best way of keeping milk in summer, is to have a spring-house well shaded, 
and on the north side of a hill, the pans sitting in a stream of running water, pro- 
tected against currents of air. The country people deliver milk at the railroad for 
two cents a quart, one cent freight to the city, where it is delivered at sunrise to 
our citizens for seven cents a quart, or six cents at 146 East Tenth street. 

Peaches are peeled without waste, when fully ripe, by pouring boiling water on 
them, and let them remain a minute, to cook only skin-deep, as, in tomatoes. 

Clinkers are removed from stove-grates and range-backs, thus: When the 
coal is all aglow, throw in half a dozen broken oyster-shells, cover these over with 
fresh coal, and when all are red-hot, the clinkers are doughy and are easily removed. 

Carpet-Sweeping. — Draw the broom to you with short, quick strokes, taking up 
the dirt every half-yard, in a dust-pan, or at each stair, and thus avoid working the 
dirt into the cleaner parts. Never use tea-leaves, paper, or damp grass, to collect 
the dust, let the dust-pan do that. 

Weather-wise. — Allow the sugar to dissolve in your coffee or tea without stirring ; 
if froth remains in the center, durable fine weather is indicated ; but rainy if it set- 
tles around the sides ; variable if it remains between the two, so says M. Sauvageon. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 123. 



POTATOES. 

The proper cooking of good food is an essential element of good health in all civilized countries. 
The general use of the potato shows that it is palatable and healthful ; but few families in this 
country fail to have it on the table once a day. In Ireland, it is the chief article of food at every 
meal, and it is said that there are multitudes who seldom eat any thing else. It has the same 
amount of nutriment as the egg, thirteen per cent ; it has twice the nutriment of coffee ; half as 
much as beef. It requires two hours and a half for digestion, raw cabbage two hours, roast beef 
an hour longer, roast pork an hour longer still. It is claimed that the outer quarter of ah inch of 
the potato contains more nourishment than the entire remainder. Hence peeling is a waste. 
They should be cooked, then the very thin skin is easily removed, and the whole nourishment 
remains. Late in the spring, as the potato prepares for sprouting, the outer portion becomes 
"rank," and it is better to peel before cooking. If kept in a dark place, sprouting is much re- 
tarded, and further if the sprouts are rubbed off with the hands. The lighter a potato is, the 
more mealy and palatable it will be after cooking ; hence the good ones float, while others sink in 
strong salt-water. Boiled potatoes are not digested so easily or so soon as if baked or roasted. 

Cooking Potatoes. — They should be well washed and put into cold water with the skin on. 
Gradually heat the water, and when near boiling, add more cold water ; if thus checked, the skins 
will not crack until the potato is thoroughly done ; pour off the water, and let the skins become 
dry before peeling. The Irish nick out a piece of the skin before putting them in the pot. The 
potatoes of each cooking should be nearly the same size, that all may be equally done. They 
should not be covered with more than an inch of water, that they may be just covered at the fin- 
ish ; they wiil become waxy and watery if allowed to remain in the water a moment after they are 
well done. After they are dried they can be kept hot and mealy for some time, if covered with a 
a napkin of the diameter of the containing vessel. This is better than steaming, and they are 
prepared in half the time. Moderate-sized potatoes should be done enough in a quarter of an 
hour. They sprout least in the darkest places. 

Cold Potatoes Fried. — Put a bit of cream-dripping into a frying-pan ; when it is melted, slice 
in your potatoes with a little pepper and salt ; put them on the fire ; keep stirring them ; when 
they are quite hot, they are ready. 

Potatoes Mashed.— When your potatoes are thoroughly boiled, drain them quite dry, pick out 
every speck, etc., and while hot, rub them through a colander in a clean stew-pan. To a pound of 
potatoes put about half an ounce of butter and a table-spoonful of milk ; do not make them too 
moist ; mix them well together. 

Potatos Mashed with Onions. — Prepare some boiled onions by putting them through a sieve, 
and mix them with potatoes. In proportioning the onions to the potatoes, you will be guided by 
your wish for more or less of their flavor. 

Potatoe-Flocr and Jelly. — Rasp the potatoes into a vessel of cold water, and change it fre- 
quently, until the raspings fall to the bottom like a paste, then dry in the air, pound in a mortar, 
and pass it through a hair-sieve. This is nearly as nutritive, and lighter than flour ; hence is bet- 
ter for t>astry and puddings for invalids. If kept dry, it will remain good for years, while it is 
easily converted into a most nutritious jelly, by pouring absolutely boiling water on it. When 
changed into jelly, flavor to taste, and use it. 

To Brown. — While the meat is roasting, and an hour before serving, boil the potatoes, take off 
the skin, flour them well, put them under the roasting meat, and let them drip before going on the 
table. 

To Roast.— Clean well, nick out a small piece, and roast. A little butter over the skin crisps 
them. 

Cold Potatoes, boiled for dinner, and left over, make an excellent dish for breakfast, by covering 
them with milk or cream in a frying-pan ; add butter and salt, and let remain until the milk thick- 
ens — say fifteen minutes. 

Potatoes, when boiled, If either waxy or to be eaten with cold meat, should be peeled and put 
whole on the gridiron until nicely browned. 

For Stews. — Potatoes should be always boiled a little before putting into into stews, as the first 
water is a little poisonous. Fried potatoes may be cut from raw, half an inch thick ; fry quickly 
in hot fat, let grease drip off, dry, salt and use. 

Keeping Potatoes.— If laid on straw on the ground, and covered with straw and then a layer of 
earth a foot deep, they will produce shoots near the end of spring ; if two feet, shoots appear at 
midsummer ; at six feet they cease to vegetate, and will keep for two or more years in a perfect 
state. There should be a trench a foot deep around the pile, unless the soil is very sandy. 



HEALTH TRACT NO. 124. 



BALDNESS, 



Each hair generally has one bulb or root by which it is nourished ; when this 
root is destroyed by sickness, violence, or age, the hair can never grow again ; this 
is the case when the scalp is shiny or glistening. 

When the scalp is fuzzy, like the down of a very young bird, it is from debility 
of the hair-bulbs, occasioned by severe or protracted diseases' ; in this case, the 
hair grows with increasing profusion as the health recovers. Whatever hair-wash 
or oil happens to be applied at this conjuncture, gets the credit of a hair restora- 
tive ; hence the great number of these articles, not one of the whole number being 
a whit more efficacious than the sprinkling of a thimbleful of ashes on the poll, 
except so far as they have a tendency to keep the scalp clean, which common soap- 
suds will abundantly do ; or except they have the effect to stimulate the scalp, and 
promote a more vigorous circulation of the blood ; but it is not possible for any oil 
or grease ever to do this. To make hair grow on a shining scalp is utterly impos- 
sible. But the growth of hair may be promoted on a fuzzy scalp, because in that 
case the root is not dead, but lacks vigor, lacks nutriment, and new vigor can be 
imparted, and additional nutriment bestowed by whatever gives activity to the cir- 
culation of the blood about the roots of the hair, and what the following applica- 
tion fails to do in this direction, all others will, simply because it is the most cer- 
tain, the most powerful and safe hair stimulant known : Half an ounce of vinegar 
of cantharides, one ounce of cologne-water, one ounce of rose-water ; to be 
rubbed in with a tooth-brush gently and patiently, until the part is thoroughly 
wetted and smarts a little ; to be repeated night and morning ; if too powerful, di- 
lute with water, or use less. Age brings incurable baldness, sooner or later, to 
almost all ; but the great object of this article is to procrastinate incurable bald- 
ness, and to prevent the premature loss or thinning of the hair : first, by avoiding 
the causes ; second, by proper attention to promoting the growth of the hair. 

The ancient Romans seldom wore any thing on the head, and a case of baldness 
was a rare thing. 

Baldness is very infrequent among the Indians ; their heads are habitually un- 
covered. 

Baldness among women is very much rarer than among men. Women's bald- 
ness is about the temples, that of man on the top of the head. It may be then in- 
ferred that one cause of baldness is keeping the head covered and heated, thus 
excessively stimulating the hair-glands by an unnatural warmth, and prematurely 
exhausting their power, and also by preventing the evaporation and escape of that 
effete matter, the continued presence of which is always death, in whatever part of 
the system it may occur. This is effectually done by the large quantities of grease 
and oil which our women plaster on the sides of the head and temples, the hair, 
dust, and oil, making a coating over the temples almost as impervious as India- 
rubber, thus choking up the roots or glands and preventing the proper blood cir- 
culation ; for it is the blood which carries nutriment to the hair. 

The top of the head is most profusely supplied with blood-vessels, yet men grow 
bald there first, by keeping the head too warm ; also, and chiefly, by the prevalent 
fashion for generations past, of wearing hard fur and silk hats, which by their 
pressure all around the head, forcibly detain the blood from the top of the head ; 
there is seldom baldness below where the hat touches the head. None of the 
writer's playmates are known to be bald at ages from forty to sixty-five ; it was the 
universal custom among them as boys, to wear loose woolen hats, answering to the 
felt hats now coming into fashion. To prevent thin hair and premature baldness, 
first, keep a clean scalp ; second, never wear the hair on a strain, or against the 
direction of its growth ; third, never apply any thing to it but soap-suds or pure 
water ; fourth, wear loose-fitting, soft hats ; fifth, let men and children always 
wear the hair very short, and both men and women should brush the hair a great 
deal, using only a coarse comb x which should touch the scalp only in the slightest 
manner possible. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 63. 



SKATING 

Is one of the most exhilarating of all pastimes, whether on the ice, or 
over our parlor or hall floors, with roller-skates. In the days of " Queen 
Bess," some three hundred years ago, it was a favorite amusement with 
the Londoners, whose facilities for the same were limited to pieces of bone 
attached to the shoes. As lives have been lost in connection with skating, 
the following suggestions are made : 

1. Avoid skates which are strapped on the feet, as they prevent the 
circulation, and the foot becomes frozen before the skater is aware of it, 
because the tight strapping benumbs the foot and deprives it of feeling. 
A young lady at Boston lost a foot in this way ; another in New- York, 
her life, by endeavoring to thaw her feet in warm water, after taking off 
her skates. The safest kind are those whieh receive the fore-part of the 
foot in a kind of toe, and stout leather around the heel, buckling in front 
of the ankle only, thus keeping the heel in place without spikes or screws, 
and aiding greatly in supporting the ankle. 

2. It is not the object so much to skate fast, as to skate gracefully ; and 
this is sooner and more easily learned by skating with deliberation ; while 
it prevents overheating, and diminishes the chances of taking cold by cool- 
ing off too soon afterward. 

3. If the wind is blowing, a vail should be worn over the face, at least 
of ladies and children ; otherwise, fatal inflammation of the lungs, "pneu- 
monia," may take place. 

4. Do not sit down to rest a single half-minute ; nor stand still, if there 
is any wind ; nor stop a moment after the skates are taken off ; but walk 
about, so as to restore the circulation about the feet and toes, and to pre- 
vent being chilled. 

5. It is safer to walk home than to ride ; the latter is almost certain to 
give a cold. 

6. Never carry any thing in the mouth while skating, nor any hard 
substance in the hand ; nor throw any thing on the ice ; none but a care- 
less, reckless ignoramus, would thus endanger a fellow-sk&ter a fall. 

7. If the thermometer is below thirty, and the wind is blowing, no lady 
or child should be skating. 

8. Always keep your eyes about you, looking ahead and upward, not on 
the ice, that you may not run against some lady, child, or learner. 

9. Arrange to have an extra garment, thick and heavy, to throw over 
your shoulders, the moment you cease skating, and then walk home, or at 
least half a mile, with your mouth closed, so that the lungs may not be 
quickly chilled, by the cold air dashing upon them, through the open 
mouth ; if it passes through the nose and head, it is warmed before it gets to 
the lungs. 

10. It would be a safe rule for no child or lady to be on skates longer 
than an hour at a time. 

11. The grace, exercise, and healthfulness of skating on the ice, can 
be had, without any of its dangers, by the use of skates with rollers at- 
tached, on common floors ; better if covered with oil-cloth. Lessons are 
given in this pleasant and exhilarating exercise at Mr. Disbrow's on Fifth 
Avenue, whose spacious and well-conducted establishment ought to be well 
patronized. His ice pond is now in exellent order. 



NOTICES. 

HOBEBT CABTEB & BROTHEES, No. 530 Broadway, New- York, 

Besides having the most extensive assortment of theological books, foreign and domestic, in thi3 
country, have issued for the holidays the following volumes, admirably adapted for the reading of 
the young ; the publications of this old house are always safe, and calculated to promote the high- 
est interests of society: "Tony Starr's Legacy, or Trust in a Covenant-Keeping God;" "Broad 
Shadows on Life's Pathway ;" " Vesper," by the Countess De Gasparin ; " Day-Break, or Right Strug- 
gling and Triumphant ;" " The Bleak Cliff, and other Stories on the Parables ;" " Mother's Last 
Words," a book of Ballads ; " Bertie Lee ;" " Ned Manton, or the Cottage by the Stream ;" " Mar- 
garet Warner, or the Young Wife at the Farm ;" " The Torn Bible ;" " The Lost Jewel ;" Little 
Walter of Wyalusing." 

Of " Vesper," by the Countess de Gasparin, of" Margaret Warner," and the " Torn Bible," pub- 
lished, as above noted, by Robert Carter & Brothers, New-York, a cotemporary well says : " • Vesper 1 
is rich in fancy, a poem in prose raiment, simple, touching, with a vein of delicate humor. It is 
full of the charm of domestic life, and flushed with the gentle warmth of a pure and womanly reli- 
gion. It will be read with a healthy delight by young and old. * Margaret Warner' is a delightful 
little story of home life, which leaves the heart full of loving-kindness and of tranquil joy. 'The 
Torn Bible,' a story of a soldier's life, and well adapted to lead the soldier, and the young who shall 
peruse it, to that precious spring of all good, the Word of our God." There was sold in London, 
in a short time, no less than seventy thousand copies of Mrs. Sewell's " Mother's Last Words," 
being ballads for boys and girls. 

The following was received December 5th, 1862, purporting to come from "Andrew Miller, attor- 
ney and counselor-at.-law, No. 206 South Fifth street, Philadelphia." The writer, or any other sub- 
scriber, who feels aggrieved in the same way, will have their dollar returned by returning to our 
office the twelve Journals received for 1862 : 

" W. W. Hall, M.D., New-York City : 

" Sir : I have received the number for this month of your Journal of Health, which completes 
the volume for 1862, for which I have paid, and I beg you will discontinue sending the paper to 
my address. When I subscribed for it, I supposed it to be what its title indicated, namely, a Jour- 
nal of Health ; but I find it to be a journal for the dissemination of the most vile and disgusting 
abolitionism. The September number I threw in the fire after reading a few paragraphs of the lead- 
ing article headed 'A Sick Nation ;' and I think any one who would send to those who had paid 
for a journal of health such treasonable abolitionism as is contained in that article, ought to be 
prosecuted for obtaining money under false pretenses." 

That our sentiments may not be mistaken as to the great question of the times, we put upon re- 
cord the following, to be brought up in the future for good or ill as to ourself and our children : As 
I consider that slavery is the cause of this war, I earnestly hope it will never close until means 
have been devised in righteousness, by Congress, for freeing, soon and forever, every slave on this 
continent, and for a complete and eternal crushing of the great rebellion, in the shortest time pos- 
sible, by all the means which God and nature and right and law have, or may yet, put into the 
hands of the true friends of the Government of the United States ; and then our beloved country, 
in the enjoyment of a free press, free speech, free religion, all under the molding influences of tho 
Bible and an intelligent democracy, is destined to a career of material prosperity, of national 
power, and of moral grandeur, unknown and undreamed of in all the ages past. 

W. W. Hall, 
Editor of Hall's Journal of Health. 

Hygienic House, 170 Bleecker street, New-York. — Persons of sedentary employment who desire 
to live where a greater variety than usual of bread, fruit, and grain preparations are offered, and 
less of highly-seasoned food, will find this the place. A greater variety than usual of bread, fruit, 
and grain preparations, and less of meats and highly-seasoned food, will form the distinctive fea- 
ture of our table. Terms — $5 to $12 per week, according to accommodations required. Transient 
board $1 per day. Meals may be had at the regular hours. Breakfast or Tea, 25 cents each. 
Dinner, 35 cents. Hours of Meals— Breakfast 7 to 8. Dinner 1 to 2>£. Supper 6 to 7. 

W. Hunt, 
R. Fancher. 

N. B. — The Bleecker-street stages pass the door. The location is within three or four minutes 
walk of the Sixth Avenue cars, or of Broadway, and ten minutes' walk of Cooper Institute, Astor, 
or Mercantile Libraries. 

Skating in Fifth Avenue and Fifty-seventh Street. — A Lake of eleven acres. Oscar F. Oat- 
man, Esq. , Superintendent. Season Tickets, $5. Gentleman and two ladies, $10. John L. Brown, 
General Superintendent. Under the two gentlemen named, the public have a guarantee that every 
thing connected with this famous resort of fashion and fun will be handsomely managed. 

Harper's Weekly, Pictorial, $2 ; Harper's Monthly, $8 ; both, $4 a year. 



NOTICES. 

Atlantic Monthly, published by Ticknor & Fields, No. 135 Washington street, Boston, Mass. ; 
three dollars a year ; Volume 11 began with January. Among its contributors are some of the best 
intellects and the most cultivated minds in the nation. It is the great literary monthly of the 
country, and by the acknowledged ability with which it has been conducted, it has been placed on 
a permanent basis, and is highly appreciated abroad as well as at home. 

The Horticulturist, founded by the lamented A. J. Downing, in 1846, is in its eighteenth vol. 
ume : two dollars a year ; No. 3T Park Row, New- York. Its patronage is commended to country 
gentlemen and intelligent agriculturists throughout the country. 

The Presbyterian, Philadelphia, two dollars and fifty cents a year, has an industrious and able 
correspondent in this city ; his weekly letters well pay for the subscription-price to every New- 
Yorker who wishes to keep himself posted as to the " goings on " and chief doings of our mighty 
metropolis. 

To Farmers. — There is no monthly published on this or any other continent on agriculture or on 
any other subject which gives one half as much valuable, practical, and reliable information for one 
dollar a year as the American Agriculturist, issued at No. 7 Park Row, New-York City'. 

Blackwood's Magazine, two dollars a year, London, Quarterly, The Edinburgh, The West- 
minster, and North British Reviews, each three dollars, are all furnished for ten dollars a year. 
Address Leonard Scott & Co., No. 54 G-old street, New- York. The contributors to these publications 
are among the very ablest writers in Great Britain. 

Music. — The hinged-plate piano improvement of Horatio Wooster, of New- York, is eliciting the 
admiration and hearty commendation of the most accomplished artists in the country. Among the 
names are those of Gottschalk, Muzio, Mason, Berge, Fredel, Thomas, Harrison, Wernike, Mor- 
gan, Gosche, and the distinguished amateur Dr. Thomas Ward, all substantiating the sentiment of 
Gottschalk, when he said, " I estimate the volume of tone to be increased one hundred per cent 
by this invention," which is certainly very high praise, coming as it does from the very highest 
musical authority. 

Godey's Lady's Book, three dollars a year, Philadelphia, continues as heretofore to be the Queen 
of pictorial monthlies, delighting multitudes of families with its beautiful steel engravings and its 
valuable practical embellishments, etc. 

Arthur's Home Magazine, two dollars a year, Philadelphia. Who that has ever subscribed for 
it, ever willingly failed to " renew" when Christmas came ? 

Piles, Fistula, Ruptures, etc. — The last published work of Dr. Bodenhemer on these and 
kindred subjects has been translated into French. Dr. B. spends the winter at the Monongahela 
House, Pittsburgh, and for knowledge, ability, skill, and success has no superior living. 

Teeth. — Dr. John Allen, 22 Bond street, New-York, in whose office Dr. Evans, now the first 
Dentist in Europe, took lessons is believed to be the ablest member of his profession for furnishing 
single and sets of teeth. We know cases where twenty years of youthfulness have been imparted, 
to the features. 

The Farm-House Milk, pure and sweet, is brought to town daily by the New-Jersey and Rock- 
land County Milk Association, under the management of C. W. Canfield, Esq., No. 146 Tenth 
street, New-York, near Broadway, adjoining Stewart's New Retail Palace. 

Barnum's Museum continues to be the general place of resort for novelty-seekers. Formerly a 
" Museum " was considered to be a collection of all the queer, outlandish things of creation, but 
Mr. Barnum, with characteristic energy and forecast, has made his establishment a place not only 
of amusement but of solid instruction. Scarcely a week passes in which some new object of inter- 
est is not introduced. Natural treasures are gathered from the poles to the tropics ; yesterday he 
had a polar bear ; to-day a family of Esquimaux ; to-morrow it will be a whale, or a multitude of 
fishes of all sizes and hues, from the Pole to the Line ; and frequently all are seen at once, exciting 
the mind of the beholder alternately with feelings of awe, of wonder, of admiration and delight. 

Iron Fences, railings, plain and ornamental, statues, figures of animals, bedsteads, gate-posts, 
tree-guards, with every conceivable variety of article for families, farms, cemeteries, parks and 
pleasure-gardens and grounds, are found at the very extensive establishment of Hutchinson & 
Wickersham, 259 Canal street, New- York, one of the oldest and best known houses of the kind in 
the city. 

We heartily commend " The Home Monthly," two dollars a year, Boston, to every household 
wishing a whole year of delightful and instructive reading for wives, husbands, daughters, and 



OUR SICK SOLDIERS. 

Directory of the Hospitals. — The Sanitary Commission have established an office of informa- 
tion in regard to patients in the hospitals of the District of Columbia, and of Frederick City, Mary- 
land. By a reference to books, which are corrected daily, an answer can, under ordinary circum- 
stances, be give n by return mail to the following questions : 

1st. Is [giving name and regiment] at present in the hospitals of the District or of 

Frederick City ? 

2d. If so, what is his proper address ? 

3d. What is the name of the Surgeon or Chaplain of the hospital ? 

4th. If not in hospital at present, has he recently been in hospital ? 

5th. If so, did he die in hospital, and at what date ? 

6th. If recently discharged from hospital, was he discharged from service ? 

7th. If not, what were his orders on leaving ? 

The Commission is prepared also to furnish more specific information as to the condition of any 
patient in the District hospitals, within twenty-four hours after a request to do so, from an officer 
of any of its corresponding societies. 

The office of the Directory will be open daily from 8 o'clock a.m. to 8 o'clock p.m., and accessible 
in urgent cases at any hour of the night. 

The number of patients in these hospitals is about twenty-five thousand. If found to be practi- 
cable, the duty here undertaken locally by the Commission will be extended to include all the gen- 
eral hospitals in the country. FRED. LAW OLMSTEAD, General Secretary. 

Adams House, No. 244 F street, Washington, Z>. C, Nov. \Mh, 1862. 

To Farmers. —That excellent weekly, Tlie New-England Farmer, of Boston, says: " We 
learn through the newspapers that this gentleman has been appointed by Mr. Commissioner New- 
ton to the chief clerkship in the Agricultural Department at Washington. We know Mr. Grennell 
well — know him in the social relations of life, and as connected with agriculture, theoretically and 
practically — having been associated with him in the Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture, 
where there were excellent opportunities to learn his tastes, powers, and energy in the great sub- 
ject, and we do not hesitate to say that we believe the appointment a most judicious one. Mr. G. 
has youth, health, an ardent temperament, sound learning from books and institutions, together 
with untiring energy, integrity, and much personal acquaintance and experience on the farm — all 
of which combined give him qualifications for the position with which he has been intrusted, which 
few can expect to possess. We congratulate the Commissioner in his wise selection, and have no 
doubt but Mr. Grennell will relieve him of a vast amount of labor which might embarrass him in 
the general management of the Department." 

Feet Diseases. — Prof. Cleaveland, of Cincinnati, has done the public an important service in is- 
suing a paper-covered volume, sent post-paid, for fifty cents, on the causes and cure of diseases of 
the feet, with practical suggestions as to their clothing ; it is the most complete, reliable, and useful 
volume which has appeared in this country on these subjects ; no ailment of the feet has been omit- 
ted. The same industrious author has issued an admirable " Physician's Memorandum" for 1863, 
containing a list of remedial agents, their nature, doses, etc. ; abbreviations, notes for accident* 
and emergencies, post-mortem examinations, preservation, embalmings, etc., etc. 

Soldiers and Sailors.— Among the books and tracts published by The American Tract Society, 
at No. 28 Cornhill, Boston, and also at the Bible House, New-York City, the most beautiful in sub- 
ject, execution, and embellishment are : 

The Cross-Bearer, $1 50 pp. $1 70 Little Captain, $0 25 pp. $0 81 

Uncle Paul's Stories,. . 50 " 65 Picture-Book, 25 " 30 

Almanac for 1862, 00 06 pp. 00 07. 

The Society have published for our brave soldiers in the army ten Pocket Tracts of sixteen pages 
each, for ten cents, entitled, " Take Care of your Health," " Rest," " The Widow's Son," etc. Also 
forty-eight Soldiers' Envelope Tracts, four pages each, price ten cents, suitable to be inclosed in en- 
velopes when writing to soldiers, without increasing the letter-postage. Address J. G. Broughton, 
Depositary, 13 Bible House, New-York City. Also, " Hints to Soldiers for the Preservation of 
Health," with three excellent prayers at the end for morning, evening, and before going into battle ; 
also " How to be Saved, in Three Letters to a Friend," by Francis Wayland ; also a delightful ex- 
emplification of "Faithfulness," as illustrated in the life and labors of Rev. Morrison Huggins, by 
Rev. Charles P. Bush ; also a most important 12mo, pp. 463, on the " Canon of the Holy Scrip- 
tures," examined in the light of history, by Prof. L. Gaussen, of Geneva, Switzerland, translated 
from the French and abridged by that able scholar and eloquent divine, Edward N. Kirk, D.D. 
It is a work which ably discusses a variety of points of the deepest interest to theological students 
and clergymen, and which ought to be in the library of every Bible-schoiar. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 



WE AIM TO SHOW HOW DISEASE MAT BE AVOIDED, AND THAT IT IS BEST, WHEN SICKNESS COMES, TO 
TAKE NO MEDICINE WITHOUT CONSULTING A PHYSICIAN. 



Vol. X.] FEBRUARY, 1863. [No. 1. 



PREMATURE DEATHS. 

If the first seven articles which follow are maturely considered, 
it will be found that very many premature deaths, whether by 
suicide or other forms of violence, or by disease, are traceable to 
moral causes ; hence it is as much our duty to avoid these as it is 
to avoid and guard against the physical causes of disease and 
death. The suicides in France now average ten a day ; the num- 
ber for the present century, thus far, is over three hundred thou- 
sand. Not a day passes in which a suicide may not be directly 
traced to want of success in life ; to the false moralities inculcated 
by wicked or ignorant writers ; to the failure of parents in obtain- 
ing a proper influence over their children ; to unrestrained appe- 
tites and passions ; and to the inability of multitudes " to get 
along in the world" prosperously, for want of thoroughness of 
preparation for their calling or station in life. 



SUCCESS IN LIFE. 



If to obtain wealth is success, we see men around us who have 
accumulated fortunes, who have no remarkable talent, no special 
high moral character ; in fact, in general intelligence, in eleva- 
tion of sentiment, in breadth of view, they are pitifully deficient • 
while men, immeasurably their superiors in every great and good 
quality, have never made and saved a dollar. 

Then again, every now and then, we meet with a man who seems 



to have prospered in everything he ever attempted, while his next 
door neighbor, apparently in everything his equal, if not his supe- 
rior, fails in every undertaking ; every effort to rise is sure to result 
in a more hopeless fall. 

Able and worthy men ought not to feel discouraged nor cast 
down, nor to whelm themselves with self-mistrust or self-reproaches ; 
for the very foolhardiness of some men, and the stupidity of others, 
in not seeing palpable obstacles and dangers, is the father of their 
successes, while every succeeding one is the result of that morale, 
as the French term it, which attaches itself to great accomplish- 
ments. 

In very many cases, the accumulation of fortunes is the merest 
chance ; the result of a fire, or famine, or flood, or pestilence, or 
sword, or from inheritance ; in such, there is no sort of credit due 
to pecuniary success. 

In other cases, men make money by virtue of that utter abnega- 
tion of all moral principle which belongs to the most depraved 
mind ; temptations to which debasements frequently present them- 
selves to the noble-hearted, but are spurned the moment they 
are proffered, and are rejected without an effort, for it is far 
sweeter to them to live in destitution, than to dress in fine linen 
and fare sumptuously every day, at the cost of self-degradation and 
of prostituted honor. 

There are a few men, however, who grow rapidly rich by the 
force of a perspicacity, a singleness of purpose, and an energy of 
will, which would have made them distinguished in any department 
of human life, in any pursuit to which they may have been directed ; 
upon such men we ought not to look with envy, but with respect, 
and, while we should admire them the more, we ought not to think 
of ourselves the less, for all the great pecuniary difference, as long 
as we have been fast in our integrity in every strait, and in every 
temptation. 

But suppose we have failed a dozen times, who knows but that 
it maybe with us as it has been with multitudes before us, that past 
adverses are the foundations, constitute the elements, of future suc- 
cess, the very schoolings to great accomplishments. 

Let every man, then, be diligent, and abide his time in patience, 
remembering that the race is not commonly, in practical life, to the 
swift, nor the battle to the strong ; and that ultimate and permanent 
success, is the pretty sure reward of him, who has patience, dili- 
gence, and a great heart. 



KESPONSIBILITY OF WKITEKS 



RESPONSIBILITY OF WRITERS. 

The man dressed in spotless white will not fail to have his gar- 
ments blackened, if he mingles among a crowd of sweeps. There 
are clergymen who cannot feel authorized to occupy the pulpit of 
persons claiming to be clergymen too, for fear it should be con- 
strued to countenance the supposed errors of the latter. JSto man 
of position can allow himself to associate, without prejudice, with 
the profane, the Sabbath-breaker, the drunken, and the licentious, 
for he lowers himself, without elevating them. The sweep is not 
made the less black by rubbing against the well-dressed and 
the clean, while they are inevitably denied. 

If a good man buys a bad book, or writes a commendatory pre- 
face to a bad book, he gives both his countenance. If he writes 
for a bad publication, he, in a measure, endorses its sentiments. To 
write an article, be it ever so good, for a periodical, each number of 
which is, in the main, filled with third-rate fictions, or even first-rate 
fictions, is to endorse that publication in the main. If a good man 
writes for such, in the hope of slipping in a wholesome truth now 
and then, where it would not be otherwise done at all, it is as if he 
coated a poisonous pill with sugar, or mingled a serpent's venom 
with honey; the poison and the venom are too predominating; they 
still destroy, while the sweetness is all lost. 

If able men, for a dollar or two a page, or column, will write for 
flash newspapers and flash magazines, which, without their fictions 
of words, and falsehoods of pictures, would not sell at all, they 
simply aid to bolster up a lie, and pander to the credulities of an 
ignorant public. To palm off the picture of an artist's brain for 
that of an actual occurrence, to give the portraits of the passe and 
the dead for those of living criminals, is a falsehood and a cheat, as 
much as the publication of a fiction for an actual fact. It is only 
the pictures, and the twaddle of loungers, which keep up the most 
pretentious Monthly in the land ; and the fictions, with the secret infi- 
delities of the next best, its pantheisms and its gibes at religion and 
religious people, are barely able to keep it above water. All of 
them are destined to founder, if they do not change. As they are, 
the sooner they sink, the better for the community ; and the influ- 
ence of the few good men who write a paragraph or two now and 
then for them, will sink with them to that extent ; while, by aiding to 
bolster up a moral nuisance, they may find against them a hand- 
writing on the wall, when the curtain has fallen, and the orgies have 
broken up. 



DO LIKEWISE. 

The "Watchman and Reflector, of Boston, is one of the most 
faithful religious newspapers among our exchanges ; faithful in 
its duty of watching against insidious infidelities, and faithful hi 
its boldness in conferring not with flesh and blood, in its abne- 
gation of " policy," or what is called worldly wisdom ; faithful in 
its independence in exposing wickedness and dangerous princi- 
ples whencever they may emanate. In these things it sets an 
example worthy of all praise, and of instant imitation by that 
portion of the religious press which will commend a paper, or 
periodical, or book, for its good things, while its moral poisons are 
not spoken of. If this faithfulness is not imitated on the part of 
those in the look-outs on the walls and watch-towers of religion, 
then is the ancient glory departed, and the Church is on the 
wane. 

Pity is it that religious papers should speak pleasant things 
of publications which hold up the ministers of the Gospel to rid- 
icule, as weak-minded ; to contempt, as hypocrites ; to pity, as 
tools ; to execration, as false to the highest and holiest duties of 
their calling. Even-handed justice demands that the good things of 
any noticed publication should be commended ; but that its evil 
things, its perversions, its misinterpretations, its lax principles, and 
its bad or false morality, should be passed over in silence, either 
purposely or by inadvertence, is a faithlessness to a high trust, 
which all right-thinking men must deplore. 

The policy of the Press is become more and more akin to that 
of courtiers— to try and keep on good terms with everybody and 
everything possessed of influence. To our brethren of the Tripod, 
we therefore suggest, that they be on their guard, lest they fall into 
the same condemnation, each inquiring for himself, " Is it I." 



INFLUENCE OF MOTHERS. 

John Randolph never ceased, till his dying day, to remember 
with unutterable affection the pious care of his mother, in teaching 
him to kneel at her side, and, with his little hands pressed together, 
and raised upwards, to repeat, in slow and measured accents, the 
pattern prayer. 

" My mother," said Mr. Benton, not long before he died, " asked 



CONTROLLING TEMPER. 

me not to drink liquor, and I never did. She desired me at another 
time to avoid gaming, and I never knew a card. She hoped I would 
not use tobacco, and it never passed my lips." 

Not long ago, the Rev. Dr. Mills, in one of his powerful appeals 
to mothers to consecrate their children to the ministry of the Gos- 
pel, said : " A youth, after great deliberation, and with the know- 
ledge that his mother desired him to be a clergyman, decided at last 
to become a lawyer ; and, soon after, his mother inquired of him, 
in a tone of deep and tender interest, ' My son, what have you de- 
cided to do?' 4 To study law, mother.' She only replied, 'I had 
hoped otherwise ;' and her convulsive sobbing told the depth of her 
disappointment. ' Do you think,' said he, ' I could go into the law 
over my mother's tears ?' He reconsidered the case, and has long 
been an able and efficient clergyman. 

All that Leigh Richmond was, he attributed to the simplicity and 
propriety with which his mother endeavored to win his attention, 
and store his memory with religious truths, when yet almost an 
infant. 

Oh ! if Christian mothers would but wake up to the use of their 
powers and their influences, a Samuel might arise out of every 
family, and Leigh Richmonds be numbered by thousands ! 



CONTROLLING TEMPER. 

« 
Fools, lunarians, the weak-minded, and the ignorant, are iras- 
cible, impatient, and of ungovernable temper: great hearts and 
wise, are calm, forgiving, and serene. 

The most imperturbable and the ablest disputer of his age was 
the Scotchman, Henderson. When a glass of water was thrown in 
his face by the ungovernable rage into which an antagonist had 
allowed himself to be thrown by the anticipation of inevitable de- 
feat, the Scotchman calmly wiped his dripping cheeks, and remarked 
with a smile, " That is a diversion ; let us proceed with the argu- 
ment." 

It is said of one of the ablest men of a past century, that, having 
completed the manuscript of a work which he had been preparing 
for several years, he left his room for a few moments to find, on re- 
turning, that a favorite little dog had, in his absence, turned over 
the candle, and reduced his writings to ashes ; on observing which, 
he exclaimed, " Oh ! Diamond, little dost thou know the injury 



thou hast done ;" and immediately set about the reparation of the 
damages. 

Philip the Second, after having sat up to a late hour in the night 
to complete some important state papers, waked up one of his 
drowsy secretaries, who was so flurried at this breach of duty, 
that he dashed the contents of the inkstand over the manuscript, 
instead of the sandbox. " It would have been better to have used 
the sand," was royalty's remark, on sitting down to the reproduc- 
of the document. 

Washington, when high in command, provoked a man to knock 
him down. The next day he sent for the person to appear at head- 
quarters, and asked his pardon ! for, in reviewing the incidents of 
the case, he found that he was himself at fault. A magnanimity 
only possible to a truly great mind ; but it is a magnanimity, a self- 
control, a mastery of temper, which it is a nobility to strive for. 



OUR DAUGHTERS. 

As this country grows older, the necessity increases of each indi- 
vidual being able to earn a living. Hitherto, we could afford, in a 
measure, to allow our sons to grow up without the knowledge 
of any handicraft, as there were other avenues for employment ; 
but already has it become important, in cities and large towns, that 
the c]pughters of a family should be able to earn something for the 
general sustenance of the household. Some give lessons in music, 
others teach school, most, too many, are driven to the heart-crush 
ing, health-destroying, and life-wasting stitch, stitch, stitch. 

There seems to be a general repugnance against putting our 
daughters in public places, in shops, stores, and the like ; and, as for 
making nurses, and chamber-maids, and waiters, and cooks of them, 
it is not to be thought of— yet awhile. But we must come to it at 
last. Other nations will cease to be able to supply us with hewers of 
wood and drawers of water — with carriage-drivers and menials for 
the household. The older nations fill these stations with their own 
poor ; there is no sufficient reason why we should not do the same. 
That we should submit that our children should be nursed in their 
earlier years by those of a different religion, can only be accounted 
for in the existence of a false pride. The true wisdom of any de- 
nomination of Christians is, in giving the instruction and care of 
their children to those of a like faith with themselves. 



UNSKILLED LABOR. 

In France, three-fifths of the females grown are under the neces- 
sity of doing something towards earning a livelihood. 

It is very certain that the consciousness of not being able to 
make a support, casts many a girl on the street, compels others 
to marriages of policy, and takes from all, that independence of 
feeling, of character, and that self-reliance, which, of themselves, 
elevate, energize, and ennoble. Every year it is becoming less and 
less possible, even for the half of our daughters to marry men who 
can afford that they should do nothing towards earning a dollar. 
Hence, it is a true, a wise, and a high humanity to study out ways 
and means by which young girls can be placed in circumstances by 
which they can sustain themselves — something to fall back upon, in 
case of being thrown on their own resources, by orphanage, widow- 
hood, or unfortunate marriages. A young widow of the city of 
New York, with a wise and humane charity, has inaugurated, by 
her influence and money, an establishment on Long Island for train- 
ing young orphan girls in the art of horticulture, including the rais- 
ing and preservation of vegetables, fruits, and flowers, the breeding 
of poultry, and everything connected with a farm life, which woman 
can do easily and well. If it is true that the man who rears a 
son without having him taught the means of earning a living, rears 
that child to large chances for the penitentiary and the gallows, it 
is not the less true, and is becoming daily more so, that the daugh- 
ter who is ushered into womanhood without the knowledge and 
ability to earn a dollar by honorable means, is raised to the chances 
of an early death, or degradations worse than death itself. 



UNSKILLED LABOR. 

It would be a grand thing for society, if the apprenticeship sys- 
tem of fifty years ago could be resuscitated with modifications. A 
law would have its advantages, which would prohibit mechanics 
from setting up shop for themselves until a certain number of years 
had been spent in learning a trade. The want of something of 
the sort is diminishing daily the number of competent mechanics 
in every branch of human labor which requires intelligence and 
skill. Its working is as follows : A boy goes to " learn a trade." 
About the time it is half done, he begins to feel as if he knew all 
about it, and with that there comes a pride — a groundless indepen- 
dence and confidence in himself; the next step is to take offence at 



some trifling thing, and he "goes off," to become "Boss" him- 
self. His next plan is, by "low prices," to get custom; but he 
would soon starve, if, with these low prices, he did not purchase a 
correspondingly inferior article to work with ; and, with his incom- 
plete knowledge, added to bad materials, " a bad job is made of 
it." People soon find him out, and simply let him alone; and he is 
forced to do anything that offers, make mortar,. sweep the streets, 
saw wood, take up the hod, dig ditches, and the like. But such 
occupations are very precarious. There is not always work to do. 
There are rainy days, and snowy days, and days of frost ; but 
he and his family must eat on these days as well as others, and 
he either goes in debt, or endeavors to live by his wits. He en- 
gages in unlawful practices, or associates with idlers, or hangs 
around drinking places, and the station-house, the jail, the peniten- 
tiary, and the gallows, close his history. 

What is the remedy ? Law ? Do not wait for a law. Let every 
father who reads this, determine at once to use all the author- 
ity he has, if he designs to make a mechanic of his son, in compel- 
ling that son to become as much a master of his calling, as can pos- 
sibly be done by the time he arrives at the age of twenty-one 
years ; and, if not perfect in his business then, pay him as liberal 
wages as circumstances will allow, to induce him to remain until he 
is master of his calling ; the result will be, that employers will feel a 
greater confidence that work will be well done, and with this will 
come higher wages, a more liberal remuneration, and more work ; 
for many a man is prevented from making improvements, or having 
repairs done, because of the almost utter impossibility of having 
them done honestly and well. Thus it is that the great mass of 
mechanics are doomed to poverty for life ; are doomed to live from 
hand to mouth ; must live on each day's labor, and, without that 
labor, must stint, or cheat, or hunger. On the other hand, go to 
any first-rate workman in any branch, any day in the year, in a large 
city like New York, and you will never fail to find him "fore- 
handed;" he always has work to do, and you are compelled to 
" wait your turn." First-rate mechanics are always in demand, and 
seldom fail, not only to make money, but to save it; and with 
that, to elevate themselves, their families, and their calling; but 
these are in such a minority, that the more numerous incompetent, 
and hence thriftless, class, are the ones who give character to the 
name of mechanic, which is too often a low one ; when, if every one 
was a master workman, it would be but another name for industry, 
elevation, and thrift. 



farmers' wives overtaxed. 35 



FARMERS' WIVES OVERTAXED. 

There is scarcely any lot in life, in this country, which 
promises so much quiet enjoyment, such uniform health and 
uninterrupted prosperity, as that of a gentleman farmer's wife ; 
of a man who has a well-improved, well-stocked plantation, all 
paid for, with no indebtedness, and a sufficient surplus of money 
always at command, to meet emergencies, and to take advantage 
of those circumstances of times and seasons and changing con- 
ditions which are constantly presenting themselves. Such a 
woman is incomparably more certain of living in quiet comfort 
to a good old age than the wife of a merchant-prince, or one 
of the money-kings of "Wall street ; wno, although they may 
clear thousands in a day, do, nevertheless, in multitudes of 
cases, die in poverty, leaving their wives and daughters to the 
sad heritage of being slighted and forgotten by those who 
once were made happy by their smiles ; and to pine away in 
tears and destitution. On the other hand, it is often a sad lot 
indeed to be the wife of a farmer who begins married life by 
renting a piece of land or buying a "place" on credit, with the 
moth of " interest" feeding on the sweat of his face every mo- 
ment of his existence. 

The affectionate and steady interest, the laudable pride, and the 
self-denying devotion which wives have for the comfort, pros- 
perity, and respectability of their husbands and children, is a 
proverb and a wonder in all civilized lands. There is an ab- 
negation of self in this direction, as constant as the flow of time ; 
so loving, so uncomplaining, so heroic, that if angels make note 
of mortal things, they may well look down in smiling admir- 
ation. But it is a melancholy and undeniable fact, that in mil- 
lions of cases, that which challenges angelic admiration fails to 
be recognized or appreciated by the very men who are the 
incessant objects of these high, heroic virtues. In plain lan- 
guage, in the civilization of the latter half of the nineteenth 
century, a farmer's wife, as a too general rule, is a slave and a 
drudge ; not of necessity, by design, but for want of that con- 
sideration, the very absence of which, in reference to the wife 
of a man's youth, is a crime. It is perhaps safe to say, that on 
three farms out of four, the wife works harder, endures more, 



36 hall's journal of health. 

than any other on the place ; more than the husband, more 
than the " farm-hand," more than the "hired help" of the kit- 
chen. Many a farmer speaks to his wife, habitually, in terms 
so imperious, so impatient, so petulant, that if repeated to the 
scullion of the kitchen, would be met with an indignant and 
speedy departure, or if to the man-help, would be answered 
with a stroke from the shoulder, which would send the churl 
reeling a rod away ! 

2. In another way a farmer inadvertently increases the hard- 
ships of his wife ; that is, by speaking to her or treating her dis- 
respectfully in the presence of the servants or children. The 
man is naturally the ruling spirit of the household, and if he 
fails to show to his wife, on all occasions, that tenderness, af- 
fection, and respect, which is her just due, it is instantly noted 
on the part of menials, and children too, and they very easily 
glide into the same vice, and interpret it as an encouragement 
to slight her authority, to undervalue her judgment and to 
lower that high standard of respect, which of right belongs to 
her. And as the wife has the servants and children always 
about her, and is under the necessity of giving hourly instruc- 
tions, the want of fidelity and promptness to these, is sufficient 
to derange the whole household, and utterly thwart that regu- 
larity and system, without which there is no domestic enjoy- 
ment, and but little thrift on the farm. 

The indisputable truth is, that there is no other item of su- 
perior, or perhaps equal importance, in the happy and pro- 
fitable management of any farm, great or small, than that every 
person on it should be made to understand, that deference and 
respect and prompt and faithful obedience, should be paid, 
under all circumstances, to the wife, the mother, and the mis- 
tress ; the larger the farm, the greater interests there are at 
stake. If poor, then the less ability is there to run the risk 01 
losses which are certain to occur in the failure of proper obe- 
dience. ' An illustration : a tardy meal infallibly ruffles the 
temper of the workmen, and too often of the husband ; yet all 
the wife's orders were given in time ; but the boy has lagged 
in bringing wood ; or the cook failed to put her loaf to bake 
in season, because they did not fear the mistress, and the mas- 
ter was known not to be very particular to enforce his wife's 
authority. If by these causes a dinner is thrown back half an 



farmers' wives overtaxed. 37 

hour, it means on a good-sized farm a loss of time equivalent 
to the work of one hand a whole day ; it means the very con- 
siderable difference between working pleasantly and grum- 
blingly the remainder of the day ; it means in harvest-time, in 
showery weather, the loss of loads of hay or grain. 

3. Time and money and health, and even life itself, are not 
^infrequently lost by a want of promptitude on the part of the 
farmer in making repairs about the house, in procuring needed 
things in time, and failing to have those little conveniences 
which although their cost is even contemptible, are in a mea- 
sure, practically invaluable. I was in a farmer's house one 
night ; the wife and two daughters were plying their needles 
industriously by the light of a candle, the wick of which was 
frequently clipped off by a pair of scissors. I asked the hus- 
band why he did not buy a candle-snuffer. "Oh ! the scissors 
are good enough." And yet he owned six hundred acres of 
fine grazing lands, and every inch paid for. I once called on 
an old friend, a man of education, and of a family, loved and 
honored all over his native State. The buildings were of brick, 
in the center of an inherited farm of several hundred acres. 
The house was supplied with the purest, coldest, and best water 
from a well in the yard ; the facilities for obtaining which were 
a rope, one end of which was tied to a post, the other to an old 
tin pan, literally. The discomfort and unnecessary labor in- 
volved in these two cases, may be estimated by the reader at 
his leisure. 

I know it to be the case, and have seen it on many Western 
farms, when firewood was wanted, a tree was cut down and 
hauled bodily to the door of the kitchen ; and when it was all 
gone, another was drawn up to supply its place ; giving the 
cook and the wife, green wood with which to kindle and keep 
up their fires. 

There are thousands of farms in this country, where the 
spring which supplies all the water for drink and cooking, is 
from a quarter to more than half a mile distant from the house, 
and a "pailful" is brought at a time, involving five or ten miles' 
walking in a day, for months and years together ; when a man 
in half a day could make a slide and with a fifty cent barrel 
could in half an hour deliver, at the door, enough to last the 
whole day. How many weeks of painful and expensive sick- 



38 hall's jouknal of health. 

ness ; how many lives have been lost of wives and daughters 
and cooks, by being caught in a shower between the house and 
the spring, while in a state of perspiration or weakness, from 
working over the fire, can not be known ; but that they may be 
numbered by thousands, will not be intelligently denied. 

Many a time a pane of glass has been broken out, or a shingle 
has been blown from the roof, and the repair has not been made 
for weeks or many months together ; and for want of it, have 
come agonizing neuralgias ; or a child has waked up in the 
night with the croup, to get well only with a doctor's bill, 
which would have paid twenty times for the repair ; even if a 
first-born has not died, to agonize a mother's heart to the latest 
hour of life ; or the leak in the roof has remained, requiring 
the placing of a bucket or the washing of the floor at every 
rain ; or the "spare bed" has been wetted and forgotten; some 
visitor or kind neighbor, or dear friend has been placed in it, 
to wake up to a fatal fever, as was the case with the great Lord 
Bacon. 

4. Brutalities are thoughtlessly sometimes, and sometimes 
recklessly perpetrated by farmers on their wives as follows : a 
child or other member of the family is taken sick in the night ; 
the necessary attention almost invariably falls on the wife, to 
be extended to a greater part, if not the whole night. Wearied 
with the previous day's daties, with those solicitudes which 
always attend sickness; with the responsibilities of the occasion, 
and a loss of requisite rest, the wife is many times expected to 
" see to breakfast" in the morning, as if nothing had happened. 
The husband goes to his work, soon becomes absorbed in it, 
and forgets all about the previous night's disturbance ; meets 
his wife at the dinner-table ; notices not the worn-out expres- 
sion on her face ; makes no inquiry as to her feelings ; and if 
any thing on or about the table is not just exactly as it ought to 
be, it is noticed with a harshness which would be scarcely ex- 
cusable if it had been brought about with a deliberate calcu- 
lation. 

The same thing occurs multitudes of times during the nurs- 
ing periods of mothers ; how many nights a mother's rest is 
broken half a dozen times by a restless, crying, or ailing infant, 
every mother and observant man knows; in such cases, the 
farmer goes into another room, and sleeps soundly, until the 



39 

morning, and yet, in too many cases, although this may be, and 
is repeated several nights in succession, the husband does not 
hesitate to wake his wife up with the information that it is 
nearly sunrise ; the meaning of which is, that he expects her to 
get up and attend to her duties. No wonder that in many of 
our lunatic asylums, there are more farmers' wives than any 
other class ; for there is no fact in medical science more posi- 
tively ascertained, than that insufficient sleep is the most speedy 
and certain road to the madhouse; let no farmer then, let no 
mechanic, let no man, who has any human sympathy still left, 
allow his wife to be waked up in the morning, except from 
very urgent causes ; and further, let them give every member 
of the household to understand that quietude about the pre- 
mises is to be secured always until the wife leaves her chamber; 
thus having all the sleep which nature will take, the subse- 
quent energy, cheerfulness, and activity which will follow, will 
more than compensate for the time required to "get her sleep 
out f\ not only as to her own efficiency, but as to that of every 
other member of the household ; for let it be remembered that 
a merry industry is contagious. 

There are not a few farmers whose imperious wills will 
not brook the very slightest dereliction of duty on the part of 
any hand in their employ; and whose force of character is 
such, that every thing on the farm, outside the house, goes on 
like clockwork. They look to their wives to have similar 
management indoors; and are so swift to notice, even slight 
shortcomings, that at length their appearance at the family 
table has become inseparable from scenes of jarring, fault-find- 
ing, sneering, depreciating comparisons, if not of coarse vituper- 
ation, of which a savage might well be ashamed ; and all this, 
simply from the failure to remember that they have done noth- 
ing to make the wife's authority in her domain, as imperative 
as their own ; they make no account of the possible accidents of 
green wood to cook with ; of an adverse wind which destroys 
the draft of the chimney; of the breaking down of the butcher's 
cart ; or the failure of the baker to come in time ; they never 
inquire if the grocer has not sent an inferior article, or an acci- 
dent has befallen the stove or some cooking utensil. It is in 
such ways as these, and millions more like them, that the farm- 
er's wife has her whole existence poisoned by those daily tor- 



40 hall's journal of health. 

tnres which come from her husband's thoughtlessness, his 
inconsideration, his hard nature, or his downright stupidity. 
A wife naturally craves her husband's approbation. " Thy de- 
sire shall be to thy husband," is the language of Scripture 
which, whatever may be the specific meaning of the quotation 
certainly carries the idea that she looks up to him, with a yearn 
ing inexpressible, for comfort, for support, for smiles and sym 
pathy ; and when she does not get these, the whole world else 
is a waste of waters, or life a desert, as barren of sustenance 
as the great Sahara. But this is only half the sorrow ; when 
in addition to this want of approbation and sympathy, there 
comes the thoughtless complaint ; the remorseless and repeated 
fault-finding and the contemptuous gesture, when all was done 
that was possible under the circumstances — in the light of treat- 
ment like this, it is not a wonder that settled sadness and hope- 
lessness is impressed on the face of many a fanner's wife, which 
is considered by the thoughtful physician, as the prelude to that 
early wasting away, which is the lot of many a virtuous and 
faithful and conscientious woman. 

The attentive reader will not fail to have observed, that the 
derelictions adverted to on the part of farmer husbands, are not 
regarded necessarily as the result of a perverse nature; but 
rather in the main, from inconsideration or ignorance; but 
from whatever cause, the effect is an unmixed evil ; and it is to 
be hoped, that our religious papers, and all agricultural public- 
ations, will persistently draw attention to these things, so as to 
excite a higher sentiment in this direction. It can be done and 
ought to be done ; and high praise is justly due to the Honor- 
able the Commissioner of the Agricultural Department, in that 
he has expressly desired, that an article should be written on 
the subject of the hardships and the unnecessary exposures of 
farmers' wives, to the end that information and instruction 
should be imparted in this direction ; it is at once an evidence 
of a high and manly and generous nature. 

There are some suggestions to be made with a view to light- 
ening the load of farmers' wives, the propriety, the wisdom, 
and advantages of which, can not fail to be impressed on every 
intelligent mind. 

1. A timely supply of all that is needed about a farmer's house 
and family, is of incalculable importance ; and when it is consid- 



41 

ered that most of these things will cost less to get them in season, 
and also that a great deal of unnecessary labor can be avoided 
by so doing, it would seem only necessary to bring the fact dis- 
tictly before the farmer's mind, to secure an immediate, an habit- 
ual and a life-long attention. The work necessary to keep a whole 
household in easily running order, is very largely curtailed by 
having every thing provided in time, and by taking advantage 
of those little domestic improvements devised by busy brains, 
and which are brought to public notice weekly in the columns 
of such papers as the Scientific American of New- York, for two 
dollars a year; in fact, it is of such a practical nature as to 
household matters that the writer has heretofore repeatedly 
suggested its patronage to the agricultural community, in spite 
of its repelling name to the more unlearned folk, who too often 
attach the idea of abstruseness, of difficulty of apprehension to 
any thing which has the word if scientific" attached to it ; not 
knowing that it is the very essence of true science, its end and 
aim, to bring all truth to the easy comprehension of ordinary 
minds. 

2. It requires less time and less labor to have the winter's 
wood for house-heating and cooking brought into the yard and 
piled up cozily under a shed or placed in a wood-house, in 
November, than to put it off until the ground is saturated with 
water, allowing the wheels to sink to the hub in mud ; or until 
the snow is so deep as to make wheeling impossible. 

3. It is incalculably better to have the potatoes and other 
vegetables gathered and placed in the cellar or in an outhouse 
near by in the early fall, so that the cook may get at them under 
cover ; than to put it off week after week, until near Christmas ; 
compelling the wife and servants once or twice every day, to 
leave a heated kitchen, and most likely with thin shoes, go to the 
garden with a tin pan and a hoe, to dig them out of the wet ground 
and bring them home in slosh or rain. The truth is, it perils the 
life of the hardiest persons, while working over the fire in cook- 
ing or washing, to go outside the door of the kitchen for an 
instant; a damp, raw wind may be blowing, which coming 
upon an inner garment, throws a chill or the clamminess of the 
grave over the whole body in an instant of time, to be followed 
by the reaction of fever, or fatal congestion of the lungs ; or by 
making a single step in the mud, which is in tens of thousands 



42 hall's journal of health. 

of cases allowed to accumulate at the very door-sill, for want 
of a board or two, or a few flat stones, not a rod away. 

4. No farmer's wife who is a mother ought to be allowed to do 
the washing of the family ; it is perilous to any woman who 
has not a vigorous constitution. The farmer, if too poor to af- 
ford help for that purpose, had better exchange a day's work 
himself. There are several dangers to be avoided while at the 
tub — it requires a person to stand for hours at a time ; this is a 
strain upon the young wife or mother, which is especially peril- 
ous — besides, the evaporation of heat from the arms, by being 
put in warm water and then raised in the air alternately, so 
rapidly cools the system that inflamation o*f the lungs is a very 
possible result ; then, the labor of washing excites perspiration 
and induces fatigue ; in this condition the body is so susceptible 
to taking cold that a few moments' rest in a chair, or exposure 
to a very slight draft of air, is quite enough to cause a chill, 
with results painful or even dangerous, according to the parti- 
cular condition of the system at the time. No man has a right 
to risk his wife's health in this way, however poor, if he has 
vigorous health himself; and, if poor, he can not afford, for the 
five or six shillings which would pay for a day's washing, to 
risk his wife's health, her time for two or three weeks, and the 
incurring of a doctor's bill, which it may require painful econo- 
mies for months to liquidate. 

5. Every farmer owes it to himself, in a pecuniary point of 
view, and to his wife and children, as a matter of policy and af- 
fection, to provide the means early for clothing his household 
according to the seasons, so as to enable them to prepare against 
winter especially. Every winter garment should be completed 
by the first of November, ready to be put on when the first 
winter day comes. In multitudes of eases valuable lives have 
been lost to farmers' families by improvidence as to this point. 
Most special attention should be given to the under-clothing ; 
that should be prepared first, and enough of it to have a change 
in case of an emergency or accident. Many farmers are even 
niggardly in furnishing their wives the means for such things; 
it is far wiser and safer to stint the members of his family in 
their food than in the timely and abundant supply of substan- 
tial under-clothing for winter wear. It would save an incalcu- 
lable amount of hurry and its attendant vexations, and also of 
wearing anxiety, if farmers were to supply their wives with the 



43 

necessary material for winter clothing as early as mid-summer. 
In this connection it would be well for farmers to learn a lesson 
of thrift from some of our long-headed city housewives ; it is 
particularly the habit of the well-to-do, the forehanded, and the 
rich, by which they legally and rightfully get at least twenty 
per cent for their money ; it is simply to purchase the main ar- 
ticles of clothing at the close of any season, to be made up and 
worn the corresponding season of next year. Merchants uni- 
formly aim, especially in cities, to " close out" their stocks, for 
example, for the winter, at the end of winter or beginning of 
spring ; they consider it profitable to sell out the remnant of 
their winter stock in March, at even less than cost, for on what 
they get for these remnants they make three profits, on the 
spring, the summer, and the fall goods ; whereas, had they laid 
by their winter stock they would have had but one profit, from 
which would have to be deducted the yearly interest, storage, 
and insurance. Thus, by purchasing clothing materials six or 
eight months beforehand, the farmer not only saves from twen- 
ty to forty per cent of the first cost, but gives his wife the op- 
portunity of working upon them at such odds and ends of time 
as would otherwise be unemployed in a measure, and would 
enable her also to have every thing done in a better manner, 
simply by having abundant time, thus avoiding haste, vexation, 
solicitude, and disappointment, for nothing so clouds a house- 
hold as a sense of being behindhand and of the necessity of 
painful hurry and effort. 

6. Few things will bring a more certain and happy reward to 
a farmer than for him to remember his wife is a social being, that 
she is not a machine, and therefore needs rest, and recreation, 
and change. No farmer will lose in the long run, either in 
money, health, or domestic comfort, enjoyment, and downright 
happiness, by allotting one afternoon in each week, from mid- 
day until bed-time, to visiting purposes. Let him, with the ut- 
most cheerfulness and heartiness, leave his work, dress himself 
up, and take his wife to some pleasant neighbor's, friend's, or 
kinsman's house, for the express purpose of relaxation from the 
cares and toils of home, and for the interchange of friendly 
feelings and sentiments, and also as a means of securing that 
change of association, air, and food, and mode of preparation, 
which always wakes up the appetite, invigorates digestion, and 
imparts a new physical energy, at once delightful to see and to 



experience ; all of which in turn tend to cultivate the mind, to 
nourish the affections, and to promote that breadth of view in 
relation to men and things which elevates, and expands, and 
ennobles, and without which the whole nature becomes so nar- 
row, so contracted, so jejune and uninteresting, that both man 
and woman become but a shadow of what they ought to be. 

7. Let the farmer never forget that his wife is his best friend, 
the most steadfast on earth, would do more for him in calamity, 
in misfortune, and sickness, than any other human being, and 
that on this account, to say nothing of the marriage vow, made 
before high heaven and before men, he owes to the wife of his 
bosom a consideration, a tenderness, a support, and a sympathy, 
which should put out of sight every feeling of profit and loss 
the very instant they come in collision with his wife's welfare 
as to her body, her mind, and her affections. No man will 
ever lose in the long run by so doing ; he will not lose in time, 
will not lose in a dying hour, nor in that great and mysterious 
future which lies before all. 

8. There are " seasons " in the life of women which, as to some 
of them, so affect her general system, and her mind also, as to 
commend them to our warmest sympathies, and which impera- 
tively demand from the sterner sex the same patience, and for- 
bearance, and tenderness which they themselves would want 
meted out to them if they were not of sound mind. At these 
times, some women, whose uniform good sense, propriety of 
deportment, and amiability of character command our admira- 
tion, become so irritable, fretful, complaining, quarrelsome, and 
unlovely as to almost drive their husbands mad ; their conduct 
is so inexplicable, so changed, so perfectly causeless, that they 
are almost overcome with desperation, with discouragement, or 
indignant defiance of all rules of justice, of right, or of humani- 
ty. The ancients, noticing this to occur to some women for a 
few days in every month, gave it the appellation of "Lunacy," 
Luna being the Latin name for moon or monthly. Some wo- 
men, at such times, are literally insane, without their right 
mind, and, as it is an infliction of nature, far be it from any hus- 
band, with the feelings of a man, to fail at such times to treat 
his wife with the same kind care, and extra tenderness, and 
pitying love that he would show to a demented only child. 
The skillful physician counsels in such cases the scrupulous 
avoidance of every word, or action, or even look which by any 



45 

possibilit}^ could irritate the mind, excite the brain, or wound the 
sensibilities, and, as far as possible, to yield gracefully and good- 
naturedly to every whim and every caprice, to seem to control 
in nothing, to yield in all things ; under these calming in- 
fluences the mind sooner resumes its wonted rule, the heart 
gushes out in new loves and wakes up to a warmer affection 
than was ever known before. A misunderstanding of the case 
and an impatient resistance at all points has before now driven 
women to desperation, to a life-long hate, to suicide^ or to a 
fate worse than all — to peer through the iron bars of a lunatic's 
cell for a long and miserable lifetime. Let every husband who 
has a human heart mature the subject well. 

9. In these and other peculiar states of the system, arising 
from nervous derangement, women are sometimes childish, and 
various curious phenomena take place : there is an inability to 
speak for a moment or a month, the heart seems to "jump up 
in the mouth," or there is a terrible feeling of impending suffo- 
cation ; at other times there are actual convulsions, or. an un- 
controllable bursting out into tears ; these and other disagree- 
able phenomena are derisively and unfeelingly called " hys- 
terics " or " nervousness," but they are no more unreal to the 
sufferer than are the pains of extraction for " nothing but the 
toothache." These symptoms are not unfrequently set down to 
the account of perverseness, when it should no more be done 
than to call it perversity to break out in uncontrollable grief at 
the sudden information of the death of the dearest friend on 
earth. The course of conduct to be pursued in cases of this 
kind is at once the dictate of science, of humanity, and of com- 
mon-sense, it is to sympathize with and soothe, the patient in 
all ways possible, until the excess of perturbation has passed 
away and the system calms down to its natural, even action. 

10. Unless made otherwise by a vicious training, a woman is 
as naturally tasteful, tidy, and neat in herself and as to all her 
surroundings as the beautiful canary which bathes itself every 
morning, and will not be satisfied until each rebellious feather 
is compelled to take the shape and place which nature designed. 
It is nothing short of brutality to war against those pure, ele- 
vating, and refining instincts of a woman's better nature, and it 
is a husband's highest duty, his interest, and should be his 
pleasure and his pride to sympathize with his wife in the culti- 
vation of these instincts, and to cheerfully afford her the neces- 



46 hall's journal of health. 

sary means, as far as he can do so consistently. No money is 
better spent on a farm or any where else ,than that which en- 
ables the wife to make herself, her children, her husband, and 
her house appear fully up to their circumstances. The con- 
sciousness of a torn or buttonless jacket or soiled dress degrades 
a boy or girl in their own estimation, and who that is a man 
does not feel himself degraded under the consciousness that he 
is wearing a dirty shirt? The wife who is worthy of the name 
will never allow these things if she is provided with means for 
their prevention, and it is in the noble endeavor to maintain 
for herself and family a respectability of appearance which their 
station demands, with means and help far too limited, which so 
irritates, and chafes, and annoys her proper pride, that many a 
time the wife's heart, and constitution, and health are all broken 
together. This is the history of multitudes of farmers' wives, 
and the niggardly natures which allow it, after taking an intel- 
ligent view of the subject, are simply beneath contempt. What 
adds to the better appearance of the person, elevates ; what adds 
to the better appearance of a farm, increases its value and the 
respectability of the occupant; so that it is always a good in- 
vestment, morally and pecuniarily, for a farmer to supply his 
wife generously and cheerfully, according to his ability, with .the 
means of making her family and home neat, tasteful, and tidy. 
A dollar's worth of lime, a shilling ribbon, or a few pennies' 
worth of paint may be so used as to give an impression of life, 
of cheerfulness, and of thrift about a home altogether beyond 
the value of the means employed for the purpose. 

Finally, let the farmer always remember that his wife's cheer- 
ful and hearty cooperation is essential to his success, and is 
really of as much value in attaining it, all things considered, as 
any thing that he can do ; and as she is very certainly his supe- 
rior in her moral nature, it legitimately follows that he should 
not only regard her as his equal in material matters, but should 
habitually accord to her that deference, that consideration, and 
that high respect which is of right her due, and which can 
never fail to impress on the children and servants, who daily 
witness it, a dignity and an elevation of manner, and thought 
and feeling, and deportment which will prove to all who see 
them that the wife is a lady and the husband a man, a gentle- 
man ; and a large pecuniary success, with a high moral position 
and wide social influence, will be the almost certain results. 



NOTICES, ETC. 



Wilson's Presbyterian Historical Almanac. — This important volume, in 
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The Illustrated Annual Register of Rural Affairs and Cultivators' 
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culturist, embellished with 140 engravings, including dairy apparatus, fruit and 
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The American Tract Society of Boston, 28 Cornhill, and J. GL Broughton, 13 
Bible House, New- York City, have issued three more beautifully executed volumes : 
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" There is no flock, however watched and tended," etc. 

Maple Hill, or Aunt Lucy's Stories. 

of Worthington, England. Sent, post-paid, for 30 cents each. 

The Country Gentleman, issued weekly at Albany, N. Y., for $2 a year, is 
heartily commended to the patronage of our numerous farmer readers. 

Hall's Journal of Health for 1863. — All subscriptions must begin with the 
January number. Postage within the State of New-York is three cents a year, 
and six cents a year out of the State, to be paid in both cases in advance to the 
postmaster who delivers the numbers. 

The receipt of any number of the Journal is proof that it is paid for, either by 
the person who receives it or by some friend of the recipient, as the Journal is 
never sent without an order and prepayment also. 

)fcW" If a subscriber fails to receive the Journal by the seventh day of the 
month for which it is issued, he must give notice of the same before that month 
expires, when the missing number will be sent without charge ; otherwise missing 
numbers must be paid for — ten cents each. Specimen numbers need not be or- 
dered unless the money is sent for the same. Our experience is, that in three 
cases out of four, those who send for them and club-rates have no intention of 
subscribing or soliciting subscribers, but simply want to get a number without 
paying for it. "We will not be bothered with club-rates. "Whoever does not value 
the Journal to the amount of a dollar does not value it enough to be benefited 
by it, and such had better spend their money in some other way. 

Our subscription-list for 1862 exceeded that of 1861 ; and as the Journal of 
Health more than pays its way, directly, if it has not a single subscriber, it is in- 
dependent of specimen-seekers. A great many numbers are given away cheerfully 
every year, but we do not wish to countenance deceptions. If a person sends ten 
cents for a specimen number, and afterwards concludes to subscribe, that amount 
will be deducted from the subscription-price, if the number already sent is specified. 



WOKCE STEB'S 

HINGED-PLATE PIANO-FORTES. 

WAREROOMS AND MANUFACTORY, 

Corner of Fourteenth Street and Third Avenue, K T. 



These instruments are made in accordance with a principle recently developed and patented 
by Horatio Worcester, which consists in the use of a divided iron plate instead of the solid 
one heretofore in vogue. The detached piece is coupled with the inner plate by means of a 
link at the base end, and is sustained in its proper position by the tension of the strings, which 
are attached to it in the usual manner. This gives to the strings a greatly increased power of 
vibration, and frees the sounding-board so as to allow it to reverberate throughout its whole 
extent. The increase obtained in volume and musical quality of tone is carefully estimated to 
be full one hundred per cent, as stated upon the authority of Louis M. Gottschalk, William 
Mason, William Berge, E. Muzio, Theodore Thomas, David R. Harrison, Charles Fradel, Chris- 
tian Berge, Harry Sanderson, S. B. Mills, Antonio Bagioli, Henry C. Timm, William Scharfen- 
berg, Max Maretzek, John N. Pattison, George W. Morgan, and many other distinguished 
artists. Attention is respectfully invited to the following opinions of the improvement from 

leading journals: 

From the New-York World, December 17th, 1862. 

Piano-Fortes. — It has been a subject of regret to many thafcthe leading piano-forte factors have devoted more 
attention to perfecting instruments designed for concert rather than family use. The grand piano has, as we 
have from time to time endeavored to show, been beautified and increased in tone, by one means and another, 
until the margin for genuine improvement seems now to be exceedingly narrow. These instruments, however, 
are, by reason of their costliness, in but limited demand, the bulk of the business done being confined to the 
ordinary square piano. Taking the country over, probably not more than one grand is sold for every hundred of 
its lesser kindred. This fact being apparent, it is remarkable that the intelligence, time, and money of the most 
scientific makers should be expended so liberally in devising plans for developing new excellences of tone in one 
class to the comparative neglect of the other. The only important instance to the contrary tbat has come under 
our notice during the past few years is that of Mr. H. Worcester, who has labored diligently and successfully to 
emancipate all the tone resident in the smaller piano. The principle upon which the instrument has been univer- 
sally constructed does not admit, of the full unrestricted vibration of the strings, and precludes the possibility of 
obtaining more than a half — or two-thirds at most — of the reverberatory power of which the sound-board is capa- 
ble. Here, then, is a great waste of tone. Without altering the scale or in any wise infringing upon the import- 
ant features of the instrument, Mr. Worcester, by a very simple contrivance in the make and use of the iron plate, 
has caused the strings and board to yield their full quota of vibration and sound. The board has lost its rigidity 
under the plate, and is capable of musical utterance throughout its whole extent. A more extended technical 
elucidation of the mechanism involved would but embarrass the majority of readers, and may therefore be 
properly dispensed with. Results are all that we need mention. The power, the sweetness, the purity of the 
tone of the instruments whose resources have in this way been fairly developed is unrivaled. The scale is found 
to be more evenly balanced than was ever possible before, while the notes possess in high degree those qualities 
which render the tones of the concert grand unique. The value of an invention of this sort may be in a measure 
realized by the unanimous approbation with which it has been met from the most reliable pianists and musical 
writers, to gainsay whose opinion would be ridiculous. The advantages which Mr. Worcester's ingenuity has 
conferred upon the most popular instrument are, as the drift of our remarks would show, within the reach of the 
greater portion of the musical community, and consequently of redoubled importance. 

From the Musical Review and World, October l%th, 1862. 

The curious improvement lately introduced in the manufacture of square piano-fortes, by Mr. H. Worcester of this 
city, and upon which we commented at length some time ago, has, we are pleased to find, been well appreciated 
by the public, as well as by the musical profession and the press. The latest application of the hinged-plate prin- 
ciple has been in some wooden frame instruments of this excellent maker. The quality of tone obtained in them 
is extremely good — being rich and flute-like in the upper octaves, and vigorous and melodious in the base. A 
noticeable feature in the Worcester pianos at present is the remarkable strength and evenness of the treble tones, 
a fact that causes them to find favor with a great many players. 

Complimentary notices have also appeared in the New- York, Daily Times, Tribune, Evening Post, Express, 
Commercial Advertiser, Spectator, Scientific American, Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, Satur- 
day Evening Courier. Home Journal, Leader, Brooklyn City News, Weekly Standard, Chicago Tribune, 
Dwight's Journal, Boston Saturday Evening Gazette, HalVs Journal, and other publications, all of which 
indorse the Worcester modification in the strongest terms. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 



WE AIM TO SHOW HOW DISEASE MAT BE AVOIDED, AND THAT IT IS BEST, WHEN SICKNESS COMES, 
TAKE NO MEDICINE WITHOUT CONSULTING A PHYSICIAN. 



Vol. X.] MARCH, 1863. [No. 3. 



DIRT. 

Filth, disease, and moral death are associated together in all 
times and places; and one of the most direct, efficient and 
speedy means of promoting the physical health of individuals 
and communities is to bring them under the influence of 
sound moral and religious principles, through the instrument- 
ality of the Bible, the pulpit, and properly conducted Sunday- 
schools and Sunday reading. True religion not only purifies 
the sentiments and the heart, but washes a man's clothes, neat- 
ly patches every worn-out garment, keeps his house or farm 
in good repair, and inaugurates system, promptitude, exact- 
ness, courtesy, and a spirit of generous forbearance and kindly 
accommodation in every household. It is not intended to say 
there is no piety where these things are not found, but they 
most certainly do abound in proportion as Christianity has her 
" perfect work," hence the articles which first follow are not 
out of place in a Journal of Health. No system of hygiene 
can be complete which does not include that temperance, in- 
dustry, and personal purity which the sacred writings often 
and strongly insist upon. 



PULPIT POWER 

Is in " The "Word," which " is sharper than a two-edged sword ;" 
which " goeth forth," " conquering and to conquer," and does " not 
return — void." In all ages, the greatest preachers, those who have 
accomplished most in " winning souls," were those who had the 
Scriptures at their fingers' end ; whose clearest expositions of the 
Bible were those which the Bible gave of itself. In Abraham's 
day, in Jacob's, and later, during the Theocracy in the Wilderness, 
and on to the times of Peter and Paul, and the more modern ora- 
tors of the Church, the most powerful addresses were those which 
were either almost wholly derived from Scripture histories, or from 
a narration of facts occurring within the memory of the multitude 
addressed. 

The Bible is declared to be " the power — unto salvation ;" it is 
the main instrument in the world's redemption from vice, and its 
elevation to purity, peace, and immortal life. Bible-reading men 
do not deny these things in theory, but many there are, too many, 
alas ! who abnegate them in their daily practice ; and the custom 
of the times is tending to a passive rejection of the Sacred Scrip- 
tures ; not, indeed, by denying their authority, but by letting them 
go out of sight. "Whatever, then, promotes the oblivion of the 
Bible, is adverse to the best interests of Christianity ; and they 
who are its fastest friends, can never be so well employed as in coun- 
teracting these influences, which are kept at work by the arch 
enemy of man, and by the passions and frailties of our nature. 

The tendencies of the times are more and more to fiction, less 
and less to fact. Fiction, indeed, may have its uses in reasonable 
bounds, and in judicious hands ; but, as an almost universal vehicle 
of sentiment, it not only weakens the mind, it paralyzes the intellect 
and debases the heart. The majority of new books are books of 
fiction. Three-fourths of all the reading matter of the multitu- 
dinous periodicals of the hour is admitted fiction, and a very large 
share of it is the merest namby-pamby, or deals in the wildest ex- 
aggerations of all that is degrading in action, vicious in morals, and 
horrible in fact. Dictionaries are thumbed and worn out in the 
search of words of the most awful significancy, and these are print- 
ed in mammoth letters of black, red, and blue, and are pasted on 
the sidewalk, against the gutter-stones, on lamp-posts and fences and 
blind walls, in order to force the attention of the hasty throngers 
of the streets, to papers, and books, and magazines which are worse 



49 

than worthless. Within a block of the Bible House, a wall was 
covered during the Anniversaries with posters, having, among other 
headings, Adultery, Murder, Blood, Fiends, Ghouls ! 

These things are not confined to the most degraded newspapers. 
Wood-cuts by the dozen, in successive months, have been the main 
feature of weeklies, claimed to be owned by respectable people, and 
written for by professional men, and purchased by scholars and 
reputable fathers and mothers, to be read by daughters just emerg- 
ing into womanhood ; pictures representing murders the most atro- 
cious ; the brutalizing of almost denuded women ; the fac-similes of 
adulterous confessions, with most disgusting particularities. Not 
only has the secular press been drawn into this vitiated current of 
public demand, but portions of the semi-religious and the profess- 
edly religious have so far fallen in with the tide, as to devote one 
or more columns of their weekly issues to the recital of histories, 
which are no histories at all, of things which never passed as nar- 
rated, except in the brains of their imaginative writers. 

Nor is this all ; this fictitious literature is so prevalent, that it has 
crept into religious libraries ; the fore time " tract," which, as long 
as it was a verity, was a power in Christendom, is now so loaded 
down with fictitious, or largely exaggerated narrations, that it is a 
Samson shorn of the locks of strength. And, more, when Sunday- 
school books were literal records of actual occurrences, such as the 
Dairyman's Daughter, and Henry Martin, and Claudius Buchanan, 
and Harlan Page, their influences for good were precious beyond 
compare. But who shall say that one in a dozen later " stories " 
are literally facts ? that there are not " fillings in " " to match," 
which destroy their truthfulness ? And what are our " Anniver- 
saries," when compared with those of glorious memories of twenty- 
five years ago ! They are the shell without the kernel ; they are the 
sound without the substance ; their platforms are arenas for exag- 
geration, for effect, for " management," akin to legerdemain, not 
wholly so, but so in part, too large ; in part so large, as to suggest 
the inquiry in watchful and conservative minds, whether they are 
not, on the whole, injurious ? 

In the fight of all these things, it is suggested, if it would not be 
better to come back to the Bible and to plain facts, and make these, 
to a greater extent, " the weapons of our warfare." And such is 
the object of some writers, to use historical and Bible 
facts in the illustration of precepts and principles, which are to 
guide the conduct and mold the characters of the young of the 
families into which it may enter. Fact is stranger and stronger 



50 WITNESSES THREE. 

than fiction. Why not, then, use it ? Bible facts are the strongest 
of all, because they are whole facts — are true histories, and hence, 
as vehicles of information and illustration, are immeasurably safer 
than any others ; and, if so, why not seek to store our children's 
minds with them, instead of the monstrous absurdities of heathen my- 
thology, as contained in " all Greek, all Roman story !" The heroes 
of the Old Testament, of antediluvian ages, of patriarchal times, of 
the Theocracy, and onward — there are" no stronger characters in all 
the world's history ; they have a beauty and a power belonging to 
none others — the beauty and the power of truth ! Why, then, 
throw this treasure away, and exchange it for-the trash of Homer, 
and Ovid, and Horace, and Virgil, and then call it a " classical edu- 
cation !" Away with such balderdash, and let a better and a safer 
era be inaugurated. Let the Bible be the text-book of our chil- 
dren ; let its facts, and its incidents, and its veritable histories, be 
made a part and parcel of their education ; and, in due time, we 
will be a "nation whose God is the Lord," in that it has been 
" rooted and grounded " in the truth. — 



WITNESSES THREE 



Shortly before he died, Patrick Henry, laying his hand on the 
Bible, said : 

" Here is a Book worth more than all others, yet it is my sad 
misfortune never to have read it, until lately, with proper attention.". 

With voice and gesture, pertinent, and all his own, John Ran- 
dolph said : 

" A terrible proof of our deep depravity is, that we can relish and 
remember anything better than " the Book." 

When the shades of death were gathering around Sir Walter 
Scott, he said to the watcher, " Bring the Book." 

"What book," asked Lockhart, his son-in-law. 

" There is but one book," said the dying man. 

With such testimony as to the value of the Sacred Scriptures, 
reiterated by the great and good, in all ages, it is a sealed book to 
many ; it is voted to be excluded from our public schools, and mul- 
titudes of children are growing up ignorant of its histories, ignorant 
of its immortal truths, and profoundly unconscious that, to it and 
to its teachings, they owe all that is of solid worth in social life, in 
civil liberty, in human elevation, and in the hope of an immortal 
existence. ♦ 



THI3 CHERISHED FLOWER. 

A Feiend once presented us with a variety of choice flower seeds, 
which were duly sown. Among those that came up was a plant of 
vigorous growth ; it always looked fresh and promising, and we 
concluded it was qf unusual value. There was no other one like it, 
hence we gave it special care. Others not so large began to 
flower early. But, thinking that early to flower, was early to fade, 
we gave the pet a still increased attention. The weeds were pulled 
up from its vicinity as soon as they appeared. The soil was kept in 
a mellow condition all the time ; and, in default of seasonable rain, 
it was plentifully watered. The attention given to it did not seem 
to be thrown away ; its stalk was strong ; the leaves looked fresh 
and green ; but Midsummer had passed, and there was no flower, 
not even the sign of one. This secured a still increasing care, in 
the confidence that it was some splendid Fall flower, which would 
be in its highest prime when those of a common sort had wilted 
and faded and died away. In proportion as there was no show, 
pains were taken to protect it from the heats of Summer, and to 
supply it with the richest manures; its spreading branches fully 
answered to all the pains bestowed ; and no little pleasure was de- 
rived in anticipation of feasting the sight on its multitudinous beau- 
ties. At last, a flower came, but there was nothing striking about 
it ; in fact, it was insignificant. Our thoughts then took refuge in 
the surmise that the value of the plant was not in its flower, but in 
its fruit ; that it would yield an ornament for the parlor during the 
live long Winter, and thus be a beautiful reminder of the Spring time. 
We waited still, in faith and patience. At long last, the fruition of 
our hope was in beholding a luxuriant crop of vulgar thistles : all 
at once, the mind ran after a lesson from it, and a throb of anxiety 
flitted across our heart, like a black cloud in a Summer's sky. " May 
be, some child of mine, which I am cherishing with unutterable 
affection and tenderness, will, after years of ceaseless solicitude, 
show no promise of that fruitfulness which I have been looking for- 
ward to, in sweet illusions, through all the long years of helpless in- 
fancy, of dangerous childhood, of wayward youthfulness. Perhaps, 
that child shall yield no blooming flower, no luscious fruit; the 
flower and fruit of gratitude, of affectionate watchfulness, of filial 
deference, of implicit and swift obedience, and, last of all, that ten- 
der love, which dissolves itself in tears, when, at my dying hour, I 
bid a last adieu to all things earthly ; but, instead of this, shall be 
through all my age, and down to the verge of death, only briars and 



52 ANECDOTE. 

thorns to make my last bed a bed of agony ; the agony of a life- 
time's hopes blasted in the bud ; of cherished anticipations gone out 
in the blackness of an eternal night." But these were errant 
thoughts ; they were as transient as they were unwelcome ; they 
were driven away as our soul's worst enemies. 



' ANECDOTE OF THOMAS PAINE. 

One night, in 1803, when Paine boarded with Carver, I stept 
into his room while he was preaching his doctrines to eight or ten 
journeymen mechanics. When he ceased, I said to him : 

" Mr. Paine, the first night I slept on shore in America was at ~No. 
8 Dutch street, New York, in an open garret, on the 1 7th of June, 
IV 94. The night was hot. I laid on my ship's mattress on the 
floor. At midnight the lightning flashed, the thunder rolled, the 
wind descended, the flood came, and beat on that shingle roof. 
I knew not what it meant. We had no shingles in Scotland. 
I was in bodily fear. Sleep fled from mine eyes. I arose at four, 
A. M., headache, heartache, and spirits sunk down to my heels. To 
kill time until the people were astir below, I opened my box of 
books to see if they were mildewed ; they had been fourteen weeks 
in the hold of the vessel. On the top lay a small pocket Bible. 
It was placed there by my pious father. I opened the Book ; 
my eye lighted on the third chapter of Proverbs. I read the chap- 
ter twice. I was astonished. My spirits revived — my pains fled. 
[ grasped my wrought-nail hammer, and went forth with a stout 
heart to earn my first cent in America, resolving to take that chap- 
ter for my pilot, and the sixth verse for my chart. Having the 
Bible in my pocket, I read him the chapter. 

" Now, said I, Mr. Paine, the whole host of French philosophers 
with Voltaire at their head, and thyself, with your c Age of Rea- 
son,' and your book of i Common Sense,' never wrote a line to 
teach a boy like myself (who, before going on board the ship which 
carried him from his country, had never been twenty miles from his 
father's door), how to behave in the world, and how to shun the 
path of the destroyer. But every verse in this chapter is a map, 
and the sixth verse a guide post, and no traveler, though a fool, can 
err." He looked earnestly in my face as I spoke, then laying his 
hand on my shoulder, said, "Friend Grant, thou art a young 
enthusiast." His father belonged to the Society of Friends. 



hall's journal of health. 53 

I 

Thus wrote Grant Thorburn to us not long ago ; both he 
and Thomas Paine have now passed away to give in their 
great account ; Paine in 1809 ; Thorburn fifty-four years later, 
in 1863. Paine was a drunkard, a blasphemer, a hater of his 
kind, and his last hours found him indulging in bitter reflec- 
tions against the associates and friends of his later years. 
Thorburn lived temperately, industriously, and religiously ; 
his heart literally overflowed with human kindness, and agree- 
able things are said of him from all parts of the country. A 
thousand editors will unite in recording, "Peace be. to thy 
memory, Grant !" and will tenderly cherish the many pleasant 
thoughts which gather around his name ; for he was a kind- 
hearted and cheery old man. 

It may be useful and instructive, especially to the young, to 
contrast the manner of the ending of these two men. Stephen 
Grellot, a Quaker, (Friend,) lived in the same village with Paine, 
Greenwich, then a suburb of New- York, and thus speaks of 
the last days of the author of the Age of Reason : 

" I may not omit recording here the death of Thomas Paine, 
A few days previous to my leaving home on my last religious 
visit, on hearing that he was ill, and in a very destitute condi- 
tion, I went to see him, and found him in a wretched state ; for 
he had been so neglected and forsaken by his pretended friends, 
that the common attentions to a sick man had been withheld 
from him. The skin of his body was in some places worn off, 
which greatly increased his sufferings. Something that had 
passed between us had made such an impression upon him that 
he sent for me, and on being told that I was gone from home 
he sent for another ' Friend.' This induced a valuable young 
friend, (Mary Kascoe,) who had resided in my family, fre- 
quently to go and take him some little refreshment suitable for 
an invalid. Once, when she was there, three of his deistical 
companions came to the door, and in a loud, unfeeling manner, 
said, ' Tom Paine, it is said you are turning Christian, but we 
hope you will die as you have lived ' — and then went away ; 
on which, turning to Mary Easc'oe, he said : ' You see what 
miserable comforters they are.' 

" Once he asked her if she had ever read any of his writings, 
and on being told that she had read but very little of them, he 
inquired what she thought of them, adding, ' from such a one 
as you I expect a correct answer.' She told him that when 
very young his Age of Reason was put into her hands, but the 



54 hall's journal of health. 

more she read in it the more dark and distressed she felt, and 
she threw the book into the fire. 'I wish all had done as you, 7 
he replied ; ' for if the devil has ever had any agency in any 
work, he has had it in my writing that book.' When going 
to carry him some refreshment, she repeatedly heard him nt- " 
tering the language, ? O Lord I Lord God !' or ' Lord Jesus ! 
have mercy on me !' 

" It is well known that during his last illness he wrote a good 
deal: this his nurse told me ; but there is a total secrecy as to 
what has become of his writings." 

Of Thorburn, the New-York Baptist Examiner for January 
29th, 1863, says : 

" Grant Thorburn's life had many lessons for the people of 
the present age. He was a living epitome of all the prudential 
virtues — honest, truthful, kirk-going, economical, temperate. 
It was his boast— nor was his boasting vain — that he nevei 
drank a glass of spirits in his life, nor, except under rare and 
dire necessity, was out of bed after nine at night, or in it after 
five in the morning. He eschewed all dainty living, idle com- 
panions, and profane conversation. He married early, and 
more than once, and was wont to wax very eloquent in praise 
of Franklin's celebrated advice to the young in this regard. 
Such a man could not fail to live long and happily, and to die 
loved and regretted. May he rest sweetly, for .he had a gentle 
heart, and never wronged a living being. * Grant Thorburn, 
Seedsman and Florist ' — the eye still sees the sign, and one 
pauses again, in memory, to take the brave little Scotchman's 
nervous hand, and to reciprocate his quick, hearty greeting, as 
he trotted from one to another of his crowd of customers — every 
one a friend." 

And the Rochester Democrat : 

"Mr. Thorburn had considerable literary taste, and wrote 
statedly for the daily and weekly press. Some of his sketches 
were of deep interest, and a volume of them was afterward 
published, from which, in our early days, we read with no lit- 
tle delight. What, however, identified his name with the lit- 
erature of the day was the fact that John Gait, the Scotch nov- 
elist, made him the hero of one of his novels, under the title of 
Lawrie Todd. This at once gave him a pleasant distinction on 
both sides of the Atlantic, and he enjoyed it so much that he 
frequently signed that appellation to his published pieces. In 



55 

addition to this, a Scottish lady, (we think it was Mrs. Grant of 
Loggan,) paid him the tribute of a handsome notice in a vol. 
ume of American travels. Mr. Thorburn subsequently visited 
England and Scotland, and was received with much attention, 
and on his return published a spicy volume on the scenes and 
the people he had met. He was too much an American to ad- 
mire the style of society and thinking prevailing in the king- 
dom, although the purity of Scotch manners will always be 
admirable. 

" Mr. Thorburn was, through life, a staunch Presbyterian, 
and having attended the ministry of John M. Mason, could 
boast of having enjoyed the finest pulpit eloquence in Amer- 
ica Once, at an early day, he went to Boston, where he at- 
tended a fashionable church, whose opera-music and general 
clap-trap was in such contrast with the grand simplicity of Dr. 
Mason, that, as he says, he thought himself in a theater. But 
things have changed since then, and simplicity is the exception 
now. 

u Mr. Thorburn outlived all his generation ; the fashion of 
the world had all passed away before he left it. He lived to 
see streets and people changed throughout, and a new city built 
up where once cattle pastured and boys went summering. He 
lived to see his pastor wear out to a state of imbecility, and 
from a giant become once more a child. He lived to see his 
children in the fourth generation, to whom he bequeaths a good 
name and a good example. . Who will not say that this was 
well done for the poor friendless young emigrant of three-score 
and ten years ago ?" 

The New- York Observer instructively says, that u Thorburn 
was born at Delkeith, Scotland, February 18th, 1773 ; his 
mother died when he was only two years and a half old, leav- 
ing her son to the tender mercies of a careless nurse, under 
whose negligence young Thorburn grew up in a dwarfish con- 
dition — a weakly, delicate child, without proper clothing or 
nourishment. 

" At the age of eight years Thorburn was placed under the 
treatment of a gipsy female doctor, known by the extraordi- 
nary soubriquet of ' Luk-a'-Things.' This half magician and 
half beggar had a contempt for ordinary drugs and drugging, 
and therefore, instead of giving ' castor-oil for an obstacle in 
the stomach,' she prescribed for the little patient plenty of 
fresh air and exercise, which had such a good effect that Thor- 
burn soon gained strength and spirit, and was able in a short 



56 hall's jouknal of health. 

time to walk and run with tolerable activity. The zeal of 
emulation thereupon began to animate him, and it became his 
study in every undertaking to surpass his comrades, which he 
generally succeeded in doing. He applied himself with earn- 
estness to his father's business of nail-making, and soon 
made himself so expert that none of his fellow-workmen could 
approach him. It is said of him that in one day he manufac- 
tured with his own hands three thousand two hundred and twenty- 
two nails between the hours of six o'clock in the morning and 
nine o'clock in the evening. 

' 'After retiring from business he went to reside at Astoria, and 
subsequently (for the last eight years or more) changed his 
residence to New-Haven, Connecticut. In mind and body he 
was remarkably vigorous, up to almost the very hour of his 
death. He was never really sick for the last forty years, and 
may be said to have died literally of old age. 

" It was his custom to indulge in the occupation of sawing 
wood every day since his residence in New-Haven, by way of 
exercise. This operation was performed in a shed situated in 
a yard attached to his dwelling. When the weather was un- 
propitious for indulging in this species of gymnastics, the wood 
and saw had to be brought into the house, and the old man 
would set to work with great zest at his cutting, scattering saw- 
dust plentifully on the carpet. On Tuesday last he gave the 
first signs of approaching dissolution. He was in his shed, as 
usual, sawing, when a weakness came over him, and he went 
off in a fainting-fit. The doctor was summoned in all haste, 
and applied the necessary remedies. The patient was enjoined 
to remain quietly in bed, while notice was sent to his connec- 
tions to attend around the death-bed of their venerable relative. 
To remain in bed, however, was impossible for Thorburn. He 
must get up, and up he got on Wednesday morning, took 
breakfast, and went off as usual for the wood-cutting, in spite 
of all remonstrances. This was about nine o'clock in the morn- 
ing. The next that was seen of him he was stretched on his 
face in the wood-shed, with life entirely extinct. Thus ended 
the eventful life of Grant Thorburn." 

Thorburn lived temperately, religiously, cheerily, and long; 
and the living follow him to his grave with many pleasant 
memories. Paine lived the life of a sensualist and an infidel ; 
he died in neglect and remorse, and the curses of many, whom 
his writings have misled and corrupted, have already followed 
him on to the judgment. 



WISE WORKERS. 

About half a dozen men, who are gentlemen as well as Christians, 
have accomplished more within a few months, for the better observ- 
ance of the Sabbath day in New York city, than has been done in 
twice the number of years by the whole legislative power of the 
City and State put together. By a steady, earnest, courteous man- 
ner of procedure, they have, in a measure, put down the Sunday 
press, Sunday news crying, and Sunday grog selling. Not long 
ago, the editors of newspapers published on the Sabbath day, 
claimed it as a right to issue their papers when they pleased, and 
branded as tyrannous and puritanical, the effort to prevent boys 
from offering them for sale, at the top of their voices, in the neigh- 
borhood of churches, and to all who were going and returning. 
But they have been compelled, at least practically, to withdraw 
their claims ; and some of the more respectable have made Satur- 
day their time of issue. Sabbath after Sabbath passes, and not a 
cry is heard from newspaper venders, where once innumerable 
screeches disturbed the sleepers on the early Sabbath morning, and, 
on the 20th of June, the morning papers announced the gratifying 
fact that, "The corner groceries and the smaller class of liquor- 
shops, were almost universally closed (on the last Sabbath), the 
beneficial effects of which are found in the comparative sparseness of 
our police reports." 

All this has been done, and more will be, not by noisy vitupera- 
tion, not by the impugning of motives, not by the aid of party, not 
by epithet or sarcasm, nor, indeed by the aid of new laws or special 
enactments, but by a quiet and calm, yet determined effort, to en- 
force already existing statutes ; at the same time, flooding the city 
with a plain statement of facts, with documentary evidence, and all, 
with that mildness of manner which those who are in the right can 
so well afford to exhibit, and hereby have given an example to the 
world of the power of firm and dignified action, as contrasted with 
bluster and bravado and noisy demagogueism, which last has so 
effectually retarded progress in other directions, and thrown back 
the wheels for half a century, while the actors themselves, in their 
rage, frothing, impotent, and atheistic, are a spectacle of pity to all 
men. And we heartily join in the utterance of a morning paper, 
that, " Great credit is due to the committee who have had the mat- 
in charge, for the discreet manner in which they have conducted 
their unyielding efforts to put an end to a demoralizing and wretch- 



58 THE DYING. 

ed traffic. There has been neither fanaticism nor rancor in the pro- 
ceedings of the committee ; they have dealt with their opponents in 
a firm but Christian-like manner, and have prudently refrained from 
attempting to carry their scale of operations one inch beyond the 
point where they could be sustained not only by the law, but by 
the sanction of all prudent citizens, without regard to sect or 
party. If this Sunday liquor traffic can be abolished in this city, 
it will be through the means of such discreet and sagacious mea- 
sures as have been taken to suppress it by the ' Sabbath Commit- 
tee.' " 



THE DYING. 



" Mother, I can see a great distance," said a good man once, as 
be was just entering on the endless journey. " Ye shall see Heaven 
open, and the angels of God ascending and descending," was the 
promise to the Disciples of our Lord, and, through them, to Chris- 
tians of all time. Literally, as well as metaphorically, in life, as 
well as in a dying hour, has the declaration being verified — verified 
every day in the life, as well as in the death, of the righteous ; and 
will be, until death shall be no more. Sights have been seen, and 
sounds heard — sights and sounds, freighted with ravishing sweet- 
ness to Christian people, in the broad daylight of life and 
health, and in the gloom of the grave ; sights and sounds vouch- 
safed to cheer, when cheer is the most needed, when none can 
come from any mortal source, as if the very last, last moment of a 
Christian's life should be a fulfillment of a promise given by the 
Master, to be with them when they were walking " through the 
Valley and the Shadow of Death." 

The utterances of dying Christians indicate that they see, or think 
they see, angelic forms, and the familiar faces of the departed dead, 
hovering about them, and, with smiles of ineffable sweetness, 
beckon them away to the elysium of the blessed. If these be mere 
fancies, they are delicious fancies ; if facts, they are glorious beyond 
expression. "Whether it were but a dreaming or a seeming, the 
angels on the ladder from earth to Heaven, and the promise of the 
Lord, who stood at its top, the preciousness of it was to Jacob all 
the same, as if it had been an embodied fact, especially as the pro- 
mise which he heard in his dream was literally complied with. 

The film which covers the mortal eye, and hides from physical 
sense the beings and the things at hand, has been brushed away 



59 

in the case of patriarchs and prophets of olden time ; and later, on 
the Mount of Transfiguration ; and various martyrs of after ages 
have had their faces so lighted up with heavenliness, that it is diffi- 
cult to be accounted for, except by the fact of an actual sight of 
heavenly things. 

But, further on in the act and article of dissolution, the sight that 
pierces ether, faints and fails and fades, and taste is dead, and touch 
is dead, and tongue, and feeling, and smell, all, all are dead. Not 
so the ear ; it survives them all, for it is the last sense that dies; and 
it is the repeated testimony of those who have returned to life from 
the furthest limits beyond, that the whole atmosphere seemed to be 
filled with sounds so ravishing, as to be indescribable by mortal 
words. It has been testified to by persons who have been drowned, 
and then brought to, that the very last perception was that of de- 
lis;htful music. 

A dying man sheds no tears. He calls his wife and children, his 
parents, his best friends, to his bed-side, and, though tear-drops rain 
from every eye, the contamination of tears never comes to him, 
never the one falls down his cheek. This is because the manufac- 
tories of life have stopped forever ; the human machine has run 
down at last ; every gland of the system has ceased its functions, 
and that is why death steps in, and, like a remorseless sheriff", takes 
possession and stops everything. In almost all diseases, the liver is 
the first manufactory that stops work, one by one the others follow, 
and all the fountains of life are, at length, dried up ; there is no 
secretion anywhere ; the lips and tongue, how dry, as we have all 
seen ; the skin, how dry ; or, if moistened by the damp of death, it 
is from mechanical causes. So the eye in death weeps not ; not that 
all affection is dead in the heart, but because there is not a tear- 
drop in it, any more than there is moisture on the lip, which undy- 
ing affection, when it can do nothing else, laves incessantly with 
the little mop, or feather. 

There is one sign of approaching dissolution. We have never 
seen it alluded to, and yet we have never seen it fail. When the 
extremities are cold, and the head, the very last part to lose all 
power of motion, is turned incessantly and quickly and restlessly 
from one side on the pillow to the other, death comes within an 
hour. It is worth the effort of a life-time, to be able to die well, 
to die at a good old age, in peace with all mankind, and in a well- 
grounded faith of an immortal life beyond. 



PACTS FOR THE NATIVES. 

It is a matter of envious remark, and ought to be one of grave 
reflection, that foreigners "succeed" better than Americans. In 
our cities and large towns, both on the seaboard and on the great 
rivers of the interior, the rule is, that foreigners are going up, and 
that native citizens are going down, as to the extent of their busi- 
ness, their pecuniary resources, their social position, and influence. 
In Cincinnati and St. Louis, it is the Dutchman who owns the cor- 
ner buildings. In New York City, it is the Dutchman who is able 
to rent or own the corner groceries. Germans and Englishmen 
here wield the most capital. Our heaviest importers, our very 
largest commission-houses, have Europeans at their head. We can 
count in this city alone, foreigners by the dozen, Scotchmen, Irish- 
men, Germans, English, and others, who, in their youth, were with- 
out a dollar, and thousands of miles from home and friends and 
kindred, and, at the end of thirty years, are to-day worth their 
hundreds of thousands, and some estimate their fortune at mil- 
lions. 

On the other hand, there are multitudes of the children of native- 
born citizens who had fortunes to begin with, but who are now 
bankrupt in money, in character, and in influence; and, thriftless 
and idle, are going down to an early, or besotted grave. 

What makes this wide difference ? The poor foreigner comes 
here with a vivid sense of the evils and the degradation of poverty; 
he feels that money gives power and influence and position ; and, 
being free to make it, he is willing to work and to save ; he is in- 
dustrious, self-denying and frugal, and the result is, that he rises 
from the very first hour that his foot touches Castle Garden. It 
matters not what his position was at home, he embraces the very first 
opportunity of earning a penny ; and, if he cannot get wages at 
first, he will work for his board, until he can look around, or make 
his employer feel his worth. 

Some years ago, a German youth waited on us at the Pearl Street 
House, in Cincinnati. There was a neatness in his clothing, an ele- 
gance in the arrangement of his hair, and an expression of counten- 
ance which indicated elevation ; these, with the remarkable prompt- 
ness with which he attended to his duties, induced us to make inqui- 
ries, with the result, of finding that he was willing to be a waiter, 
rather than spend what little money he had for board, while he 
Was in search of a place. Three years later, he was an active 



i 61 

partner in a dry goods establishment, in Fifth street, near Main, 
when we left the city, and lost sight of him. 

For near two years, a young man served us with milk, in Irving 
Place ; he spoke English very imperfectly. We, at length, found 
that he was a good Hebrew and Greek scholar, and an educated 
Pharmacien, having spent seven years in learning the art of the 
apothecary. Having, at length, learned to speak English pretty 
well, he obtained a profitable berth in his proper calling, and, no 
doubt, will do well. 

Our public places are being rapidly filled with foreigners. Five years 
ago, there was not a single German conductor on the Fourth Ave- 
nue cars, which lead up to the " regal region " about Union Square, 
Irving Place, and Gramercy Park ; to-day, there are scarcely three 
Americans left — nearly all are Foreign ; and, if the reason were in- 
quired into, we are certain it would be found on the score of wages. 
Americans Avant to live like princes ; to do so, they must be paid 
like princes ; and, in default of a good salary, they throw up their 
situations, and knock around, dressed in their best, in order to 
make a good impression, and thus secure a good berth. But, before 
they know it, their money is exhausted ; their clothing begins to 
look seedy; and with that they begin to feel mean — and who does 
not, with a bad hat and not a penny in his pocket? and the last step 
is to turn to politics, for a " place." 

These things merit the consideration of reflecting men; and, 
until a better remedy is found, let the young be instructed, girls 
as well as boys, that honest labor is a duty — that idleness, help- 
lessness, and thriftlessness, is a disgrace — and that poverty, with 
pride against work, is a crime against oneself and against society* 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



If any parent will take the trouble to visit any of the Public 
Schools of New York, say No. 50 in East Twentieth street, for 
girls, there cannot but be made an impression of admiration of the 
order, system, promptitude, and efficiency, exhibited in every de- 
partment. Punctuality, Promptitude, and Truthfulness, are instilled 
into the minds of the children steadily, and in every possible way. 
They are taught to think. Their self-respect, their consciences, are 
constantly appealed to. The punishments are moral, more than 
physical or corporeal. They are excited, -encouraged, or shamed, 



62 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

according to the disposition and temperament. The great results 
are, accuracy and progress — a progress really astonishing to those 
who patronize private or more select schools. 

We heartily accord with the justness of the sentiments of the in- 
telligent editor of the Brooklyn Daily Times : 

" We are persuaded that very few of our citizens, even of those 
who have children in the Public Schools, appreciate the complete- 
ness and variety of the instruction given. Many send their chil- 
dren to private schools, because they consider it " respectable " to 
pay for being exclusive, and different from the majority. For 
people who cherish this silly, shallow vanity, this preferring of 
appearance to reality, we have no respect, and do not care to write 
a line for their perusal. But there are others who, from ignorance 
of the mode and extent of the studies pursued in the Public 
Schools, infer that necessarily, because it is paid for, private school 
tuition must be better and more thorough than that of the Public 
Schools. We can only advise such to visit the schools (at any of 
which they will be welcomed by the principal and trustees), and 
they will soon be convinced of their mistake. We are glad to hear, 
that not only is the aggregate attendance in the schools increasing, 
but (as set forth by the City Superintendent in his recent report), the 
regularity of attendance is augmenting. And not only so, but that 
the increased attendance, if there be any difference, comes yet more 
from the children of parents who are able to pay for tuition, than 
from those who are so circumstanced that public school tuition is 
for their children the only alternative from no tuition at all. 

" These lads (of N"o. 16, Brooklyn, Dunkley, Principal), who were 
aged about thirteen or fourteen, went through a variety of studies 
while we remained in the room. First, the teacher toak up a reader 
— selected a chapter at random, and set them to parsing. Each 
boy parsed a word, the next in order the following word, and so on 
all round and round the class. There was no hesitation, and but a 
single error, which was instantly detected and rectified by the next 
lad to the one who made it. In fact, the boys were as attentive as 
a line of soldiers counting off their numbers, and as prompt and 
ready in their statements as we should be in repeating the Doxol- 
ogy. Had it not been for the complete acquaintance they evinced 
with the structure and composition of the sentences, one might 
almost have been tempted to fancy that it had been a specimen of 
parsing printed in the book and committed to memory. 

Another of the exercises related to philology. The boys were 
given a word by the teacher, which they wrote on the black-boards, 



63 

with its affixes, suffixes, prefixes, &c, defining orally the original 
meaning, and the modifications of the meaning by the changes of 
form which it might be made to undergo in forming kindred words. 
Here again, though the words were often recondite, the pupils gave 
prompt and correct answers. And, from an inspection of some of 
their written compositions, with which we were favored" by the 
principal, subsequently, it was evident that the lads knew how to 
apply the knowledge of language thus obtained, to the construc- 
tion of sentences, and the correct and creditable expression of their 
sentiments. 

" There was also an examination in the rudiments of mathematics, 
and one in the rules of deliberative assemblies and the Constitution 
of the United States. These, also, they passed very creditably. 

" We were most struck, however, with the proficiency of these 
boys in arithmetic, both on the slate and mental. The mere effort 
of memory which they accomplished, in retaining the terms of the 
questions propounded, was surprising. Each answer was given in 
the form of a complete problem, logically worked out to its conclu- 
sion, through all its intermediate stages of proof. The intricacy, of 
some of the calculations involved, the speed and accuracy with 
which the solution was given, the completeness and finish with 
which the whole operation was accomplished, and, above all, the 
unflagging interest in the lessons which the teacher contrived to 
sustain in the minds of his pupils, impressed us as the very perfec- 
tion of successful instruction. After seeing the proficiency of this 
class in arithmetic and kindred branches, we were not astonished to 
hear, that no less than sixteen boys have, within a very brief period, 
gone straight from this class into responsible mercantile employ- 
ment." 

New Yorkers cannot adequately appreciate the obligations under 
which they are laid to the teachers of the Public Schools, for the 
fidelity, the assiduity, the patience, self-denial, and painful efforts 
necessary in bringing children forward in their studies in the 
manner described. It is a harder work, more trying on mind and 
body and heart, than plowing corn or chopping wood ; and that they 
richly deserve the compensation they receive, the reader may easily 
be convinced, by trying to take care of a class of a dozen for half 
a day. 

There are persons in New York, as well as Brooklyn, who do not 
send their children to the Public Schools, for fear that there is some 
discredit attached to it. Visions of " contamination " arise before 
their minds, at the thought of their children mixing with " every- 



64 THE IEISH. 

body's children." But these same children will have to associate 
in a variety of ways with " everybody," when they go out into the 
great world of practical life. Will any parent object to having his 
child associate with children who are above them, socially ? They 
would rather prefer it, in the hope that their own children would 
be elevated by the association. Let such, then, have the generosity 
to do something towards elevating the children of those who are 
below them ; and thus do unto others as they would have others 
do to them. But it is not likely that those who are so much afraid 
of their children being " contaminated," have sufficient greatness 
of soul to help others up. Poor human nature ! we are ashamed 
of some of your phases ! A man who is willing to be helped out 
of the mire, and then is unwilling to help others, is no man at all — 
he is a thing. It would greatly add to our estimate of the Public 
School system, if the children were confined four hours, instead of 
six, a day, and had no lessons to learn out of school; then they 
might have bodies and constitutions at twenty-one, as well as minds. 



THE IRISH. 

Observant persons who have traveled abroad, will bear witness 
with us to the truthfulness of the old remark, that " An Irish gen- 
tleman is the most finished gentleman in the world." There is a 
vivacity, a frankness, a cordiality, and a high sense of honor about 
him, which will win a way into the heart. 

Another item just as true is, that it is almost impossible to find in 
the United States an Irishman, who is strictly temperate as to 
liquor, who is not a man of substance and of influence. Nothing 
that we could say will so fully give the idea of the loss our own 
country sustains, and which the Irish race sustains, in consequence 
of their great besetting and besotting sin. So general is it, that it 
may be considered a national sin — the love of drink. 

What young Irish hearts can do, before this love of drink takes 
possession, is indexed in the tens of thousands and scores of thou- 
sands of dollars which are sent, in a monthly stream, to the Old 
Country, by Irish girls, the savings of menial toil, to bring decrepid 
parents and helpless brothers and sisters to this happier land. 
What shall be done to save a nation capable of deeds like these, 
from the Demon of Drink ? It is their greatest barrier to things 
and deeds greater than these. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 125. 



VENTILATING- THEORIES. 



A paper was read to the French Academy of Sciences in January, 1863, by M. Delbriick, who 
thinks it ' 4 singular that, while all medical men are unanimous in prescribing several cubic meters 
of pure air for each person sleeping in a room, as absolutely indispensable for health, all animals 
appear to shun the open air as much as possible, in order to compose themselves to sleep. Thus, 
the lion and tiger retire to some dark cavern, where the air is confined ; the dog goes to his kennel, 
and thrusts his snout under his belly ; birds, to which the open air would appear to be a necessity, 
whether asleep or awake, retire to some private corner, and put their heads under their wings. 
Nay, what does the school-boy do, when left in a dormitory aired with particular care. If he finds 
he can not fall asleep, the first thing he does is to bury his head ■ under the bed-clothes ; Hence, 
if, when awake, we exhale a quantity of carbonic acid, we must inhale a certain quantity of this 
gas during sleep, just as plants exhale by day the oxygen they absorb during the night." 

A writer in llarper^s Magazine for February, 1S63, describing the people of Iceland and their 
homes, says : " The dark turf walls are pleasantly diversified with bags of oil hung on pegs, scraps 
of meat, old bottles and jars, and divers rusty-looking instruments for shearing sheep and cleaning 
their hoofs. The floor consists of the original lava-bed and artificial puddles composed of slops and 
offal of divers unctuous kinds. Smoke fills all the cavities in the air not already occupied by 
the foul odors, and the beams, and posts, and rickety old bits of furniture are dyed to the core 
with the dense and variegated atmosphere around them. This is a fair specimen of the whole 
establishment, with the exception of the travelers' room. The beds in these cabins are the chief 
articles of luxury. Feathers being abundant, they are sowed up in prodigious ticks, which are 
tumbled topsy-turvy into big boxes on legs, that serve for bedsteads, and covered over with piles 
of all the loose blankets, petticoats, and cast-off rags possible to be gathered up about the premises. 
Into these comfortable nests the sleepers dive every night, and, whether in summer or winter, cover 
themselves up under the odorous mountain of rags, and snooze away till morning. During the 
long winter nights they spend on an average about sixteen hours out of the twenty-four in this 
agreeable manner. When it is borne in mind that every crevice in the house is carefully stopped 
up in order to keep out the cold air, and that whole famdies frequently occupy a single apartment 
not over ten by twelve, the idea of being able to cut through/the atmosphere with a cleaver seems 
perfectly preposterous. A night's respiration in such a hole is quite sufficient to saturate the 
whole family with the substance of all the fish and sheep-skins in the vicinity." 

The filthiest people in semi-civilized creation are the fishermen of the Ferroe Islands, and yet 
they live longer, on an average, than any people of the globe, their death-rate being only twelve 
out of a thousand, of all ages, in one year; in New-York City it has been reported over thirty in a 
thousand annually. Several years ago, Dr. McFarlane, of New- Orleans, proved by statistics that 
the filthiest portion of that city, the swamp in the rear, was the last to be attacked with yellow 
fever, and that it abated there as soon as any where else ; he concluded, therefore, that living 
in water, mud, and filth, where alligators, dogs, cats, mice, and men were in a state of putrefaction, 
was a preventive of yellow fever, cholera, diarrhea, etc. And yet the common-sense of every 
man teaches him that pure air and personal cleanliness in tidy habitations must be promotive of 
health in all ages and in all climes. Much of the error in morals and physics arises from confound- 
ing facts and principles with inferences and deductions. A fact is one thing, an inference is an- 
other, and often quite distinct. It is a fact that a man who had a chance of stealing a thousand 
dollars did not do it, but the inference that therefore he is perfectly honest is not legitimate, for, 
ten to one, the reason he did not do it was because he was not perfectly sure of not being found 
out. Many a fellow's repentance begins, not with the commission of the sin, but on the instant of 
his being found to have been a sinner. "VVe must look at whole facts to become truly wise. Yellow 
fever and other miasmatic diseases cease among the people living in the swamps in the rear of 
New-Orleans as soon as any where else, simply because hard frosts put an end to it every where ; 
and we know, by having lived on the spot for many years, that it appears in the swamps sooner 
or later in the season, not according as the people are more or less dirty, but according to the time 
at which the bottom of the swamp becomes exposed to a hot sun by the previous evaporation of 
the water which covered it. If there are many heavy rains during the summer or autumn, or a 
cold summer, or a late subsidence of the Mississippi, or frequent and long " blows " from the lake 
inland, there will be no epidemic in the " swamp," however severe it may be in the city. The 
filthy Ferroe Islanders live long, not because their housekeeping is indescribably filthy, but because 
during the entire summer their homes are abandoned for the fisheries on the sea ; and when they 
' '"jtturn it is so cold that every thing is frozen up, and there is no decomposition of filth and no 
,-.- i aporation of deadly malarias. As to M. Delbriick's new theory of ventilation, or rather no ven- 
tilation at all, it is enough to say for the present that man is neither a pig, nor a goose, nor a goat, 
and that if the breathing of effete carbonic acid gas promoted health, the wise Maker of us all would 
have given it to us to breathe instead of the pure air of all out-doors. Men may live in spite of 
bad air, as they sometimes do in spite of being "soaked in rum. Besides, there are always antag- 
onizing influences at work, and various modifying circumstances which readily suggest themselves 
to educated men ; meanwhile, let all bear in mind that sleeping in a pure atmosphere, in our lati- 
tudes at least, is indispensable to good health and a long life. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 126. 



CUTE THINGS. 



1. Put the exact "fare " in the lining of your hat, if you are about to travel in car or omnibua 
on a miserably cold day, when every change of position is disagreeable, thus obviating the necessity 
of taking off your gloves, unbuttoning your coat, searching your pockets, making change, and get- 
ting chilled ; if a lady, carry the money under the edge of your glove. 

2. If you are enough of a gentleman to feel obliged to give up your seat in a car to any thing in 
the shape of a petticoat, whether to mistress or maid, whether to a grandmother or to sweet seven- 
teen, whether to a dowager or a market-woman, take your seat as near the forward part of the 
vehicle as possible, then your gallantry will be the last to be tried, and the least likely to be 
challenged. 

3. If you want a pair of boots or shoes made to order, and wish to be certain of as easy a fit as 
tli at of an old shoe, put on two pair of thick, woolen socks before your measure is taken. 

4. If, like a wise sailor, you wish to have " all taut " when the terrible and inevitable financial 
storm comes sweeping over the nation, within a year after the war closes, sell on the spot what- 
ever is necessary to pay off every dollar of your present indebtedness, and invest all your sur- 
plus, be it great or small, in solid land, in fee, without the incumbrance of a single copper cent; 
the next day begin to retrench in all articles of necessary family expenditure, and let every 
luxury be banished from your memory as completely as if it had never existed. 

5. If you want to avoid being drawn into the common vortex of financial ruin by friends and 
relations, as dishonest in reality as they are reckless, never indorse for a dime without your wife's 
written consent, and have placed in letters, golden and large, over the mantle of the family room, 
and require it to be daily read aloud by each member of the family in turn, just before you go to 
business after breakfast, the fifteenth verse of the eleventh chapter of Proverbs. 

6. If you want to know certainly whether the young lady you think of addressing is a fairy or a 
fury, tread on her skirt in the street, when she is not aware of your being within a mile of her, and 
"take an observation" of that face, usually "divine," at the instant of its being turned full upon 
you. If, out of any thousand ladies promenading the street, you wish to make a selection for a 
wife who shall combine taste, tidiness, and a true economy, walk behind and notice if in shawl or 
dress, mantilla, cloak, or what not, there are creases, grease-spots, specks of dried mud, or lint, or 
string, or feather ; if you do, let her go, for creases show that she huddles her garments away, be- 
cause too lazy to fold them up carefully ; a grease-spot proves that she will flop herself down any 
where, consulting personal ease in preference to all other considerations ; and any woman who 
recklessly runs the risk of soiling a garment irretrievably, rather than take the pains to turn her 
head half round to see whether she is not about sitting on a lump of butter or in a pool of tobacco- 
juice, is utterly unworthy of a husband, and is as destitute of any true moral principle as she is of 
innate purity. A dried speck of mud or piece of lint shows she is a hypocrite or a slouch, as it 
proves that she is careful only of such parts of her apparel as she thinks most likely to be seen. 

7. If you wish the great happiness and the inestimable blessing of being always in good health 
down to a serene old age, learn while young to take care of that " good constitution" with which 
a benign Creator has intrusted you. 

8. If you have a tremendous moustache, and want to eat bread and molasses, put the bread in 
first and the molasses afterward. 

9. If you want to " prove " the best friend you have, ask him to lend you some money. 

10. If you want a burglar to wake you up, put your wash-basin under the door-lock, and draw 
the key half out ; then the slightest touch from the outside imitates a racket among the crockery, 
opportune to an extreme. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 127. 



THE ONE SPOT. 



Ose single spot on the fair face of a sheet of the best letter-paper will cause its rejection when 
the manufacturer assorts it for sale. 

In obtaining recruits for the army, a single blemish in the eye, a little defect in the hearing, the 
loss of a finger or a toe, the slightest limp or halt in the gait, is the one fatal spot which causes 
rejection, however perfect the health in all other respects. 

A faultless specimen of manly vigor offers himself for examination, for the purpose of obtaining 
an insurance on his life, but at the very first trial of the pulse under the surgeon's finger, the certifi- 
cate is peremptorily denied, because there is a fatal heart-disease lurking under that fair exterior. 

Here is a man who for a lifetime has had uniform good health ; never dreamed but that he was 
perfectly well, but noticed for the first time, an hour before, a little white pimple about the mouth, 
surrounded with several red ones, giving a dull hurting, causing, however, not the slightest appre- 
hension ; but meeting the family physician accidentally on the street, he inquires very carelessly : 
" What is it ?" On a close inspection, the experienced practitioner detects the existence of a " ma- 
lignant tubercle," which he knows will rapidly spread with a discoloration, and end in death within 

twenty-four hours ! as in the case of Miss M. A. B , last week ; of Mr. Henfield, six months 

ago ; and of Mr. Casy, awhile before that, all of Brooklyn. 

These are spots physical and fatal, all ! There are moral spots just as fatal to character, health 
and life itself. I knew a young wife, first at Rockaway, who could boast of family, fortune, educa- 
tion, health, and great personal beauty, fascinating in her conversation, faultless in her inter- 
course with society, and of a benevolence so hearty and so free, that it was impossible for her 
neighbors not to love her with their whole hearts. But there was one spot, only one ; that not 
known, even to her husband ; she would take opium, and died of its over-use at twenty-three. 

I have been delighted by the hour in listening to the recitations and reading the manuscript 

poetry of Mrs. L of Kentucky. Neither beautiful nor ugly, but the spoiled and educated child 

of a rich father. She had a genius and a power which won all hearts, purely. One morning I 
learned she was dying, although in perfect health the day before. At intervals of a year, the 
demon of a drunken debauch ! came over her. It killed her husband, one of nature's noblemen. 
The one spot ! 

I knew a wife, living yet I think, a model of personal purity, of domestic industry, system, 
order and thoroughness. A slave to the care for her family of healthful, beautiful children, there 
was no sacrifice, no self-denial which she was not ever ready to make or practice for their comfort. 
Her husband, as the world goes, was all that could be desired as to industry, system, temperance, 
regularity and order. It ought to have been a supremely happy family. It was wretched. The 
one spot was her insufferable il^-nature. It would be untrue to say she seldom came to the table 
without some expression of dissatisfaction. In twenty-six successive weeks, during which I daily 
sat at the same table, she never failed once to emit some venom either against the children, the 
servants, the food, or the weather, or something else. The whole house was kept in a turmoil, no 
single day ever passed without it ! Her only son was driven to an engine-house, did not sleep at 
home " once in two years ;" thence to the gutter ; her daughters married for a home, and she went 
to an asylum in her old age. 

There are many young men with whom you can not help being pleased, frank, courteous, mag- 
nanimous and kind ; they always meet you with a smile and a welcome, and you know it is cor- 
dial and sincere. On inquiry, they " drink." The one spot ! It blasts all things else. 

That daughter is beautiful, amiable and courteous ; in all she says or does, there is nothing to 
hang an adverse criticism upon. The moment she passes from her father's, door, dressed in fault- 
less taste ; go to her room, and every article it contains has impressed upon it the one spot of in- 
corrigible sloven. 

Let the reader this moment inquire, What spot have I ? and begin on the instant to wash it out 
at any and every sacrifice, for they only who are admitted to the mansions of the blessed are 
those " not having spot or wrinkle, or any such thing." 



Paine's Institutes of Medicine, 7th edition, by Harper Bros, liso 

pp., 8vo. 400 of these pages are devoted to Physiology ; 100 to Pathology ; 240 .to 
Therapeutics, and an Appendix of 150 pp. elucidating theories and subjects pre- 
viously treated, and enforcing and expounding the principles advocated in the 
body of the work. There are two indexes admirably, concisely, and aptly ar- 
ranged, furnishing a key to every section and subject. Of this standard publication 
a cotemporary justly says : 

"A medical work which holds its ground with the profession for sixteen years, 
which in that time runs through seven editions, which has been used as a text-book 
by half a dozen generations of medical students — a work which embraces in its 
comprehensive grasp the three prime domains of a physician's study : physiology, 
pathology, and therapeutics, or the laws of life, the laws of disease, and the laws 
of cure — a work which is the accumulated experience of fifty years' professional 
and professorial life, must have some extraordinary merit that it thus endures 
the test of time, withstands the assaults of criticism, and maintains its popularity 
with the most progressive of professions.'* 

Vocal Gymnasium, 25 E. 27th Street, conducted by Prof. Httrlbert, is 
commended to the attention of all who wish to improve the voice, singers, public 
speakers, etc., etc., whether for ladies or gentlemen. To become a good reader 
ought to be considered an indispensable part of a common education. To sing and 
to read well are literally rich placers of happiness in after-life. 

Weather-Indicator.— Mr. Charles Wilder, of Peterboro, New-Hamp- 
shire, is the manufacturer of Woodruff's Barometer, combining in a remarkable 
degree cheapness, accuracy, simplicity, durability, and portability. Prof. Mapes 
gives it high praise. A correspondent of that excellent and favorite paper, the 
Country Gentleman, says: "I have never failed, by close observation, to ascertain 
when a storm was coming on, or when about to abate. I have saved the cost of it 
in a single season." Premiums have been awarded to Woodruff's Weather-Indi- 
cator by the New- York, Vermont, Michigan, and U. S. Agricultural Societies over 
all other competitors. The prices vary according to finish only, from five to 
twenty dollars ; they are equally accurate, and all are ornamental. For sale also 
by C. J. Yangorder, Esq., of Warren, Trumbull Co., Ohio. 

831 BROADWAY, NEW-YORK, 

Will hereafter be the publication-office of HALL'S JOURNAL OP HEALTH, 
where Mr. P. C. Godfrey, so well known to New-Yorkers as the courteous and ac- 
commodating proprietor of the Union Square Post-Office, which he still 
manages with so much credit to himself, will keep on hand all our publications, 
wholesale and retail, for all who apply in person for the same. Those who order 
the Journal or any of our books by mail, must address simply, Dr. W. W. Hall, 
New-York. All letters delivered in person, and all packages, books for review, etc., 
must be left at 831 Broadway, below 13th Street. The Editor's office hours are 
strictly from 9 to 3 only, at 42 Irving Place, New-York. 

Braithewaite's Retrospect of the progress of Medical and Surgical 
Science throughout the world, for the six months ending with Dec. 1862, being 
part 46, has just been reprinted by W. A. Townsend, 30 Walker Street, New- York, 
for $1.25. It is issued twice a year for $2, making an 8vo. of 650 pp. This use- 
ful and now standard publication is the best vade mecum extant for the young 
practitioner and for the elder members of the profession, who have not leisure for 
extensive reading, but who wish to know at a glance what is doing in the medical 
world from time to time. It is commended to the patronage of educated physi- 
cians of all schools. 

Quarter-Century Sermon, by Rev. Thomas Brainard, D.D., of the 
Third Presbyterian Church of Philadelphia, is received, and is characteristic of 
one of the most earnest, indefatigable, efficient, and able ministers in his branch 
of the Christian church. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 



WB AIM TO SHOW HOW DISEASE MAT BE AVOIDED, AND THAT IT IS BEST, WHEN SICKNESS COMES, 
TAKE NO MEDICINE WITHOUT CONSULTING A PHYSICIAN. 



Vol. X.] APRIL, 1863. [No. 4. 



RECREATION. 

The literal meaning of this word is to make over again ; but 
in its ordinary acceptation it is intended to convey the idea of 
rest, refreshment, or rather, renovation. The body is refreshed 
by rest ; the brain is renovated by sleep, by absolute repose. 
But both body and brain may be invigorated for a season, by 
changing the direction of their respective activities ; and also 
by working alternately. A man who has become tired of rid- 
ing on horseback or in a carriage, rests himself, gets rid of his 
fatigue, by walking. The brain which has become weary in 
thinking of one subject is refreshed by taking up some other 
study. On the other hand, a man who feels tired all over, by 
work, or a long walk, will " get rested " sooner by sitting down 
to read than if he did nothing. Eachel, the great tragic act- 
ress, when returning from one of her performances at two or 
three o'clock in the morning, rested herself by spending an 
hour or two in changing the furniture of her rooms. The best 
sedative which a public speaker can take after a great effort, is 
to read a newspaper, or any thing else which has a variety of 
short statements, such as some industrious exchange has col- 
lected in the two following pages. The great practical idea 
we wish to convey is, that recreation is not idleness, but a 
change of direction in the operation of the physical or mental 
forces. A French actress lately went mad within an hour 
after the play, because she went home, laid down and let the 
mind run on in the same track. She should have changed to 
bodily activity, like Eachel. 



INTERESTING FACTS. 

Raphael and Luther were both born in the year 1483. The 
former died in 1520, the same year with Da Vinci. — Spencer was 
born in 1553, the year in which Latimer died. — Sir Walter Raleigh 
and Hooker were also born within a few months of Spencer. — Shak- 
speare and Galileo were both born in 1564, the year in which Luther 
and Calvin and Roger Ascham died. — Galileo was born the day 
Michael Angelo died, and died the day Newton was born. — Newton 
made one of his first experiments at the age of sixteen, on Septem- 
ber 3d, 1658, the day of the great storm, when Cromwell died. — 
Cromwell was born in 1599, the year in which Spencer died. — Izaak 
Walton, Newton, and Tasso, all died in 1593. — Claude Lorraine and 
Poussin, the artists, were born in 1600, the year in which Hooker 
died. — Claude and Murillo died in the year 1682. — Milton, Claren- 
don, and Fuller, were all born in 1608. The two former died in the 
same year, 1674, and the year in which Watts was born. — Shak- 
speare and Pocahontas died in the same year, 16^6. — Raleigh died 
in 1618, the year in which the famous Synod of Dort was formed. — 
Bunyan was born in 1628, the year in which Decker died, and died 
in 1688, the year Pope was born. — Dryden was born in 1631, the 
year in which Donne died, and died in 1700, the year in which 
Thomson and Blair were born. — Galileo, Guido, and Boyle, all died 
in 1642. — Burnet, the historian, was born in 1643, the year in which 
Hampden died. — Rollin and Fuller died the year Defoe was born, 
1661. — Swift was born in 1667, the year Jeremy Taylor died. — Locke 
and Sir Christopher Wren were both born in 1632. — Bolingbroke 
and Addison were both born in 1672, two years before Milton died. 
— Defoe died in 1713, the year Sterne was born. — Burnet died in 
1714, the year Whitefield and Shenstone were born. — Leibnitz died 
in 1716, the year Garrick and Gray were born. — Penn died in 1718, 
the year Putnam and Brainard were born. — Sir C. Wren died in 
1723, the year in which Blackstone and Reynolds were born. — Cow- 
per was born in 1731. — Goldsmith was born in 1729, the year in 
which Steel died. — Gibbon, Smollett, Collins, and Akenside, were all 
born in 1721. — Gibbon and Akenside both died in 1794, the same 
year Witherspoon died. — Watts and Thomson died in 1748. — Vol- 
taire and Pitt in 1778. — Christopher Wren, in 1773, the year Priest- 
ley and Coleridge were born. George Washington, Patrick Henry, 
and Howe, all died in 1799. — Cromwell and Hampdon, who were 
cousins, both took passage in a vessel that lay in the Thames bound 
for North America, in 1637. They were actually on board when 



INTERESTING FACTS. 73 

an order of council appeared by which the ship was prohibited from 
sailing. — Goethe was at one time, also, on the brink of crossing the 
ocean for America. — So was Robert burns. — A scheme of Pautiso- 
cracy in 1795, came near bringing Southey, Coleridge, Lovell, and 
Burnet to America. — Chaucer was the first of that long array of 
poets buried in Westminster Abbey, in 1400. — The body of Dryden 
was deposited m the grave of Chaucer, just three centuries after his 
burial, in the year 1700. — Goldsmith died two thousand pounds in 
debt. — As proof of the wonderful memory of Thomas Fuller, it is 
said that he could repeat five hundred unconnected words after 
twice hearing them, and recite the whole of the signs in the prin- 
cipal street of London, after once passing through it and back again. 
— Locke was banished as a traitor, and wrote his " Essay on the 
Human Understanding," sheltering himself in a Dutch garret. — 
Homer sang his own ballads. — Virgil was so fond of salt that he 
seldom went without a boxful in his pocket. — Addison, who is ac- 
knowledged to have been one of the most elegant writers that ever 
lived, was awkwardly stupid in conversation. — Handel was such a 
miser, that he was frequently known to wear a shirt a month to save 
the expense of washing. — It is said that Dryden was always cupped 
and physicked previous to a grand effort at tragedy. — He was a 
firm believer in astrology. — It is said that Pitt required a great deal 
of sleep, seldom being able to do with less than ten or eleven hours. 
— Butler did not become an author until he was fifty years old. — ■ 
Richardson, author of " Pamela," etc., did not begin to write till he 
was almost fifty years of age. — Robert Ferguson died in an insane 
asylum. — The wife of Beattie, the poet, became insane and was con- 
fined in an asylum for some years. — The first wife of Southey died 
insane. — Chatterton put a period to his own life at the age of 
eighteen. — Coleridge was for many years addicted to the use of 
opium. — Sir William Jones was the master of twenty-eight lan- 
guages. — The father of Henry Kirke White was a butcher, as was 
also that of Cardinal Wolsey and the poet Akenside — White was 
apprenticed to a stocking weaver. — Montgomery, at the age of four- 
teen, to a shopkeeper. — Crabbe was the son of a salt-master, or col- 
lector of salt duties.— Coleridge was the son of a vicar. — Samuel 
Rogers was a banker by profession. — The father of Charles Lamb 
was servant and friend to one of the batchelors of the Inner Tem- 
ple. — Campbell was born in the sixty-seventh year of his father's age, 
and was the youngest of ten children. — Keats was born in a livery 
stable, and was apprenticed at fifteen to a surgeon. — Alexander 
Wilson, the distinguished naturalist, was brought up to the trade 



74 

of a weaver, but afterwards preferred that of a pedlar and after that 
was a schoolmaster. — Robert Dodsley, who was the projector of the 
" Annual Register " in which Burke was engaged, and who was the 
first to collect and republish the " Old English Plays " which formed 
the foundation of the " National Drama," raised himself from the 
low condition of a livery servant, to be one of the most respectable 
and influential men of his time. — Canova was the son of an old quar- 
ryman, and originally a laborer. — Thorwaldsen, of a carver of ship 
heads. — Samuel Rogers was fixed in his determination to become 
a poet by the perusal of u Beattie's Minstrels," when only nine years 
of age. — The Rev. William Lisle Bowles enjoys the distinction of 
having delighted and inspired the genius of Coleridge. — The study 
of "Percy's Reliques of English Poetry" gave the first impulse to 
the genius of Sir Walter Scott. He has also stated that the rich, 
human, pathetic tenderness and admirable tact of Miss Edgeworth's 
" Irish Portraits," led him first to think that something could be 
done, or attempted, for his own country, of the same kind as she 
had so fortunately achieved for Ireland. — During the last six years 
of the life of Chalmers, his daily modicum of original composition 
was completed before breakfast, written in short hand, and all done 
in bed. — Milton frequently composed lying in bed in the mornings ; 
but when he could not sleep, and lay awake whole nights, not one 
verse could he make. He would sometimes dictate forty lines in a 
breath, and then reduce them to half the number. « 



REFORMERS. 



The world is full of them, and yet the world is not reformed. 
Almost every man can tell you Iioav things ought to be arranged 
so as to usher in the millenium, when everybody will be happy 
and good. But to make a theory available, it must be practicable, 
it must be a possibility. This very day, three men, a physician, a 
clergyman, and an editor, have propounded plans in our office for 
the amelioration of the condition of mankind. 

The physician is aiming to get rich enough to supply all the poor 
with food and clothing at the actual cost of production. 

The clergyman thinks that no radical progress can be made, until 
the government ceases to carry the mail on Sundays, and every 
man, woman, and child becomes a literal tee-totaller, and anti-slavery. 

The editor believes that the secret of universal happiness is uni- 
versal love ; that everybody must love every other body as well as 



REFORMS. 75 

he loves himself, and that the rich in money should give their sur- 
plus to the rich in love and leisure, who should go about and find out 
the objects upon which to bestow it with a wise discrimination. 

Our* own plan differs from all these. It runs thus. The world 
can never be as happy as it ought to be, until all are Christians ; 
the great instrumentality for effecting this, is the study and prac- 
tice of what is contained in the Scriptures of the Old and New 
Testaments. The Bible is the sword of the Spirit, the instrument 
of the world's conversion. Whatever, then, promotes the reading 
and study of the Bible, promotes the world's redemption from sor- 
row and crime, its elevation to holiness and happiness. 

To create a love for the reading and study of the Bible with the 
greatest certainty of success, we must begin early, long before a 
child can learn its alphabet ; begin just as soon as an infant is ob- 
served to take an interest in any story, and then feed it daily with 
Bible stories, and incidents, and facts, all along creating a feeling 
of the most implicit reliance on the absolute truthfulness of every 
sentiment, sentence, and syllable; that these are truths coming 
from the lips of the loving Father of us all, whose desire is that 
every child of his should come eventually to his Father's house, to 
spend an eternity with him in Paradise, according to the Saviour's 
announcement, " that where I am, there ye may be also." 

While all this is going on, facts should be thrown in from time 
to time, strongly fortifying the faith of the child in the literal accu- 
racy of every Bible statement, how its histories are corroborated 
by profane histories, by the revelations of after events, and by the 
researches of science. Pains should be taken to collect as many 
explanations, and corroborations, and verifications of Bible narra- 
tives as possible, like the one on page fifty-five of the June number. 
From time to time, the testimonies of the great and good of all 
ages, as on page eighty-one of July, as to the value of the sacred 
Scriptures, should be presented ; and these things should be con- 
tinued until the child passes from under the parental roof and paren- 
tal control. In the meanwhile however, begin quite as soon as the 
child is capable of understanding principles and abstract truths, to 
instill into its mind the distinctive doctrines of the church to which 
the parents belong, and thus they will become rooted and grounded 
in the faith of their fathers, will very uniformly grow up to be mem- 
bers of a particular sect from principle ; and it needs no argument 
to prove that a man is an efficient member of a particular church in 
proportion as he is enthusiastic, theoretically and practically, as to 
its distinctive tenets. The milk and water folk who think that 



76 

one church is about as good as another, that their own in particular 
is no better than any other, are not only of no use, they are a posi- 
tive injury to any society, are a weight on its influence, a clog to 
its progress. To happify mankind, then, the most efficient method 
and the shortest in the long run, is to begin with our children while 
they are yet infants, and patiently and sedulously and prayerfully 
inculcate the sentiment that the Bible is the only safe rule of faith and 
practice, the sure and only sure guide to a blessed immortality. 



LETTER OF JOHN RANDOLPH OF ROANOKE, 

*■ 

WRITTEN TO J. E. BEYAN, ESQ., TWENTY-THREE YEAES AGO, WHICH " IMPAETS LESSONS OF 
WISDOM WHICH CAN NEVER CEASE TO APPLY TO THE YOUTH OF EVEEY AGE." 

."London, Dec. 23, 1830. 

a My Dear Godson : Although I have so lately written to your 
better half, and at such tedious length, too, yet I cannot refrain 
from the attempt to engraft an old head upon young shoulders, not- 
withstanding my belief that no man was ever the wiser for another's 
experience. There are too many who are unable to profit by their 
own; witness the gamester and the spendthrift, not to mention 
another class of victims of licentious propensities matured into ha- 
bitual indulgence. Each of these wretched votaries of his darling 
vice is more sensible of the ruinous effects of his folly than any 
preacher who exhorts him against the consequences. He that wears 
the chain best knows how and where the fetter galls. They that 
declaim against the fixed and rooted ill-habits of their neighbor, un- 
der the expectation of reforming him, only show that they them- 
selves are coxcombs. Rather sententious and flat this, you will say } 
and you will tell the truth. 

" Having established yourself in Gloucester, let me remind you 
1 not to put off until to-morrow what may be done to-day ;' and, a 
fortiori, not to leave till next year what could be done this (1830.) 
Plant all sorts of trees. Man and boy, I knew John Lewis for some 
forty years or so, although I never was in his house. It is probable 
he may have saved you the trouble of rearing orchards. But, be 
that as it may, fail not to have a good apple orchard especially, and 
banish ardent spirits as a beverage from your table. I have serious 
fears on this head for a certain young * * *. If, at the begin- 
ning, you are obliged to resort to spirits, let your wife make the 
punch or toddy by measure, of a certain strength never to be in- 
creased, according to the good old Virginia fashion. 



LETTER OF JOHN RANDOLPH. 77 

" 2. Have no dealings that can possibly be avoided with your 
neighbors. The disregard of this caution will certainly lead to 
squabbles and strife. 

"3. Take no receipts on loose pieces of paper. Carry a receipt 
book in your pocket, and take all receipts in it ; if you are afraid 
of losing it, keep it in your desk. Always have the receipts witnes- 
sed, when practicable. 

" 4. Copy, or have copied, all your bills in a book, so that you 
may at a glance, see the cost of any article or branch of expense. — 
Without accurate accounts you must fall behind hand. What voy- 
age would a ship make without observation or reckoning? You are 
now embarked on the voyage of life ; without a good look out, you 
must be cast away. 

" 5. Form no intimacies with your neighbors under a seven years 
acquaintance — i qui vult dicipiatur? The rigid observance of my 
own maxims did not prevent ill blood between some of my neigh- 
bors and myself. My maxims preserved me from strife, and from 
loss by those. With the rest I was on the best of terms. 

"6. Economy: the adapting your supplies judiciously to their in- 
tended end. This is a gift of God. It cannot be taught ; at least, I 
have tried to learn it all my life, without success. My mother had 
it in perfection. 

" 7. Frugality : ' JSFon intelligunt homines quam magnum vectiga 
sit parsimonia? — It is in the power of every honest man, who means 
to retain his honesty, to refrain from indulging in expenses which 
he cannot afford. A disregard of this maxim, the result of their 
indolent ignorance of their own affairs, has ruined all my name and 
race ; they did not know what they could afford, and some, I fear, 
did not care. 

" I shall send you some acorns of an oak from Turkey, and also a 
few English. Plant them in beds, keep clean, and transplant at 
eighteen inches or two feet high. I hope that you will not forget 
broad-nuts, English, walnuts, (and black walnuts too) ; filberts, hazle- 
nuts and chestnuts, I will bring or send you. I saw trees of this 
sort planted about a century ago, at Houghton HalU by the great 
Sir R. Walpole, from two to three feet in diameter. This was in 
August, 1826. They afford a noble shade as well as valuable fruit. 

" Get Cobbett's " American Gardener." It can be had at Pishey 
Thompson's, in Washington. Spare no expense or labor for good 
enclosures, and tight, warm houses. The parsimony I preach up 
does not extend to the exclusion of comforts. I hope never to see 
a fire-place in your house without shovel and tongs and fender ; nor 



78 

with broken windows. When I was on a visit to poor B., he had 
eight or ten sponging visitors and their horses, and it was with dif- 
ficulty, that I could get a basin or towel ; even the most necessary- 
articles in a bed-chamber were missing. I do not mean the bed ; for 
there was one, although most uncomfortable. No; furnish your 
rooms well, however plainly. It is a first expense for the whole of 
your life. Plate and-china and glass, you will have no occasion to 
buy. 

" I shall probably never see how you and my darling niece suc- 
ceeded as house-keepers. - Daily and every day, I find that I am 
sinking. To be laid by the side of my honored parents at Old 
Matoax, is now the only wish that I have personally to myself. No 
tomb-stone, no monument for me. Let ' Spring, with dewy fingers 
cold,' dress the turf that shall cover my no longer feverish head or 
throbbing heart. If there be any memorial of me, let it be a plain 
head-stone, with this inscription : c John Randolph of Roanoke, son 
of John Randolph of Roanoke, the elder, and Frances Bland, his 

wife, and stepson of Virginia, born June 2d, 1773, died >, 1831.' 

Beyond this last period, I feel that it is impossible, short of a miracle, 
for my existence to be prolonged. ' Thy will be de done.' 

" I am now closely confined to my apartment, with faithful John's 
aid. I have all the comforts that I am now capable of enjoying ; 
my life hangs upon his. 

"I had like to have omitted one special caution against going 
to the watering places in Autumn in search of health. It is an idle, 
dissipated, and expensive practice. If you are to live in the lower 
country, you must accustom yourself to the climate, which I have 
no hesitation in saying is in every way more healthy than that of 
the upper country, short of the Alleghany. "When I was a boy, 
agues and fevers were hardly known twenty miles west of the falls 
of the great rivers. 

"The inhabitants of the lower country were always jeered by the 
trans-mountain people, especially on account of their sickly climate. 
But now the valley is, perhaps, the sickliest in the State. Who ever 
heard of the breaking up of old William and Mary by an indigenous 
plague ? In case you should go far enough west (to Montgomery 
or Wythe ) to avoid autumnal disease, you must count upon dying 
the first time that circumstances oblige you to spend the season at 
home. There never was complaint of sickness at Warner Hall, until 
the last Warner introduced the rum fever. The notion of ill health 
has been a pretext to cover the love of gadding and gossiping ; and 



' BIBLE CONFIRMATIONS. 79 

for a Winter climate, and Spring especially (not to mention roads), 
there is no comparison. 

" Pray mention Mrs. V. Bibber's lowest price for her estate, and 
John Tabb's also, if practicable. 

" Adieu, my children. J. R. of Roanoke. 

"To John Randolph Bryan, Esq." 

"December 29, 1830. — The weather has been cold (14 deg. of 
Fahrenheit), but it has moderated. I see that the Hew York packet 
of the 1st of this month, has arrived. I received a letter from W. 
Leigh, of the 21st of November, which must have come by it. I 
have been more and more unwell the last three days." 

"London, Dec. 29, 1830." 



BIBLE CONFIRMATIONS. 

Four thousand years ago was built the Temple of Karnak, cov- 
ered inside and out with hieroglyphics detailing the histories of the 
passing ages, making the official record of successive dynasties, their 
victories and their defeats, their conquests and their crosses. But 
for thousands of years this Temple was in ruins, its walls were fallen 
in; its capitals, its cornices, and its columns, all crumbled, broken 
and defaced ; and for these same thousands of years, these records 
were a closed volume ; no man was found to " read the writing " 
up to the beginning of the present century. Just previous to that 
time, the expedition to Egypt under Napoleon the First, gathered 
together a vast number of valuable antiquities, among which was a 
broken black stone, some three feet by two, basaltic ; and on this, 
the famous Rosetta stone, were three lines, one was in hieroglyphics, 
one in the hand-writing, as it were, of the common people, and one in 
Greek. The great Champolion conjectured that they read the same 
thing, as did the famed words in Greek and Hebrew and Latin, at 
the Crucifixion ; by this key, the immortal Frenchman read the hiero- 
glyphics of Karnak. But of all the lines on Karnak' s walls, one spot 
alone remained entire, giving the record of a Bible event. The mo- 
ment his eye fell upon it (singled out, as it were, the only whole 
among a million of others in ruins), he was filled with amazement, 
as he mechanically exclaimed. 

Meleh Aiuda, or King of Judah ; 
thus offering a magnificent tribute to the truthfulness of God's 
Revelation, in that, at a point in the long ages of the past, there was 



80 

a country, that it was under a form of kingly government, and 
that it had a name, " The King of Jews," thus linking together Je- 
sus and the Cross, the Jews and Judah and Shishak, the very name 
of the Kingdom of Solomon, as one connected history. A few 
years later, and those lines on Karnak's walls began to fail and fall, 
and are now no longer legible, except in part. But while they were 
legible, fac-simile copies were taken and scattered among the libra- 
ries of the world, to stand for all time to come as witnesses of God's 
truth, as if they were preserved just long enough for the w^orld to 
read them, and then be blotted out forever ! Thus it is that the 
Almighty «takes care of the Bible and its truths. 



ANECDOTE OF THOMAS PAINE. 

In 1794, when Paine and Robespierre were establishing Liberty 
in France by means of the guillotine, the strife between them was, 
who shall be the greatest — Robespierre got the ascendant, and Paine, 
with twenty others, were enrolled for the guillotine. On the base- 
ment, was a row of cells running the whole length of the prison; 
one prisoner was confined in each cell. Every night, the Clerk of the 
Tribunal came round with a list, and marked a cross with chalk on 
the door of the person who was to be guillotined in the morning. 
That night, the clerk had a list containing twenty-one names, with 
Paine's among them. The keeper of the prison stood in Paine's door 
conversing; thus Paine's door stood open against the w T all inside 
out. The clerk (probably being drunk) not observing, marked 
Paine's door ; in the morning, the executioner, having emptied the 
cells whose doors were, marked (Paine being in bed, and the door 
shut, no mark appeared), he fell one short. "Never mind," said he to 
the guards, " we'll take the next ! " In forty-eight hours thereafter, 
Robespierre's head rolled in the basket, and thus Paine escaped. 
* * * Says I, " Mr. Paine, I would call this a providential de- 
liverance ; what did you think ? " Said he, " I thought the Fates 
had ordained I was not to die at that time?" Says I, "Neither 
you nor any of the wise men in the East, can tell what Fates mean ; 
you wrote much against the religion of the Bible ; you highly ex- 
tolled the perfectibility of man, when left untrammeled by priestcraft 
and dogmas. I think God spared your life, that you might show 
to the world, and to your friends in America in particular, what man 
is, when left by his Maker to wander in his own counsels. Here 



AGE OF RELIGIOUS NEWSPAPERS. 81 

you sit, in a dirty, uncomfortable room, bedaubed with snuff, and 
stupefied with brandy — you, who were once the companion of Wash- 
ington, Jay, and Hamilton, are now shunned by every respectable 
man ; and I have seen superfine-coat infidels cross the street, to 
avoid your recognition." Says he, " I care not a straw what the 
world says about me." " Then," says I, "I envy not your feelings; 
I wish so to conduct myself, that I may gain the good will of my 
fellow men." Grant Thorburn, Sen. 

New Haven, 27th July, 1859. 



AGE OF RELIGIOUS NEWSPAPERS. 

1. The Herald of Gospel Liberty was first published at Ports- 
mouth, New Hampshire, in September, eighteen hundred and 
eight. 

2. The Religious Remembrancer was first published at Phila- 
delphia, September the fourth, eighteen hundred and thirteen, by 
J. W. Scott, an elder in the Presbyterian Church, and which con- 
tinued six years. 

3. The Boston Recorder was first published at Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, on the third day of January, eighteen hundred and sixteen, 
by Nathaniel Willis, now living. 

4. The Religious Intelligencer was first published at New Haven, 
Connecticut, on the. first day of June, eighteen hundred and sixteen, 
then under the care of Deacon Nathan Whiting. 

5. The Congregational Journal was first issued, although under 
a different name, on the third day of January, eighteen hundred 
and nineteen. 

6. The Christian Watchman (now the Christian Watchman and 
Reflector) was first issued at Boston, Massachusetts, on the twenty- 
ninth of May, eighteen hundred and nineteen. 



RECAPITULATION. 




Name,. 


Place,. 


&ate. 


Herald of Gospel Liberty, 


Portsmouth, N. H., 


Sept. 1808. 


Religious Remembrancer, 


Philadelphia, Pa., 


Sept. 4, 1813. 


Boston Recorder, 


Boston, Mass., 


Jan. 3, 1816. 


Religious Intelligencer, 


New Haven, Conn., 


June 1, 1816. 


Congregational Journal, 


Boston, Mass., 


Jan. 3, 1819. 


Christian Watchman, 


Boston, Mass., 


Jan. 29, 1819 



A SAD REFLECTION. 

One of the heart-sorrows which few parents escape, who live to 
see their children nearly grown, is the early disposition which both 
sons and daughters show, to throw off parental control, and exercise 
their own judgment, in all that pertains to practice and principle. 

Youth is vain, hopeful, dogmatic and impatient. At sixteen, seven- 
teen, and even earlier, they have already regarded it as a settled fact 
that they are largely wiser than those who have gone before. They 
consider it as a weakness to be pitied, the fears and misgivings 
which bitter experience have burnt into the father's and mother's 
heart, and left them all cut and scarred. If the counsels are given 
in the sternness of parental right, they are met with a feeling which 
soon grows into defiance ; if given with the beseechings of a mother's 
undying affection, which still clings to a prayer, when command 
and reason and persuasion, all have failed, they look down on this 
deep solicitude, this heart-breaking anxiety, with a patronising pity- 
ingness, and with silent neglect or compassionate smile, mingled 
with a feeling amounting almost to contempt for such useless ear- 
nestness, and they pass steadily on to courses which, sooner or later, 
work out their irretrievable ruin. 

On a beautiful morning of the past Spring-time, Dr. , standing 

at our door, his head whitening for the grave, and into which he has 
already passed, said in tones at once earnest, tremulous and deep, " I 
cannot induce my son to forego the use of tobacco, although he sees 
in his father its mischievous effects." 

That father had long since, with the will as well as with the intellect 
of a giant, dashed the chain of habit in pieces, doing it the moment 
he became convinced of the perniciousness of the practice, but not 
soon enough to have escaped the impress of its disastrous effects, 
in enfeebled limbs and palsied tremblings, and that too when the 
hill-top of life had scarcely been reached as to years, but in reality 
as to him passed a long time ago, one foot being already in the 
grave, the other on its crumbling verge. 

The cruel heedlessness with which the youth of our time pass by 
the known wishes of their parents, as to what their parents well 
know would, in good time, add to their comfort, happiness and pros- 
perity, is a sign of the times, and merits a stern rebuke. 

Parents may not complain of such neglect ; they may not bring it 
distinctly to the notice of their wayward children, but their hearts 
are wounded for all that, and many is the tear that is dropped in 



HENRY CLAY. 83 

secret for that self same cause ; and the exclamation breaks up from 
the depth of their affliction : " Is it for this I have suffered and 
watched, and toiled from their infancy up ? Is it for this, I have 
practiced a life-long self denial, and self sacrifice, and weary wasting 
labor, until my back is bent with years, my limbs stiffened with 
work, and my hand hard as bone itself?" and scalding tears flow 
plenteously down, else the overburdened heart would break in its 
agony. 

Let every child then, having any pretence to heart or manliness 
or piety, and who is so fortunate as to have a father or mother liv- 
ing, consider it a sacred duty to consult at any reasonable, per- 
sonal sacrifice, the known wishes of such a parent, until that parent 
is no more ; and our word for it, the recollection of the same through 
the after pilgrimage of life, will sweeten every sorrow, will brighten 
every gladness, will sparkle every tear drop with a joy ineffable. 
But be selfish still, have your own way, consult your own inclina- 
tions, yield to the bent of your own desires, regardless of a parent's 
commands and counsels and beseechings and tears, and as the Lord 
liveth, your life will be a failure ; because " the eye that mocketh at 
his father, and despiseth to obey his mother, the ravens of the val- 
ley shall pick it out, and the young eagles shall eat it." 



HENRY CLAY 



Near three hundred years ago (1584) Sir Walter Raleigh brought 
a company of colonists over to Virginia, among whom were the three 
sons of Sir John Clay, of Wales, to each of whom the father had giv- 
en fifty-thousand dollars; their names were Charles, Thomas, and 
Henry, the last had no children. 

Cassius M. Clay is a descendant of Charles; Henry Clay and Por- 
ter, were descendants of Thomas. Thus, Charles and Thomas Clay, 
sons of Sir John, are the progenitors of all the Clays in the United 
States. 

The father of Henry and Porter Clay, was a Baptist Clergyman, 
(and so was Porter Clay himself) and left no heirs of his name ex- 
cept Henry, and Porter Clay. 

All of Henry Clay's daughters (six) died ; of his five sons, the eldest, 
Theodore, was a lunatic. Henry Clay, Jr., killed at the battle of 
Bueno Vista, left three children. 

Thomas, James B., and John Clay, sons of the great Statesman, 
are still living. 



HEALTH TBACT, No. 128. 



COFFEE POISONS. 

If it be true that there are men so lost to all moral principle as to deliberately- 
put strychnine and other poisonous drugs into liquid compounds, and then sell 
them for Bourbon whisky or French brandy, there are others who will adulterate 
coffee for the sake of gain, and sell it as a pure article. There are two very cer- 
tain methods of avoiding imposition : either drink no coffee at all, or purchase the 
berry and burn and grind it yourself. 

It is claimed that several families have been poisoned in Brooklyn by drinking 
what was sold for pure rye-coffee. Ergot of rye is certainly one of the most deadly 
poisons ; and the city grocer may have been imposed upon by some careless farmer, 
who did not clean his grain properly. Those who are so lazy or thriftless as to 
purchase ground coffee to save themselves the trouble of preparing it at home, de- 
serve to be poisoned — a little ; but as it may be necessary sometimes to do so in 
an emergency, it is well to know that if ground coffee is pure, it very slowly dis- 
colors cold water, and is also slow to soften ; but most adulterations blacken the 
water at once, and become soft besides. Of thirty-four samples of city-sold coffee 
of all kinds, thirty-one were found to be more or less adulterated. 

" Chicory," or succory, is a garden endive, and is extensively used as coffee by 
the poorer classes ; costing, in its parched and ground state, only fifteen cents a 
pound. It is simply the root of an herbaceous plant sliced, dried, parched and 
ground ; it is one of the " drugs" of the apothecary, and is spoken of, in medical 
dispensatories as a " tonic ;" as a " deobstruent ;" as " acting on the liver ;" it is said 
by some to impair digestion ; to cause dyspepsia and bring on headaches, etc. The 
safer plan for all who wish to economize, and think they must have some kind of 
coffee for breakfast, is to use burnt bread-crust, or the common carrot prepared 
like chicory. 

Many think they can not do without something to drink at regular meals ; but 
this is a mere habit ; if it must be done, it should be something quite warm, almost 
hot, because it is known by actual ocular demonstration, that cold water or any other 
cold liquid introduced into the stomach at meals, as instantly arrests the process ol 
digestion, as water extinguishes a live coal ; cold milk at meals has the additional 
disadvantage, if used freely, of engendering constipation, biliousness and the long 
list of minor symptoms which inevitably follow these conditions. But large 
draughts of even warm drinks at regular meal-times are very pernicious ; as they 
not only cause " oppression,"- but by largely diluting the fluids which nature has 
prepared for converting the food into a nutrient material, render them less efficient, 
impose additional labor on the stomach and prematurely exhaust its powers. No 
one should exceed half a pint of liquid at any meal ; invalids and the sedentary 
should use habitually still less. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 129. 



BURNING TO DEATH. 

This is a terrible calamity, yet it is a daily occurrence in any large city, and is 
almost always the result of gross carelessness, recklessness, or ignorance. Loss of 
life from the clothing taking fire may occur any hour in any family. The preven- 
tion and the remedy are matters of personal interest, at least to all parents ; and 
certainly every school-teacher in the land should know how to act in the premises. 
Dresses can be made so that they will not readily take fire. The most available 
plan, the most economical and most accessible is to soak the clothing in strong 
salt-water just before wringing it out. There are other preparations used, such as a 
solution of sulphate of ammonia, tungstate of soda, etc., but the advantage of com- 
mon salt is, that while it is as efficacious as others, it is not so liable to injure the 
colors of the dress. But it is not the wisdom of the times to prevent calamities. 
The next best thing is to know how to act in case of the dress taking fire. The 
beautiful and accomplished wife of a great name lately died, within the hour, by her 
dress having taken fire from a bit of blazing sealing-wax falling on it, while she 
was affectionately amusing her sweet little children at the sewing-table. Her hus- 
band was in an adjoining room and was instantly at her side, but either had not the 
knowledge or the presence of mind to arrest the progress of the flames. Perhaps 
three persons out of four would rush right up to the burning individual and begin 
to paw with their hands, without any definite aim. It is useless to tell the victim 
to do this or that, or call for water. In fact, it is generally best to say not a word, 
but tear up the carpet, or seize a blanket from the bed, or a cloak, or any woolen 
fabric — if none is at hand, take any woven material — hold the corners as far apart 
as you can, stretch them out higher than your head, and running boldly to the 
person, make the motion of clasping in the arms, most about the shoulders, this 
instantly smothers the fire and saves the face ; the next instant throw the unfor- 
tunate on the floor ; this is an additional safety to the face and breath, and any 
remnant of flame can be put out more leisurely. The next instant immerse the 
burned part in cold water, and all pain will cease with the rapidity of lightning. 
Next get some common flour, remove from the water and cover the burned parts 
with an inch thickness of the flour if possible. Put the patient to bed and do all 
that is possible to soothe, until the physician arrives. Let the flour remain until it 
falls off of itself, when a beautiful new skin will be found. Unless the burns are 
deep, no other application is needed. The -dry flour for burns is the most admirable 
remedy ever proposed, and the information ought to be imparted to all ; the prin- 
ciple of it3 action is that like the water, it causes instant and perfect relief from 
pain by totally excluding the air from the injured parts. Spanish Whiting and cold 
water of a mushy consistence is preferred by some. Dredge on the flour until no 
more will stick, and cover with cotton batting. In washing clothes, use one part 
of sulphate of Ammonia with nine of water ; one pound of tungstate of soda to a 
gallon of water. Dresses to be starched should have one third of tungstate and 
two thirds of starch. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 130. 



WOOLEN CLOTHING-. 

The most healthful clothing for our climate, the year round, is that made of wool. 
If worn next the skin by all classes, in summer as well as winter, an incalculable 
amount of coughs, colds, diarrheas, dysenteries and fevers would be prevented, as 
also many sudden and premature deaths from croup, diphtheria and lung diseases. 
Winter maladies would be prevented by the ability of a woolen garment to keep 
the natural heat about the body more perfectly, instead of conveying it away as 
fast as generated, as linen and flaxen garments do ; as also cotton and silk, although 
these are less cooling than Irish linen, as any one can prove by noticing the differ- 
ent degrees of coldness on the application of a surface of six inches square of 
flannel, cotton and linen to the skin, the moment the clothing is removed. The 
reason is, that wool is a bad conductor of heat, and linen is a good conductor. 

It is more healthful to wear woolen next the skin in summer, because it absorbs 
the moisture of perspiration so rapidly, as to keep the skin measurably dry all the 
time. It is curious to notice that the water is conveyed by a woolen garment from 
the surface of the body to the outer side of the garment, where the microscope 
shows it condensed in millions of pearly drops ; while it is in the experience of 
the observant, that if a linen shirt becomes damp by perspiration, it remains cold 
and clammy for a long time afterwards ; and unless removed will certainly cause 
some bodily ailment. 

In the night-sweats of consumption, or of any debilitated condition of the system, 
a woolen flannel night-dress is immeasurably more comfortable than cotton or 
linen, because it prevents that sepulchral dampness and chilliness of feeling, which 
are otherwise inevitable. 

The British government make it imperative that every sailor in the navy shall 
wear woolen flannel shirts in the hottest climates. The shrinkage of woolen gar- 
ments in washing, whereby they become hard, impervious and board-like, has pre- 
vented their more general use ; but there are three ways of preventing this, to 
a greater or less extent ; either let about one fourth of the material be made of 
cotton ; have it dyed red or some other color before it is woven ; or if it is greatly 
preferred that it shall be white, exercise proper care in the process of washing. 
To prevent white Avoolen stockings from shrinking, have wooden stretchers made 
of the size and general shape of the foot, and let the stockings remain on them 
until perfectly dried ; or, before rinsing the stocking, double it so as to fold at the 
heel and lay the foot on the leg, then roll it tight, and ring it crosswise. 

In washing all woolen garments, put them in very hot soapsuds-water, so as to 
be covered ; then, when cool enough to allow the hands to be put in, simply 
press it about with the fingers or hands, and before taking the garment out, make 
the water for rinsing several degrees hotter than that from which it is to be taken, 
but instead of wringing the water out, or twisting it about in the water, raise the 
garment out of the water, up and down a good many times, and then lay it over a 
line and let it drip dry ; this process will, to a considerable extent, prevent fulling 
or shrinkage, and is worthy of being communicated to every person who expects to 
be a housekeeper. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 131. 




Common lime quickly and perfectly absorbs carbonic and other disagreeable and un- 
healthful gases and odors; and for this purpose, in times of plagues, epidemics, and 
wasting diseases, is scattered plentifully in cellars, privies, stables, and gutters of the 
streets. It not only purines the air and promotes physical health, but as a whitewash 
enlivens and beautifies wherever it is applied. As it is easily washed off by the rain 
if not properly prepared as a wash, it has to be so frequently reapplied that it is con- 
sidered troublesome by many ; hence the rich use paint, and the poor use nothing 
to protect their dwellings, fences, etc., from the ravages of the weather; yet the 
difference between a well-whitewashed farm and one where no lime is used, would 
amount to a large per centage in case of a sale. For the physical and moral bene- 
fits which may arise from the abundant use of lime as a whitewash, several modes 
of preparing it, so as to make it more durable, whether applied in-doors or out, are 
here given, with the suggestion that the same amount of money necessary to keep 
a man's premises well whitewashed, can not be expended to as great a moral and 
healthful advantage in any other way. 

1. One ounce of white vitriol (sulphate of zinc) and three ounces of common salt 
to every four pounds of good fresh lime, that is, lime which has not fallen into dry 
powder from exposure to the atmosphere, with water enough to make it sufficiently 
thin to be applied with a brush, makes a durable out-door whitewash. 

2. Take a clean water-tight barrel, or other wooden cask, and put into it half a 
bushel of lime in its rock state, pour enough boiling water on it to cover it five 
inches deep, and stir it briskly until it is dissolved or thoroughly " slacked," then 
put in more water and add two pounds of sulphate of zinc — that is, white vitriol — and 
one pound of common salt ; these harden the wash and prevent cracking ; this may 
be colored according to taste by adding three pounds of yellow ochre for a cream 
color ; four pounds of umber for a fawn color, with a pound each of Indian red and 
lamp-black. 

3. Mix up half a pail of lime and water ready for whitewashing; make a starch 
of half a pint of flour and pour it, while hot, into the lime-water while it is hot. 
This does not rub off easily. 

4. A good in-door whitewash for a house of six or eight rooms is made thus : 
take three pounds of Paris white and one pound of white glue ; dissolve the glue 
in hot water, and made a thick wash with the Paris white and hot water, then add 
the dissolved glue and sufficient water to make it of the proper consistence for ap- 
plying with a brush. If any is left over, it hardens by the morning ; but it may be 
dissolved with hot water ; still it is best to make only enough to be used each day ; 
spread it on while it is warm. 

It is said to add to the value and lastingness of any lime-wash if the vessel in 
which it is slacking is kept covered with a cloth ; this not only confines the heat, 
but keeps the very finest of the particles of lime from being carried off by steam, 
wind, or otherwise. 

When it is taken into account how much buildings and fences are protected 
against the destructive influences of the weather, if they are plentifully whitewashed 
in April and November, to say nothing of the cheeriness, beauty, and purity which 
it adds to any dwelling, it is greatly to be desired that the practice of whitewashing 
liberally twice a year should be adopted by every household in the nation, where 
paint can not be afforded, and on every farm. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 132. 



SCHOOL-CHILDREN. 



This beautifully bright morning of March the fifth, with the thermometer at within twelve of zero 
of Fahrenheit, at eight o'clock, found us taking the usual walk of a mile and a half along Fifth Ave- 
nue, from dwelling to office, with our four responsibilities, who go to school near by. Alice, our eight. 
year old, who was full of talk, said : " Father, I wish I was my teacher's pet, but I am not ; her pets 
can do as they please, but she is so strict with the rest of us." " Who are her pets, my daughter ?" 
" The ones that know their lessons best." "Are they larger or smaller than you?" "Oh! they 
are the tiniest girls in the school. My teacher says the smallest girls in the school are the 
smartest." 

On another occasion, when told of a girl who was never absent, never missed a word in any of 
her lessons, I inquired if she was good-looking. The reply was : " She is so pale and thin ; and 
there are sores on her hands and face." Similar answers have been made in various other cases. 
The actual fact is, that the good scholars study themselves to death, and are petted and favored 
in a great variety of ways ; while those of less mental capacity are treated with an impatience and 
a sternness which soon gives them a dislike for school, for their teachers and for learning in gene- 
ral, and Saturdays and Sundays are the only sunshiny days of the week to them. I frequently 
say to my children : I don't want you to strive for " head." I dofl't want you to be promoted, for 
the oftener you are, the harder you will have to study. You have plenty of time, and I would 
rather see you eat heartily, and sleep soundly, and know but little, than that you should know a 
great deal, and grow pale, and thin, and weakly, and die before you are grown up. 

Among the most important observances for school-children, and which every wise and affection- 
ate parent will never lose sight of, are, 

1st. See that they have all the sleep they can take. Every child under ten should be in bed by 
eight o'clock, summer and winter, so that they may have nearly eleven hours' sleep. Those older, 
should be in bed at nine and be required to rise at six ; thus they will have more time for study in 
the morning, when the brain is rested and acts efficiently, and will also be prevented from injuring 
their eyes, as very many school-children do, by using artificial light. 

2d. See to it that every child goes to bed with warm, dry feet, and that they sleep warm all night. 

3d. If you are a human, and not a brute, never allow your child to go to bed with wounded or 
ruffled feelings from any angry words, or harsh or hasty conduct on your part. Always send them 
off to school in a happy and affectionate state of mind ; and when they return, let them be invaria- 
bly received with a kindly greeting, and a loving, thankful heart that they are once more returned 
to you in health and safety. These things are the more necessary as their ambitions, their disap- 
pointments, their discouragements, and their troubles, in reference to their school and their lessons, 
are as important to them as yours to you in the mightier matters of life, and if they find not a balm 
for all these in the affection, and smiles, and sympathy, of their mothers especially, it is to them a 
misfortune, and to such mothers a disgrace. 

4th. By all possible means arrange that your children shall reach school with dry feet and dry 
clothing ; the neglect of this has sent many a sweet child to its early grave, the victim of a mother's 
carelessness or a teacher's stupidity. 

5th. School-children should eat with great regularity ; thrice a day is all-sufficient for those 
above ten. Frequent eating, and tempting their appetites with sweetmeats and delicacies, has 
been the ground-work of early and life-long dyspeptics to multitudes. 

6th. Teach children perseveringly the importance of attending promptly to the calls of nature ; 
and by any and every means bring it about that this shall be done before leaving for school in the 
morning. To this end arrange that they shall be through with their breakfasts an hour before it is 
necessary to start for school, even if they have to eat by candle-light. Cases of fatal inflammation 
of the bladder have often occurred in consequence of the ignorance or brutality of teachers in this 
connection. 

7th. Embrace every opportunity of impressing the child's mind with the fact that teachers are 
laboring for their good, and therefore ought to be loved, respected, and obeyed, as their best 
friends. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 133. 



• LIFE WASTED. 

Valuable lives are often thrown away, lost, through ignorance of some of the 
simplest truths' in nature, or errors of judgment in matters where error becomes a 
crime. Some of the best and wisest and greatest men of our race have perished 
from the world, in consequence of what might be considered a carelessness, a reck- 
lessness, or an ignorance, which is amazing, as found in minds like theirs. The im- 
mediate cause of Lord Bacon's death was sleeping in a damp bed. Any old woman, 
who " didn't know B from Bull's foot," would have had more sense than that. Yet 
it was the fatal error of the greatest mind of his age and generation. 

Washington Irving, whose name is so loved and honored and revered, hastened 
his death by taking the advice of a fool, instead of his physician. Abbott Law- 
rence, the financier and the philanthropist, brought on his last illness by an injudi- 
cious change of clothing. 

Rachel, the greatest tragic actress of her time, took a cold which carried her to 
her grave, by riding from New-York to Boston in cars not sufficiently warmed, on 
a bitter cold winter's night, immediately after a performance, which had heated up 
her whole system, far beyond its natural standard. J. Addison Alexander, for 
whom it is claimed that he was the best Bible scholar living, and that he had powers 
of mind not equaled in his day, died in the very prime of life, because " having a 
feeling almost bordering on contempt for physicians," he allowed his mortal malady 
to prey upon him secretly ; and the day he died, he thought he was going to get 
well. Because he knew nothing about disease, he concluded, with all his resplen- 
dent intellect, that men who had made it a life-long study, knew nothing about it. 
The magnificent deduction cost him his life. And now another name comes up to 
our notice, in the same connection, as illustrating the fact that the greatest minds 
are capable of follies most amazing. The philosopher, the scholar, the soldier, and 
the Christian, were all blended in the name of Professor Mitchel, the great astron- 
omer, the gallant soldier, and resistless general. His was the greatest loss to the 
nation, up to this hour of the contest, and yet his life was literally thrown away, by 
his own inconsiderate act ; by doing deliberately what we would suppose the com- 
monest mind in the nation would have regarded as exceedingly dangerous ; and it 
is named here to benefit the living, without prejudice to the honored and lamented 
dead. General Mitchel was attacked with symptoms of yellow fever ; his physician 
acted promptly, and labored to restore the functions of the skin, to cause perspira- 
tion, which every professional man knows is the turning-point for life in that dis. 
en?e. It was eventually brought about, to the unspeakable joy of his medical at- 
tendant, Dr. Thomas T. Smiley, at twelve m., October 28th, 1862 ; but when he re- 
turned, two hours later, his patient had been attacked with a chill, the pulse went 
up from 85 to 120, the General having got up and ordered his bed changed, while 
in this perspiring condition. Delirium set in, and he died, the attending surgeon 
leaving this record : " I am of the opinion that had General Mitchel remained in 
bed, and kept the skin in good condition, he would without doubt have recovered." 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 134. 



POISONS AND ANTIDOTES. 

The antidote of a poisQn is that which renders it instantly harmless ; this it does by converting 
the elements or ingredients of the poison into new compounds, which are wholly innocuous. But 
in all these cases, the benefits to be derived from the employment of an antidote, are proportioned 
to the instantaneousness of the application ; the importance of this is very generally understood^ 
but it serves to deprive friends of all presence of mind ; they are thrown into such a flurry, as to 
be incapable of connected thought, or efficient action. It may therefore save many a human life, 
if the reader will impress upon his mind two or three general principles. It is true, that " every 
bane has its antidote," but as there are hundreds of poisons, and the memory would be overtaxed 
with an antidote for each, it is agreeable to note that some substances are perfect antidotes against 
a dozen poisons ; and it is fortunate, too, that these substances are almost always at hand, even in 
the poorest households. Strong coffee ; salt and mustard ; white of eggs ; any kind of domestic 
oil, lard or grease — these four things antagonize almost all ordinary poisons. If the reader will 
bear this in mind, he can be happily and efficiently calm, under almost any circumstances of 
poison, in which he is likely to be placed. 

1. Prevention is best. No poisonous substance should be allowed in any household for one single 
instant, after it is out of the hand ; whatever has been left after use, should be at once thrown into 
the sink, or carried out into the street or road, broken, poured out or scattered. 

2. The very moment you see any thing in a paper or bottle or other vessel, without a mark show- 
ing what it is, empty it without a moment's delay into the sink ; this is safer than throwing it into 
the fire, for it may be inflammable or explosive, and cause much mischief. 

3. Never take, taste, or give any thing, whether powder or fluid in the dark, or without looking 
deliberately at the label, in a clear light, although you may have put the vessel or paper down 
with your own hand, a minute before. 

But from inattention, recklessness, or design, poisons will sometimes be swallowed, and the truly 
wise will inform themselves beforehand, as to the best means of procedure. 

1st. Send for a physician. Meanwhile, remember that the effect of administered poison is in- 
stantaneous, or comes on slowly. If instantaneous, the patient immediately cries out with the sen- 
sation of heat or burning, or scalding at any point from mouth to stomach ; the presumption then 
is, that some corrosive poison has been taken ; something which eats or destroys or disorganizes 
the muscles or fleshy parts of the tongue, mouth, throat, stomach, etc. ; most poisonous substances 
of this sort are acids, and the first best remedy likely to be at hand, is common soap dissolved in 
water, or soda or saleratus or magnesia ; but in the hurry of inexpert hands the remedy may be 
made so strong as to become of itself another poison, hence it is best to take the simplest thing 
which is most likely to be at hand, and which can not injure in any quantity or strength in which it 
can be taken ; hence for poisons which cause an instantaneous sensation of burning in the throat, 
etc., drink a tea-cupful of sweet oil or lard or grease of any sort ; the most that can happen from 
an over amount is that it will be vomited up, and this brings more or less of the poison out of the 
stomach ; then you can more leisurely drink magnesia-water or strong soapsuds, or a table-spoon 
of wood-ashes, put in half a pint of lukewarm water, stir, let it settle two minutes, pour it off and 
drink. 

If a powder has caused the urgent sensations, the most generally applicable antidote is to swallow 
one or two raw eggs ; the white is the efficient part, but there may not be time to separate the yolk ; 
this is best in poisons from arsenic, corrosive sublimate, verdigris, creosote, etc. 

If the effect is not instantaneous, and time may be taken, the first best thing to be done in all 
cases is to get the poison out of the stomach instantly, by swallowing every five minutes a tea-cup 
of warm water into which has been stirred a full tea-spoon each of common salt, and ground 
kitchen-mustard ; there is vomiting almost as soon as it reaches the stomach ; then drink a cup or 
two of very strong coffee, which is the best remedy for all anodyne poisons, as opium, morphine, 
laudanum, etc., etc. In short, if the sufferings are instantaneous and urgent, drink sweet oil or 
soapsuds ; if gradual or causing drowsiness, mustard emetic, strong coffee or white of eggs. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 135. 



CURES. 

Instead of all the fools being dead, we verily believe they are on the increase, in 
spite of our ten years' labor in the endeavor to wedge a little mite of common-sense 
into the craniums of Tom, Dick, and Harry. When in England some years ago, we 
thought patent medicines and secret remedies had quite as great a run as in Ame- 
rica, although England had had nearly two thousand years' longer schooling than 
we. This would seem to prove that the more intelligent a community becomes, the 
more gullible it grows. In looking over our exchanges, religious and otherwise, it 
is perfectly clear, according to the affidavits and testimonials of clergymen, divinity 
doctors and doctors of law, of men and women, old grannies and maids, that every 
thing can be cured, from a finger-scratch to amaurosis, malignant tubercle and death- 
rattles, in little or no time ; and that if any body dies, it is their own fault en- 
tirely. Recently, a sub-editor went to an eye-doctor. 

"What's the matter with my eye?" 

"Amaurosis." 

"Can you cure it?" 

"Oh! yes." 

"How long?" 

" Two weeks." 

" How much ?" 

" You can pay five hundred dollars now, on account, and further, according to 
circumstances." 

The quill man declined ; went to Chicago, took a few warm baths, and after pay- 
ing some attention to the general health, returned to New-York, apparently well of 
— " amaurosis !" one of the most certainly fatal of all diseases. 

While all this is going on in New-York, "in the way of trade," the unprofessional 
"put in an oar" every now and then, free gratis for nothing. The latest thing of 
the kind appeared in the columns of that staid and sterling paper, the NeAv-York 
Observer. Some writer, itching to deliver himself of an idea "as clear as mud," 
literally, writes to say that he is a firm believer in the "mud cure" of hydrophobia, 
as he knew a man who was bitten by a mad dog ; a lump of mud was plastered 
over the wound for half a day, and at the end of thirty years, the man was living in 
good health. The utter folly of putting forth such miserable stuff as this, in refer- 
ence to so serious, so terrible a thing as hydrophobia, may be seen at once, in the 
fact that John Hunter, than whom there has never yet lived a greater surgeon, 
says he knew twenty-one persons who had been bitten by mad-dogs, and but one of 
the whole number became hydrophobic. Each of the twenty might have claimed 
that his was a " cure." It is the fashion now to call every sore throat a child has, 
" diphtheria," and every child that gets well was cured by the thing which was done 
for it; but the next person who tries it, loses his child, which might have been 
saved by promptly calling in medical advice. No doubt the virtues of the "mad 
stone" have grown out of the fact, that now and then persons who have been bitten 
by mad dogs, or supposed to be rabid, have remained unharmed after the applica- 
tion of the stone ; not because of any virtue it possessed of antagonizing the poi- 
son, but simply because the system of the bitten individual was not at the time sus- 
ceptible to the influences of the virus. A child said to have diphtheria gets well 
after smoking tar, poured on a live coal in the bowl of a common pipe, or by stretch- 
ing a bag of ashes and salt, or mush and molasses, from ear to ear under . the 
jaw ; but to say that these are cures of the terrible complaint, is the lamest of all 
conclusions. No business man would risk five dollars on that kind of reasoning. 
And yet it is upon such grounds that the papers are filled with "cures," certain, . 
infallible, of every malady under the sun. By all that is sacred in a holy human 
life, we urge the reader, when he or any of his are ailing in any way whatever, to 
do one of two things ; either do nothing, and let nature take care of herself, or con- 
sult your family physician, who, if educated to his profession, will take an interest 
in you beyond any stranger ; or, if he sees the case is beyond his skill, will frankly 
acknowledge it, and will take pains to turn you over to some man of eminence and 
acknowledged ability. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 136. 



HOUSEHOLD VERMIN, 

Including rats, ants, cockroaches, bed-bugs, body-lice, etc. These are to citizens what weeds aro 
to farmers, compelling all to work for a living; and work gives a good appetite, a vigorous diges- 
tion, sound sleep, general health, and a good old age. It may be a question of ethics, whether we 
ought to set our wits to work in devising any short cuts in the direction of exterminating the house- 
pests above named. Until our doctors of divinity settle this point, the safer side may be taken of 
erring from ignorance, rather than overt design, if it be an error to wage a war of extermination 
against every living thing which occupies your premises without your consent, and without paying 
for " board and lodging." 

Prevention is the safest and noblest remedy ; of these, personal and habitational cleanliness and 
a big tom-cat are perfectly efficient. Bat the number of clean housekeepers in the city of New- 
York is not over one in a hundred, judging from the gangrenous green which defaces the "risers" 
in the steps which lead into our brown-stone mansions, and the unswept condition of the gutter part 
of the street-way, in front of most dwellings. And if any of our readers are curious to see sights, 
let them " happen in" at some of the " auctions of household furniture," which are so numerous in 
any April in New- York ; auctions in first-class houses of families " going to the country," " break- 
ing up housekeeping," or "going to Europe," meaning three times out of four, perhaps, a "finan- 
cial smash-up." Let any reader go into any dozen such places, and judge for himself as to the 
supply of good housekeepers, tidy and clean, in this great Gotham. But do not judge from the 
condition of the parlors and parlor furniture, but look into cellars and sinks, and closets and at- 
tics ; inspect bed-ticks and mattresses, and " comfortables" and woolen blankets. Such sights ! 
And then again, what loads of abominations in the cellar ! What piles of bones and bottles ; of old 
shoes and wads of fat ; pork-skins, fish-heads, empty mackerel-kits, and Scotch herring-boxes; and 
other things, too numerous and suggestive to mention ! So that if tidiness were the only rem- 
edy for house-vermin, New-York would soon be like Egypt in olden time, when noisome insects 
swarmed on the food as it was being passed into the mouth. 

Body Vermin breath through their sides ; common sweet oil plugs up their air conduits, and 
death from suffocation is speedy and certain, always. Ignorance in many cases makes the oil, 
which is the efficient remedy, merely the vehicle for applying a poison dangerous to man, which 
has no efficiency whatever in destroying vermin. 

Roaches devour greedily, and die while eating, flour paste, if into half a pint of it, while hot, a 
dime's worth of phosphorus is stirred, in a tin cup, with a long stick. When this is nearly cold, a 
quarter as much grease, to keep it from drying ; then smear it on broken glass or dirty board, to be 
left where they congregate. 

The Persian Powder is harmless to man, but certain death to insects. It is the powdered blos- 
soms and flowers of a Caucasian vegetable, called " Pyrethrum Roseum," of a yellowish gray, odor- 
less, tasteless at first, but leaving a burning sensation. The plant will flourish in our country, and 
seeds will be furnished by the Agricultural Department at Washington City. Address Hon. J. 
Newton, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. It is the best remedy known, because 
cheap, perfectly harmless to man, and infallibly fatal to insects. 

House-Flies. — Take as much each of ground black pepper and sugar as will lie on a dime, moist- 
en with two teaspoons of cream or rich milk, and spread it on a plate or board ; the flies eat it, 
seek the air, and die out of doors. Or mix the liquor of boiled poke-root with a little molasses, and 
spread it about on plates . 

The powder of Coculus Indicus, which boys use to stupefy fishes, destroys many insects, if scat- 
tered about their haunts. 

As for rats, it is best to keep a good cat or terrier-dog ; or keep every thing eatable on shelves 
hanging from the ceiling or around the walls. Chloride of lime, wrapped in a rag and stuffed in 
rat-holes .or passage-ways, will sometimes drive them from the house for a few months, until the 
chlorine odor has disappeared. Five cents' worth of strychnine, mixed in three table-spoons of corn- 
meal, with a few drops of anise, attracts the rats, but it is too dangerous a substance to come into 
any household. A table-spoon of plaster-of-Paris in powder, mixed with a pint of Indian meal, with 
grated cheese or oil of anise, is safe and effectual. Ten grains of powdered phosphorus, mixed with 
a pint of Indian meal, is a good remedy. Powdered potash, strewn in their paths, makes their feet 
sore, and drives them away. Rats are too cunning to be caught long by any kind of trap. But 
there is nothing so efficient as a good-mannered, well-trained cat ; dogs annoy neighbors by their 
barking. 



WHO ARE TO FIGHT. 

All males are subject to military duty who are over twenty and under forty-five years of age, 
with the following exceptions : Those who are of unsound mind ; those who have been to the 
Penitentiary ; those who have any bodily defect or disease ; the Vice-President of the United States ; 
all United States judges ; the heads of the Executive Departments of the United States ; Governors of 
States ; the only son of a widow, dependent on his labor for support ; the only son of aged or infirm 
parents, dependent on his labor — if two or more sons of such are subject, the parent may decide 
which shall go to the war ; the only brother of children under twelve years of age, who are de- 
pendent on his labor for support ; the father of motherless children under twelve, who are depend- 
ent on his labor for support ; where there are a father and sons in the same family and household, 
and two of them are in the military service of the United States, as non-commissioned officers, 
musicians, or privates, the residue of such family, not exceeding two, shall be exempt, and no per- 
sons shall be exempt except those mentioned above. 

The bodily conditions which exempt from military service are chiefly as follows : 1. Those hav- 
ing disease of the lungs or heart ; 2. Loss of forefinger of right hand, or toe ; 3. Lameness in 
either foot ; 4. Loss of any limb ; 5. Having any kind of rupture ; 6. Any defect in either eye ; 
7. Any deafness in either ear ; S. Having a " hump - back ;" 9. Subject to any kind of fits ; 
10. Having chronic sore leg. 



Blackwood. — Messrs. Leonard, Scott and Co., No. 38 Walker street, New-York, will con- 
tinue to supply the great English Reviews, republished here, at the very moderate rates (for these 
times, certainly) of their old prices. 

Per Annum. 

For any one of the four Reviews, $3 00 

For any two of the four Reviews, 5 00 

For any three of the four Reviews, 7 00 

For all four of the Reviews, 8 00 

For Blackwood's Magazine, 3 00 

For Blackwood and one Review,. 5 00 

For Blackwood and two Reviews, 7 00 

For Blackwood and three Reviews, 9 00 

For Blackwood and the four Reviews, 10 0Q 

These will be the prices to all who pay prior to the first of April. To those who defer paying till 
after that time, the prices will be increased to such extent as the increased cost of reprint may 
demand. 

The Reviews are the London Quarterly, (Conservative.) the Edinburgh Review, (Whig,) the 
2forth British Review, (Free Church,) the Westminster Review, (Liberal,) Blaclcwood's Edin- 
burgh Magazine, (Tory.) 



POVERTY AND DISEASE. 

Some of our readers have, no doubt, found the inquiry arising in their minds as to some of the 
subjects treated in these pages : " What has that to do with health ?" An old man wrote to us 
last year that there was too much in the Journal in connection with religion and the Bible ; that a 
plenty of that kind of reading could be found elsewhere. He had already passed his three-score 
and ten ; one of his sons was a talented and efficient clergyman, and others occupied positions of 
honor and responsibility. The legitimate effect of religion and of Bible teachings is to build up 
habits of temperance, cleanliness, and industry, and that these promote human health and length 
of days is self-evident. And if, in our pages, we, in various ways, inculcate the practice of the 
moral virtues, such as order, system, integrity, tidiness, self-respect, and the like, as in John Ran- 
dolph's letter, who does not see that these tend to banish poverty and promote thrift? It has 
been officially ascertained that the well-to-do live, on an average, in France, eleven years longer 
than those who have to labor for a living from day to day. Anxiety for to-morrow's bread will at 
length eat out the life of any man. In connection with the saying, " Poverty has killed more 
than disease," Gerald Massey writes with truth and force : 

" Poverty 13 a never-ceasing struggle for the means of living, and it makes one hard and selfish. 
To be sure, noble lives have been wrought out in the sternest poverty. I have known men and 
women in the very worst circumstances, to whom heroism seemed a heritage, and to be noble a 
natural way of living. But they were so in spite of their poverty, and not because of it. What 
they might have been had the world done better by them, I can not tell ; but if their minds had 
been enriched by culture, the world had been the gainer. When Christ said, ' Blessed are they 
who suffer,' he did not speak of those who suffer from want and hunger, and who always see the 
Bastile looming up and blotting out the sky of their future. Such suffering brutalizes. True natures 
ripen and strengthen in suffering ; but it is that suffering which chastens and ennobles^-that which 
clears the spiritual sight— not the anxiety lest work should fail, and the want of daily bread. The 
beauty of suffering is not to be read in the face of Hunger." 



NOTICES. 

The American Tract Society, 28 Cornhill, Boston, and No. 13 Bible House, New-York City, 
under the efficient management of Mr. J. G. Broughton, has issued Herbert ; or, True Charity, 
45 cents. Patienck ; or, the Sunshine of the Heart. Ruth and Little Jane ; or, Blossoms of 
Grace. Rose ; or, The Little Comforter. Mart S. Peake, of Fortress Monroe. If our subscribers 
will refer to the bottom of the last page of the January number, they will find another list (with 
prices) of the admirable publications of this Society, and we cordially advise our friends who come 
to New-York, and wish to treat their little ones at home with reading which is at once delightful 
and instructive, to call on Mr. Broughton, at No. 13 Bible House, and examine his list of books. 

Always Thankful, is the suggestive title of a discourse delivered in Springfield, Ohio, November 
27th, 1S62, by Rev. Sylvester P. Scovel, son of the late lamented and loved President of Hano- 
ver College, Indiana. Thankful for all things individually, and having faith in God that he will 
bring this nation safely, gloriously through her present trials, ruling and overruling, and shaping 
all that man does to the highest happiness of his creatures, and the greatest glory of his own great 
name. It is a delightful subject, handled wisely and well. " Always Thankful !" having faith in 
God ! what a glorious attainment, and possible to all ! 

" Dental Journal for the People." Edited by W. W. Allport, D.D.S., Chicago, Illinois. Pub- 
lished monthly, at fifty cents a year. It is an unoccupied field, and one of very high importance, 
as it seeks to instruct the people as to the proper care of the teeth. Such a journal, well Conduct- 
ed, ought to be taken by every family in the nation, and we hope Dr. Allport will receive the 
patronage and encouragement which he evidently merits. 

American Medical Association meets at Chicago, 111., June 2d, 1863. By order of Committee 
of Arrangements. N. S. Davis, M.D., Chairman. 

National Almanac and Annual Record. By Geo. W. Childs & Co., 628 and 630 Chestnut 
street, Philadelphia; also, A. Roman & Co., San Francisco; N. Triibner & Co., 60 Paternoster Row, 
London ; Hector Bossange, Paris, $1. It is the most comprehensively valuable Almanac ever 
issued in this country ; and as an evidence of its appreciation, the publishers are selling a thousand 
copies weekly. We advise the copy bound in muslin, at $1.25. It will be a work for reference for 
many years to come. "We will send it full bound, post-paid, for five new subscribers to Hall'? 
Journal of Health, at one dollar a year. It is filled with valuable statistics, history of the 
States, officers of the United States and the so-called Confederates ; obituaries ; census, banks, 
tariffs, public laws, books published in the United States in 1862, excise tax, post-office department, 
etc. etc. 

CONTENTS FOR JANUARY. 

Farmer Health— How best Secured; Eating — Rapidity, Frequency, Quan- 
tity ; Catching Cold ; Dress, Head-dress ; Slides, Corns ; Housewifery ; 
Potatoes ; Baldness ; Skating, etc. 



CONTENTS FOR FEBRUARY. 

Premature Deaths ; Success in Life ; Responsibility of Writers ; do. of 
Editors ; Influence of Mothers ; Controlling Temper ; Our Daughters ; 
Unskilled Labor; Farmers' Wives Overtaxed — in what Manner — the 
Remedy. Either Number sent post-paid for 15 cts. ; both for 25 cts. 



CONTENTS FOR MARCH. 
Dirt ; Pulpit Power ; Witnesses Three ; Cherished Flower ; Paine and 
Thorburn ; Wire-workers ; the Dying ; Industrial Facts ; Public 
Schools ; the Irish ; Cute Things ; Ventilation ; The One Spot. 



CONTENTS FOR APRIL. 
Recreation ; Interesting Facts ; Reformers ; John Randolph ; Bible Con- 
firmations ; Paine and Lawrie Todd ; Religious Newspapers ; their Age ; 
Sad Reflection ; Henry Clay, etc., etc., etc. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 



"WE AIM TO SHOW HOW DISEASE MAY BE AVOIDED, AND THAT IT IS BEST, WHEN SICKNESS COMES, 
TAKE NO MEDICINE WITHOUT CONSULTING A PHYSICIAN. 



Vol. X.] MAY, 1863. [Wo. 5. 

THE HAUNTED HOUSE. 

What shrinkings within, what an indefinable awe pervades 
the whole being of a child, at the mention of the ominous 
words: "The haunted house." It is an appellation more 
prejudicial to real estate than that of " mad-dog " to a quadru- 
ped, or " thief" to human derelicts. There is an old dwelling 
in Schermerhorn street, Brooklyn, which has a history in this 
connection. It had a pleasant look about it, and the grounds 
around it made it a very desirable place of abode, as far as the 
outside was concerned. Years agone it was put up at auction, 
and " went for a song " to a stranger, who immediately moved 
into it. But his health began to give way, he grew thin and 
pale, broke up house -keeping, and labeled it : " To Let." A 
Rew-York merchant chanced to pass that way, and as he had 
j ust married a beautiful woman of family and fortune, he con- 
cluded, with her approbation, to take the house for a year as 
an experiment in house-keeping. The handsomest room in the 
house was occupied as a chamber ; as the family -room ; in fact, 
it was the only room which could be conveniently appropriated 
to that purpose. It was not long before the young wife was 
observed not to look as well as formerly. She was a woman 
of a great deal of firmness of purpose, and possessed a high 
degree of moral courage. Extraordinary noises were heard at 
night which prevented any sound, refreshing sleep for hours 
together. At one time fierce sharp cracks would be heard at 
the head of the bed, against the board ; at another, a bureau 
or closet-door would resound with some heavy thump. A 
little child would often wake up with the exclamation: 



96 hall's journal of health. 

" Mother, this noise won't let me sleep." The servants would 
leave the house in a body, without explanation; sometimes 
two sets would come and go within a week. The husband was 
oblivious to all these things ; for he was an active business 
man, spending the whole day in New- York, and fell asleep al- 
most as soon as his head touched the pillow ; scarcely turned 
over until broad daylight. The wife, being afraid of ridicule, 
said nothing. She was not conscious of any feeling of fear. 
" 1 knew a noise could not hurt me, yet it prevented refreshing 
sleep." Meanwhile several weeks had passed, when the owner 
of the house was accidentally met in the street, but so changed 
in personal appearance, that he was scarcely recognized ; the 
wan, haggard and pale face had fulled out and reddened and 
become cheery ; the gait was confident, the step elastic, and the 
whole bodily presence was, as it were, reorganized. When 
congratulated on his altered appearance for the better, he turned 
it off by some allusion to the cares of house-keeping, change, 
etc. By this time summer came, and the young wife went to 
the country, having invited her mother to come and take 
charge of the household during her absence, giving no instruc- 
tions, except an apparently casual charge to sleep in her cham- 
ber, as it was the finest and most convenient room in the house. 
On returning in the fall her first observation was, -that her 
mother had been occupying a distant room ; but no remark 
was made in reference to that point for several days, as it was 
preferred that the mother herself should introduce the subject, 
but never a word did she utter. When the question was put 
directly, as to the cause of taking an inferior apartment, the 
wily matron turned the subject by remarking indifferently that 
she found she did not sleep very well there, and thought a 
change to some other part of the house might be advantageous ; 
which was the case. 

In a few days two romping young ladies, cousins, from a 
distant city, came to spend the winter with our heroine, who, 
in courtesy, gave them the " best" room in the house, the fated 
chamber. In less than a week they announced their intention 
of returning home immediately, giving no satisfactory reason 
for so doing : the hidden cause, however, was divined, and they 
were transferred to another part of the building, and staid out 
their full time. Spring came, the year for which the house 



THE HAUNTED HOUSE, 97 

was taken expired, and it was gladly given up. As there was 
an indisposition to injure the landlord's property, there was no 
allusion ever made to the neighbors about the noises ; but some 
one incidentally made the remark one day, that several years 
before either a murder or a suicide had been committed in that 
room. 

It would be useless to deny that noises were heard in that 
room ; and any one who would say that they were the result 
of human machinations, would but suggest a greater absurdity 
than that there were no noises at all. We have heard noises 
ourselves, when seated around the family fireside ; noises as 
loud and as sudden as the crack of a pistol, within a yard of 
our elbow. Then, again, there are malign influences in certain 
localities, in house and field, as impalpable as thin air, and yet 
as destructive to brain or body as the deadliest agent known to 
man. Napoleon the First observed that the occupant of a cer- 
tain sentry-box, for several times in succession, committed sui- 
cide ; he promptly ordered its total destruction, and a new lo- 
cality to be selected for the one built in its place ; and there 
were no more suicides. There is many a well, into which, if a 
man descends, he dies within the hour. See our book on 
" Sleep," in reference to the selection of localities for the erec- 
tion of family dwellings. 

It is our habit, when persons are on the high horse for nar- 
ration, to say not a word, ask not a question, until they are 
evidently "through." Give the narrator a plenty of tether, 
and he will be very certain to wind himself up in inexplicable 
contradictions if he is merely romancing. On the other hand, 
if a true tale is told, it often happens that an incidental remark 
is dropped, to which the speaker himself attaches but little 
importance, but which in its connections, upholds to the clear 
light of day, what otherwise might be painfully intricate, or 
supernaturally mysterious. 

In the course of the above narration, made an hour or more 
ago in our office, the lady remarked, without the slightest ap- 
parent consciousness that it had even a remote bearing on the 
subject, and, least of all, that it was the key to the unravelment 
of the mystery : u The sun never shines in that room." No 
such room can be otherwise than unhealthful, as a human hab- 
itation, because there are various gases or emanations, which, 



98 hall's journal of health. 

with the constantly varying conditions as to dampness, dryness, 
heat and cold, must have a disturbing influence on the furni- 
ture and wood - work. And let it be remarked (without 
having seen it suggested in print or conversation) that "noises," 
which the vulgar are so ready t@ attribute to supernatural in- 
fluences, are never heard as issuing from a solid blind-wall^ 
where there is no wood- work whatever. 



PHYSICIAN AND PATIENT. 

A pook young clerk, in a hardware store in ISTew-York, had 
a heavy box fall on him in such a way as to peel the skin from 
the whole surface of the knee, and let out the sinovial fluid, 
that is, the liquid which nature prepares for lubricating the 
joint. Medical advice was taken, and but one opinion was 
given, that loss of life or limb, if not both, was inevitable. The 
youth had a widowed mother, who was dependent for a living 
on his scanty earnings ; hence to both the mishap was a crush- 
ing calamity. While halting to decide* whether to have the 
limb taken off at once, or to run the risk of losing life, in the 
hope that some favorable change might take place by which 
life might be saved, and the limb too, although hopelessly stif- 
fened, an adventurous young surgeon told the youth that he 
thought his limb might be saved, and that if he made the trial 
and was successful, he could pay him at some future clay, when 
he was more able. The boy expressed his gratitude in a gush 
of tears, through quivering lips. By this time the whole sur- 
face of the knee, covering many square inches, was an ugly sore, 
a mass of matter, and the surgeon's instrument could easily pass 
from one side of the limb to the other, under the knee-pan. 
The limb was firmly bound, the wound was washed, the ragged 
edges of the skin were trimmed off, nitrate of silver was injected 
into the joint, an incision was made for six or eight inches 
above and below the knee, and the skin was detached on either 
side of this line, until it was almost severed from the body, re- 
maining attached by a few inches on the under side ; this loose 
skin was then drawn over the knee, and so stretched that the 
edges met. In due time the youth got well, and saved his limb, 
so that it would not be perceived by his gait that any injury 



PHYSICIAN" AND PATIENT. 99 

had been received. Years passed away ; the kind-hearted sur- 
geon became an old man, the boy a millionaire, and a most un- 
principled dog besides, for he had not paid the doctor a dollar. 
"Well, my son, you are rich now ; you own houses and lands 
and stocks to a large amount, and the doctor who saved your 
limb, if not your life, has never been paid. Shall I take him 
some money ?" " Yes, mother, take him a hundred dollars." 
The pitiful scamp ! % 

The most eminent surgeon in America was once called on to 
perform the operation for a club-foot, for a gentleman who had 
come to New- York from a long distance for the express purpose 
of securing the best talent in that line which money could pro- 
cure. The operation was performed and resulted most happily ; 
it was a beautiful success. The patient himself was a man of 
culture ; the fascination of his manners was such, that the sur- 
geon spent many hours in his company during the long weeks 
of treatment. The cure was complete, and a day appointed for 
the patient's departure. Upon the announcement that the fee 
was three hundred dollars, he appeared almost hurt that it 
should have been so trifling a sum, and requested that the sur- 
geon should make it larger and present it for payment the next 
day, which would be the last visit. The next day the patient 
was missing, and was never heard of afterwards. 

There is no class of men living who give more time and per* 
sonal attention for the benefit of others, without any compensa- 
tion, and without any hope of compensation, than educated 
medical men ; it is a part of their profession ; it is an engage- 
ment which they tacitly undertake, on the eventful occasion of 
receiving their diplomas, never to refuse a call of rich or poor, 
day or night, whether in town or country, unless in case of in- 
ability from actual sickness in their own persons. And how 
well the profession keep these implied promises, and even go 
beyond them in waiting on the sick and dying when they them- 
selves ought to have been in bed, there are literally multitudes 
to testify. 

There are some physicians who never make a charge, who 
never present a bill, but leave to their patients to pay when and 
what they please. There is no merit in this ; it is a positive 
injury to any ordinary community; its operation is demoral- 



100 hall's journal of health. 

izing, and it ought not to be countenanced. Such a course may 
be proper enough when the millennium comes, not before. 

Some long-headed doctor has said that the best, the most 
willing paymasters for medical services, are rich heirs and lega- 
tees. That Nestor among surgeons, the kind-hearted Dr. Mott, 
who, by the way, is the youngest-looking old man in the nation, 
upon whose placid features none can look without a feeling of 
enyy and of love, was accuiomed to say to his classes many 
years ago : " Young gentlemen, in entering on the duties of 
jour profession, have two pockets made, one very large, the 
other quite small ; the former for the insults, the latter for the 
fees." In our own early experience, a very rich man refused 
to pay his bill. It was such a mortification to us, we resolved 
that thereafter, when we did " trust " a man, to let him pay it 
" on his own motion," otherwise let it go to the account of profit 
and loss. Two years later a letter came with a check for more 
than we ever asked for, because the man got sick again, and 
had faith in us. 

We once prescribed for a young lady ; it was a very tedious 
case, but she eventually regained her health, became the prin- 
cipal of a flourishing school, and made money largely. Seven 
years from our first acquaintance, she wrote for her bill, and on 
remitting it, with a bonus, she desired advice in reference to the 
result of an accident which threatened to destroy life eventually. 
But physicians of large and long experience know very well 
that these are exceptional cases, that three times out of four the 
relations of physician and patient are of a delightful character ; 
there is trustingness, respect, and gratitude all combined, in- 
creasing with increasing years: It is to the family physician 
that secrets are communicated which are not to be told to parent 
or child, to husband or wife ; secrets which would blast the 
reputation of whole families, which would put into commotion 
an entire community, and breed life-long enmities between the 
hitherto loved and loving. But who ever heard of these confi- 
dences being violated, of these holy trusts being forfeited? 
Bare indeed are the cases where domestic concord has been 
broken up by the dereliction of the medical attendant ; and the 
fondness with which the name of the old family physician is 
mentioned, after he himself has passed away, by those who have 



EYESIGHT. 101 

sought his advice and have been benefited by his ministrations, 
is only second in a great many cases to that which is felt for 
father and mother, after they have gone to their long home. 

Many are the cases where persons have felt themselves to be 
under obligations for deliverance from sufferings or impending 
death, or life-long deformities, which no money could ever can- 
cel, and an affectionate gratitude springs up, which there is a 
sweetness in beholding, and is highly creditable to human na- 
ture. Hence it is that in cities and large towns it is of frequent 
occurrence that the same physician " practices " in families to 
the third generation, and his mantle falls upon his son. 



EYESIGHT. 

In Health Tracts 5, 15, and 61 we have said a number of 
very sensible things about preserving the eyes, and putting far 
off the evil day of ' specs.' Some saucy exchange, not having 
the fear of our displeasure properly before its eyes, has au- 
daciously essayed to poke fun at us in the manner and form to 
wit: 

"ADVICE TO PERSONS POSSESSING EYES. 

AFTER HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 

" The eye is probably the best apparatus ever constructed for 
seeing things, always excepting opera and quizzing glasses. 
Without it, merchants would be everlastingly doomed to ' go it 
blind,' as they have been doing ever since the panic of 1857 ; 
and man could not extend his vision to surrounding objects. 
The eye is subject to not less than six hundred diseases, the 
most prevalent among which is the ! pink-eye,' common only 
to potatoes, the human family, and poodle-dogs of delicate con- 
stitutions. The professions are unanimously of the opinion that 
it is incurable. As man is very rarely favored with a second 
pair of eyes, it is but common prudence to take care of the brace 
furnished him at the time of setting out to seek his fortune ; 
and therefore the following rules will be found serviceable. 

" Eeading by a candle, unless it is lighted, is very hurtful, 
and should never be indulged in except by daylight. Absent- 
minded persons, please notice. 



102 



HEALTH. 



" Intoxicated persons should, not attempt to read, as their 
staggering causes a continual and painful change of the focus 
of the eye. 

" The practice of reading when going down- town is hurtful ; 
if walking, you are liable to rudely encounter a school-girl, also 
reading ; and if in a : stage,' your attention may inconvenience 
the lady occupants, who expect you to pass up their pennies or 
steady their baskets. 

"Never attempt to look at the sun, unless you have glass 
eyes ; and when you patronize street-telescopes, do not grumble 
when paying for an l interesting view' of Sol, and say, f you 
can't see it.' It speaks bad for your eyes. 

" Do not look at the moon, as the man in it might consider 
it impertinent, and being a lunatic, might cause you trouble. 

" The glare of the sun on water is very bad for the eyes, and 
for this reason a person should always drink something else 
during the daytime. 

" ' Seeing stars' and prize-fighting are hurtful to the eye. 

" If compelled to fight, avoid black eyes ; they greatly dis- 
courage the natural sight, and are the reverse of ornamental. 

"' Keeping your eye peeled' is not a literal expression; it 
should be taken figuratively, as the ' peeling ' process is bad 
for the optic. 

" As any sudden change from darkness to a bright light is 
injurious to the eye, all fireworks should be set off in the day- 
time, and Barnum's calcium light should be extinguished. 

" Never attempt to read by the light of a burning building, 
as the fire may be put out before you finish the story ; besides, 
you would be in danger of getting hit by a brick, or run down 
by one of l Eighty's boys.' 

"In looking at minute objects the eye should be occasionally 
relieved by the sight of a 'big thing.' For instance, when 
looking down the throat of a mosquito to see where your blood 
has gone, have Barnum's hippopotamus at hand, with open 
mouth, to give variety to the view, thus resting the eye. 

* On arising in the morning, if the eyes are matted together, 
it is very hurtful to have a fire-engine to play into them, and a 
person should never wash his eyes of a morning in gin and bit- 
ters, as the ' stoughton ' is very apt to discolor the optic nerve. 
The proper and most agreeable method of performing this feat 



EYESIGHT. 103 

is, soak the optics not to exceed two hours in warm soap-suds, 
and then pry the lids open with an oyster-knife. The cause of 
the adhesion can then be removed by an application of sand- 
paper and elbow-grease. 

" Never bathe the eyes in cold water, it is apt to give them 
the cramp, and has been known to produce gout in the retina. 

" Ordinarily, spectacles should be worn by elderly people 
only, though many young gentlemen can see very well through 
a ' pair of glasses.' They are, however, extremely apt to affect 
the tongue and the breath. * . 

" Persons with long sight should look at an unpaid tailor's or 
milliner's bill by holding it close to the eye, as they can then 
truthfully declare that they ' can't see it.' 

" Some individuals are troubled by the rapid growth of their 
eye-lashes, (winkers is the professional term,) which is caused 
by an undue proportion of bear's oil in the fatty substance of 
the optic. If the lashes become too long, do not cut them with 
a mowing-machine ; it is both unnecessary and expensive. Be- 
sides, it is attended with danger — the books containing a num- 
ber of cases where the sight has been permanently injured by 
running a number of the teeth of a mower into the eye. The 
proper mode of abbreviation is, to trim them carefully with an 
apple-paring machine. 

" If the eyes are not of the same color, the owner should not 
attempt to establish a uniformity by the use of hair-dye or wash, 
unless he has consulted a fortune-teller on the subject. Even 
then the risk is great, and no regular practitioner should attempt 
the operation unless paid in advance. 

" Near-sightedness is caused by the inability of certain persons 
to see objects at any great distance ; it can be cured by length- 
ening the distance at which objects are visible. If the eyes ex- 
perience an itching sensation, never rub them with the finger ; 
the saline matter in the insensible perspiration making the optics 
more irritable. Draw a currycomb gently over the eye, from 
the nose outward, avoiding that prominent organ, especially if 
a wax one. 

" Double-sight is very dangerous, and persons should be 
' treated ' promptly when thus afflicted. 

" By observing the above, eyes will not give out until the 
vision begins to fail. Zebedee Squelch, M.D." 



104 hall's journal of health. 

We greatly regret that Professor Squelch did not send us a 
lock of his hair with his basket of fun, as we should have taken 
pains to have it placed in a promiscuous position in " Barnum's 
Music," as our little Alice used to say, with his name and resi- 
dence attached thereto, and thus have aided in giving him a 
name and a fame second only to that of Margulies of the La- 
farge, whose skill and ability as a scientific oculist, is confessed- 
ly superior to that of any other man in this country. Mean- 
while we beg to assure our friend Zebedee, that he is the 
esteemed object of our very considerable Consideration. 



SURGERY. 

It is proposed to devote a few pages to a description of sev- 
eral surgical maladies, such as are very commonly met with in 
every community, and which, from the fact of almost total 
ignorance of them on the part of the people as to their nature 
and beginnings, often assume a fatal form before either patient 
or friend has the most remote idea of danger. Men die of 
heart-disease, when such an event might have been indefinitely 
postponed had its existence been early discovered by the skillful 
surgeon ; so with various forms of tumors, ruptures, aneurisms, 
etc., etc. Among the maladies described in the following pages 
are — 

Tumors — permanent and transient, internal and external. 

Face — its various deformities, congenital or accidental, modes 
of removing, etc. 

Mother's Mark — nature, remedy, etc. 

Burns on neck, cheek, eye, etc., and remedy. 

Fistula of. the eye, rectum, etc. — their nature, cause, cure, 
and remedy. 

Eye — its deformities — squinting, watery eyes, or fistula 
lachrymalis. 

Nose — congenital and accidental disfigurements, its restora- 
tion, etc. 

Anal and Rectal diseases, fistula, etc. 

Piles — their cause, nature and permanent cure, whether 
bleeding or blind, external or internal. 

Warts, excrescences, etc. 

Kidneys — diabetes, strictures, debilities, runnings, sores, etc. 



SURGICAL DISEASES. 105 



SURGICAL DISEASES. 

Multitudes perish, prematurely, or suffer dreadful agonies 
for years, in consequence of neglecting slight deformities in 
the body, or swellings or protrusions, which, although they 
may give little or no pain, do nevertheless sometimes lead to 
deplorable results; hence it is thought a public benefit may 
result from making some plain statements in reference first to 
ailments which may require surgical treatment. It is a com- 
mon but very erroneous opinion that surgical interference must 
necessarily be accompanied with pain and danger to life ; that 
the knife must be used and blood must flow. The fact is, that 
in the hands of a skillful surgeon, the cases are rare which re- 
quire any thing more than a very small amount of heroism to 
bear. In cases where the patient is of a very nervous temper- 
ament, a slight inhalation of ether or other anaesthetic will ren- 
der him insensible to pain during the very few moments of the 
operation. In the majority of surgical operations, in ordinary 
practice, there is a lessening of pain from the instant of the 
first touch of the instrument, especially such as are required 
for strictured passages, displacement of various organs, the ap- 
plication of topical remedies, and the adaptation of the various 
kinds of mechanical support, and the like. 

Surgery is a science, hence its practice is not uncertain. It 
is based on physiological law ; it is an art founded on anatomi- 
cal knowledge, and experience in the use of proper instruments 
and remedies. The success of a surgical operation can be pre- 
dicted with great confidence if properly performed, provided 
the vital status is not too much impaired by extraneous or un- 
foreseen circumstances, such as great loss of blood or nervous 
depression from some terrible injury, or exhaustion from some 
wasting or malignant disease. 

The writer's labor as a practical anatomist during many years, 
and his experience in surgical diseases, authorize him to speak 
and act with authority in the premises ; and first as to 

TUMORS IN GENERAL. 

If a tumor is taken from the body, " surgical repair " is 
necessary to a perfect cure; this is a process, by which lymph, 



106 

ot the fibrous portion of the blood, is thrown out and wakes 
into life, becomes a part of the living body, and by this means 
all wounded or fractured parts are repaired and become united, 
and cavities are filled up and obliterated. 

A tumor is a preternatural eminence existing in any part of 
the body ; when external, it is more or less a deformity ; very 
often painful, and sometimes inconvenient, especially when 
large. Sometimes after remaining inactive for years, they sud- 
denly become malignant and prove speedily fatal. A tumor 
may be transient, as when caused by effusion or inflation ; these 
the skillful surgeon will remove by promoting their absorption, 
or will otherwise cause them to disappear without violence; 
the charlatan or the youngster removes them with the knife or 
terribly burning applications, and then boasts of having cured 
cancer or malignant tubercle. 

Permanent tumors may be caused by the impaction of a 
foreign substance, by some unnatural growth of parts or organs, 
deposits of water or blood, of calcareous and other matter ; by 
hernia, by the dilation of large vessels, as aneurisms. They 
may be of all sizes, from a wart to a mass equaling in size the 
whole body ; they may be cancerous or otherwise extremely 
dangerous. When there exists the slightest doubt as to their 
true character, an honorable, conscientious, and experienced 
surgeon should be promptly consulted. Many, Very many 
cases are on record, where incalculable mischief has been done 
by ignorant interference. A case: In July, 1859, the' writer 
was called -upon by a distinguished Philadelphia surgeon to 
examine a tumor on the back of a lady. It extended from the 
neck to the loins, forming a most unsightly hump. It was at 
once pronounced an encysted tumor, and its immediate removal 
advised, not only on account of the deformity, but because it 
was on the point of ulcerating, which event would have given 
rise to a most offensive discharge, which might have continued 
for a lifetime. Although nursing a child at the time, the lady 
consented to an operation, which the writer performed, without 
administering ether, and with but little pain. The tumor 
weighed four pounds. The patient never kept her bed; re- 
sumed her usual active duties within a fortnight, well pleased 
with being rid of such a superfluous burden with but really a 
slight inconvenience. 



SURGICAL DISEASES. 107 

It must not be inferred that all tumors must be removed with. 
the knife. Many can be removed by reabsorption, some by 
tapping, and others, as aneurisms, by tying, a string around a 
proper blood-vessel. 

FACE DEFORMITIES. 

Sometimes persons are born with a want of the features, with 
deformities in the skin, such as "mother's mark," (aneurism by 
anestimosis,) moles, and the like. Deformities may arise after 
birth from disease or injury, such as pitting from small- pox, 
scars from scrofulous abscess, burns, scalds, cuts and fistula ; 
then, again, there is a loss or deformity of features by disease 
or violence. 

mother's mark. 

When small, or of a form which facilitates removal, it is 
readily removed, and should be done as soon as possible in in- 
fants and young children, in order to prevent increase in size. 

Yery often after the healing of an abscess, there remains an 
unsightly puckering of the skin. In almost all such cases a 
portion of the surplus skin can be removed with great nicety. 

BURNS. 

When the skin has been destroyed by a burn, the wound 
contracts during the process of repair, and draws the adjacent 
skin with it, as in pulling down the side of the mouth or eye- 
lids, or exposing more or less of the mucous membrane of the 
lower eyelid, which, by dust lodging on it, and by the constant 
change of temperature, a permanent source of irritation is set 
up, endangering vision. 

In extensive burns about the neck, the skin contracts so 
much that the lower jaw is drawn down to the extent of pre- 
venting the mouth from closing completely, causing a hideous 
appearance, while the constant dribbling of saliva from the cor- 
ners of the mouth is an incessant and mortifying annoyance. 
Here defects, large and small, can be remedied by proper oper- 
ative procedure, and moles, hair, discolorations of the skin, and 
other unsightly appearances can be removed without danger 
or suffering, scarcely leaving the slightest trace of their pre- 
vious existence ; and yet there are multitudes of parents who, 
under the impression that these things can not be remedied, 
allow their children to grow up with these blemishes, which in 



108 

too many cases is a life-long martyrdom to them from their 
constantly growing sensitiveness in relation to them. Such a 
result is greatly to be deplored, and many a heart-ache may be 
prevented as to a lovely daughter, or promising son, if different 
and more truthful views as to such things can be disseminated 
in the pages of a practical and popular journal like this. 

FISTULAS. 

A fistula is an ulcerated channel extending under a surface ; 
hence it may exist in any part of the body. It is some- 
times caused in the face by a stoppage of the ducts which 
convey the saliva from the glands or springs from which it 
comes; or by some disease in the gland itself; or from an un- 
healed wound or dead bone. In any case, the cause of the mis- 
chief should be ferreted out and the proper remedy promptly 
applied. 

EYE DEFOEMITIES. 

One of the most common of these is "strabismus," or squint. 
It is a want of uniformity in the position and motion of the 
eyes. The radical cause is the contraction of one of the mus- 
cles which move the eyeball. A cure is effected by a division 
of the tendon of the muscle. The operation is simple, safe and 
effective, without in any way involving the eye itself or endan- 
gering the sight. 

The eyelid may be inverted, and the eyelash being in con- 
tact with the surface of the eye, inflammation arises, ending in 
opacity and blindness unless the defect is remedied ; or the eye- 
lid may be everted, turned outwards, and come in contact with 
foreign matter which will damage the sight. Sometimes small 
tumors are found in the eyelids ; these can be easily and prompt- 
ly removed, and with the most perfect safety. 

WATEKY EYES, 

Or "Fistula Lachrymalis," is caused by a stoppage of the 
canal which conveys the tears or water from the eye to the 
nose, hence the water overflows and runs down the cheek, 
causing considerable discomfort and inconvenience always, and 
sometimes inducing irritation and ulceration ; this is speedily, 
easily and perfectly remedied. 

When an eye is lost or very much deformed, it can be safely 



SURGICAL DISEASES. 109 

removed and an artificial one substituted, which will give the 
outward appearance of a good eye. 

NOSE. 

The nose may be lost or deformed by internal and external 
tumors ; of the latter variety nasal tumors or polypi are the 
most common ; these fill up the nostril, impede breathing and 
speaking, and are a source of incessant annoyance; these are 
readily taken away, and the sense of relief is instantaneous and 
most agreeable. Sometimes a part, or even the whole of the 
nose may be wanting or lost by disease, accident, or otherwise. 
In such cases repairs are made from the adjacent living skin, 
and a new nose of natural flesh and blood can be re-supplied ; 
and in rare cases, where there is a grievous disfigurement of 
the face, the misfortune can be remedied in whole or in part by 
means of skin taken from the arm, and with comparatively lit- 
tle suffering. 

A case : A young girl of this city was introduced to the 
writer; she had lost her nose through an injury ; there was no 
ulceration, the wound having entirely healed. The writer re- 
stored the organ last November by building it up from the ad- 
jacent skin; the parts healed rapidly, without any Unfavorable 
symptom, she following her usual domestic avocations from the 
time of the operation, which circumstance, no doubt, facilitated 
the cure. 

In November last the writer restored the tip of the nose of a 
soldier. A few days later he was consulted by the mother of 
a young lady for a deformity of the nose of rather a singular 
character. From a blow received at school, causing inflamma- 
tion, a portion of the nasal bones came away, resulting in a 
sinking in of the bridge of the nose, with the tip projecting pre- 
ternaturally. The daughter was extremely anxious to have an 
aquiline nose. By the use of an instrument devised and made 
to meet the case, the patient was rewarded by the angle of the 
profile of her nose being very much reduced. 

ANAL AND RECTAL DISEASES. 

Operations in these cases are comparatively painless and very 
transient ; the aggravating symptoms generally subsiding from 
the commencement of the treatment. Sometimes it is necessary 



110 

to divide some bridge of skin or flesh, or remove a slight im 
pediment with the knife ; but when this is done, the affair is so 
really small as hardly to cause a murmur from the most timid. 
Children may be born with a closed or imperforate anus ; the 
defect is often slight and easily remedied ; sometimes it is of so 
grave a character that a skillful surgeon should be called with- 
out an hour's delay. 

Foreign bodies sometimes obstruct the passage along the 
track of the bowels, such as fish-bones, chicken-bones, melon or 
grape-seed, and the like. Within a week the papers record the 
death of a man at Troy, 1ST. Y., from inflammation of the bowels, 
caused, as was found after death, by an oblong stone having 
lodged crosswise in his bowels ; he having been in the habit for 
two or three years of exhibiting himself to the public for pay, 
swallowing pebbles with great rapidity, half a dozen on one 
occasion, one after another, one at a time. The writer was pre- 
sent at one of these exhibitions, about two years ago, near the 
City Hall of New- York, regarding it at the same time as a dis- 
gusting exhibition which the authorities ought to suppress. 

Obstructing substances are sometimes introduced from below. 
The proper remedy is to dilate the bowel, and withdraw the 
obstruction with appropriate appliances. 

PILES, 

or Haemorrhoids, is the most common of all rectal diseases. 
The urgency of the symptoms varies with the character of the 
malady. Piles are small blood-tumors near the edge and ex- 
tremity of the lower bowel, and are caused by the enlargement 
of the blood-vessels of the parts. Piles are internal or external. 
The internal are tumors varying in size from a pea to a walnut 
or larger ; they are of a dark brownish or bright red color, ac- 
cording to the degree of inflammation present ; they cause great 
inconvenience, and sometimes most acute suffering at every 
evacuation. Some persons are totally prostrated for two or 
three hours afterwards, lying on the bed in the mean while in a 
state of great suffering, the thickened and vascular condition of 
the inner lining of the parts (the mucous membrane) being ex- 
ceedingly liable to bleed from straining and pressure. 

TO BE CONTINUED. 



Ill 

HEALTH TRACT, No. 137. 



PHILOSOPHY. 

Pkactical philosophy is that which enables us to look at the ills of life, its 
disappointments and its diseases, in a manner which does much to surmount them 
and deprive them of the power to do any permanent injury. True philosophy has 
no pretense about it ; no chicanery, no fraud ; it does not worry itself in the en- 
deavor to make the worse appear the better reason, or in making troublesome con- 
cealments ; on the contrary, it finds a happiness and a grateful relief even in a 
frankness which endangers a storm of ridicule. Who, for example, does not ad- 
mire the moral courage of the elderly negro noticed upon the hurricane-deck of a 
steamer, after the taking of Fort Donelson ; with a philosophical and retrospective 
cast of countenance, he squatted down on his little bundle, toasting himself against 
the chimney, in a state of most profound meditation. 

" Were you in the fight?" 

" Had a little taste of it, sa." 

" Stood your ground, did you?" 

" No, sa, I runs." -.^.. ,./?, 

" Run at the first fire, . did you ?" ;' <■' m. 

" Yes, sa, and would hab run soona, had I knowd it war coming." 

" Why, that was not very creditable to your courage." 

" Dat isn't in my line, sa — cookin's my perfeshun." 

" Well, but have you no regard for your reputation ?" 

" Reputation's nuflfin to me by de side ob life." 

" Do you consider your life worth more than other people's ?" 

" It's worth more to me, sa." 

u Then you must value it very highly?" 

" Yes, sa, I does — more dan all dis wuld — more dan a million ob dollars, sa ; for 
what would dat be worth to a man wid de bref out ob him ? Self-preserbashun am 
de first law wid me." 

" Then patriotism and honor are nothing to you ?" 

" Xuffin whatever, sa — I regard dem as among de vanities." 

There is another kind of philosophy, or which may be called a moral force, which 
often enables men to live above disease, and survive for many years, ravages on the 
constitution, which, preying upon persons of less strength of mind, would hurry 
them to the grave in a very short time. We remember to have heard of a neigh- 
bor in early youth named Hume. He was a great miser and very rich. He was 
apparently at the point of death. All his broad and fertile acres had been disposed 
of, and he ceased to dictate to his lawyer, who, knowing he had a large amount of 
silver and gold in his house, said to him after a pause : "Well, Mr. Hume, what 
disposition will you make of your money?" "My money! do you expect me to 
give away my money, too ! I will not do it ;" and summoning to himself what, under 
the circumstances, seemed to be a superhuman energy, he rose from his bed, dressed 
himself, broke the spell of his disease, and lived some year3 afterward to advocate 
the making of tin hats, as they would not soon wear out. 

Of two persons having consumption, with apparently equal chances of life, the 
man who abandons himself to his fate, hugs the fire, and is afraid to stir out of 
doors lest he should take cold, inevitably dies in a short time ; the other, having 
force of character, indomitable determination, and a truer philosophy, considers 
that life is worth striving for, that he can but die any how, and braving all winds 
and weathers, fights courageously against his malady, and lives to be an old man. 
So it is in some forms of paralysis, rheumatism, and other disablements, the exercise 
of a true philosophy is manifested in brave resolves to live down disease, to live 
above it, and by sheer force of will to break the spell which was thrown over the 
succumbing body ;-thu3 the mind may, and often does become a power over human 
maladies more efficient than the most famed medicines of the apothecary. 



112 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 138. 



PECIFIGS 

Are such drugs as very certainly cure the ailments or effect the objects for which 
they are administered. No medicine can be always successful, for man was bora 
to die ; but there are some which so uniformly accomplish the end intended that 
they are very implicitly relied upon. There are specifics moral as well as medicinal, 
and it may answer a useful purpose to give examples of both. 

The best specific for a horse-thief is a hempen halter ; never since the world be- 
gan, has it ever been found necessary to repeat the dose. 

If you want to get rid of a troublesome and unprincipled acquaintance, without 
offending him, lend him five dollars. 

A specific for all earthly troubles, not excepting that greater than all of them, a 
partnership with a virago and a shrew, said to have been the lot of one of the 
wisest of men, Socrates the husband of Xantippe, as also one of the best of men, 
the good John Wesley, is a dose of strychnine ; but this is jumping out the frying-pan 
into the fire, for the suicide, the last act of whose life is the deliberate violation of 
one of the plainest of all the commands of the great and good Father of all, " Thou 
shalt not kill," must wake up in the life beyond, with that "fearful looking for of 
judgment," which is the lot of all the wicked. 

But there is another kind of specific, wholly different from all these, and of an- 
other meaning, it is that of specific directions, medically speaking, for the want of 
which many a prescription has proved inefficient, and many a valuable life has been 
lost. A physician once advised a sufferer to apply a mustard plaster to the chest. 
The next. morning the patient returned, worse than before. On more specific in- 
quiry it was ascertained that with becoming faith, particularity and earnestness, the 
plaster aforesaid had been applied to the chest, but it was to the wooden one at 
home, which held all the patient's clothing. The doctor's directions were not 
specific enough. I have often found it very satisfactory as to results, when giving 
instructions to patients as to that all-important agent in the cure of disease, diet, to 
put in print the exact items of food to be placed on the table, adding thereto : 
" Nothing else." This is specific, clear, sharply defined. Not so the judge in the 
following case, as no doubt the unfortunate jurors felt to their sorrow : 

" If the jury believe, from the evidence, that the plaintiff and defendant were 
partners in the grocery, and that the plaintiff bought out the defendant, and gave 
his note for the interest, and the defendant paid for the note by delivering to the 
plaintiff a cow, which he warranted not breachy, and the warranty was broken by 
reason of the breachiness of the cow, and he drove the cow back and tendered her 
to the defendant, but the defendant refused to receive her, and the plaintiff took 
her home again, and put a heavy yoke or poke upon her to prevent her from jump- 
ing the fence, and by reason of the yoke or poke she brok© her neck and died ; and 
if the jury further believe that the defendant's interest in the grocery was worth 
any thing, the plaintiff's note was worthless and the cow good for nothing, either 
for milk or beef, then the jury must find out themselves how they will decide the 
case ; for the court, if she understands herself, and she thinks she do, is at a con- 
siderable non-plus how such a case should be exactly decided." 



113 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 139. 



o m m -A. c r e. 

One of the most general causes of unthrift to farmers, as well as reasons why 
many persons who retire to the country to spend the evening of their days, after 
having accumulated a fortune in the city, and soon tire or become dissatisfied, is the 
unwise grasping for too much land. The farmer wants from the first to secure 
enough to be a little fortune for each child, by the rise in price. The citizen can 
not rid himself of ideas about profit and loss ; and his mind will run on the fact, 
that if he gets a good slice of land, it may turn out that he can divide it into town- 
lots in a few years, and realize an immense per centage ; but while he is waiting for 
a town, a messenger comes to say, " You are wanted " — for the last great account ! 
The young farmer, after working out a little lifetime in trying to pay interest, 
wakes up some morning to find that he has already paid more for his farm than it 
is worth, and is owing a considerable amount on it besides ; for the " rise" never 
came ! Let the merchant remember that going to the country will kill him all the 
sooner, if he does not at the same time go to work ; that the vexations attendant 
on a large place, which is equivalent to embarking in a new business, one about 
which he knows almost nothing, will inevitably produce a disquietude of mind, 
and at length a general irritation of temper, many fold more injurious to his well- 
being than if he had remained in business. As much work can be profitably ex- 
pended on one acre of arable soil as any retired merchant ought to perform in 
twelve months. And there are farmers, wise beyond their day, who, by expending 
on one acre the labor which others have diffused over twenty, have saved more 
money, lived more quietly, enjoyed more happiness, and reveled in more luscious 
good health. By what follows, it may be seen how a man made money for two 
successive years, by cultivating one acre of land well ; planting potatoes the first 
year, following them with wheat. 

Dr. 
Potatoes. 

To 12 loads manure, $10 00 

3 00 
8 75 
10 35 
3 25 
24 87£ 
6 25 



Hauling and spreading 

Plowing in potatoes, 

11£ bushels seed, at 90 cents, . . 
Hoe-harrowing and hoeing, .... 
Digging and putting in cellar, . . 
Hauling to market, (10 miles,). . 

Wheat. 

Harrowing, 1 

Seeding, 

1| bushels seed, at $1. 30, 1 

Cradling and hauling in, 2 

Threshing and cleaning, 2 

Hauling to market, (2 miles,). . . 



50 
8Vi 
95 
50 

50 
75 



$76 05 



Cr. 



To 218 bushels potatoes, at 97 

cents, $211 46 

Tops as manure, 3 00 

31 bushels wheat, at $1.25, 38 75 

1 ton straw, 8 00 

Chaff, 1 00 



Interest on land, 17 months,. . 



$272 
76 


21 

05 


$186 16 
2 76 



$183 41 



The land was a good loam, with a light clover sod. The manure was spread on 
the sod, and plowed down with the potatoes in every third (narrow) furrow. The 
seed wa3 the common Mercer, planted as early as convenient, and dug ditto ; no 
sign of rot. The wheat was the common blue-stem. The potatoes were plowed 
out every third furrow, and the ground was plowed regularly, and harrowed down 
for wheat. 

Let all who seek fortune or health in farming remember to purchase no more 
land than they can pay for, and no more than they can easily cultivate with the 
force they have ; otherwise, irritations, vexations, and disappointments will eat out 
their health and squander their money. 



114 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 140. 



SPEING-TIME. 

In the early part of May, very many persons begin to feel that they are not as 
well as they have been. There is a degree of languor and lassitude, an indisposi- 
tion to exercise, or even to read or think much, which makes life almost a drag. 
This ought not to be. There is no good and sufficient reason why man should not 
wake up to a newness of life, and embark in its business with a new energy and a 
new enterprise. The grass shoots up in its greenness so delightfully refreshing, 
that we love to look upon it ; the buds swell on the trees, and the beautiful flowers 
unfold themselves ; while the birds of the wood fill the sweet air with their rich 
and gladsome diapasons ! And why should man alone, of all the creation, look 
with a languid eye upon the spring-time ? It is unnatural, it is wicked, it is ab- 
surd ; and it comes about in this plain matter-of-fact way. Man alive ! do you see 
that pig yonder, lying in the corner of the fence, or at the foot of the wall, his eye 
half-closed, and so lazy that he can't summon up courage enough to wag his tail ? 
An hour sooner he was not so, but was running toward the corn-crib, at the farm- 
er's cry of " pee-gy," with the same agility that a little beggar-boy will run from 
you, these times, on the discovery that you have in mistake given him a dime in- 
stead of a nickel. The pig has eaten so much that he can scarcely grunt. The 
lassitude which comes over multitudes of humanity with the beautiful spring, is the 
result of eating too much. There is nothing in the spring air to cause this ; for it 
is soft and balmy and blissful, and brings animation and a newness of life to every 
living thing, man only excepted ! 

The " modus operandi " is worthy of being studied, and well matured, by every in- 
telligent reader. We are all kept from freezing by an internal furnace ; the fuel 
for which is the food we eat ; the living furnace, like that of our dwellings, requires 
more fuel in winter than in summer. Who has not, in considerable anger, abused 
Bridget for roasting them, by keeping up a greater fire in April than in mid-winter? 
and we call it perversity. But the maid does in the cellar what the mistress does 
in the dining-room, she simply puts the same amount of fuel in the grate or fur- 
nace daily. The maid roasts the outside of her mistress, while the mistress herself 
roasts her inner-man ; thus she is literally between two fires. Is it any wonder that 
people complain of spring fever ? As a remedy, Bridget opens the doors and win- 
dows and diminishes the heat, while the mistress resorts to tonics, and the master to 
" bitters," alias brandy-and-water, to whet up the appetite, to make the stomach 
call for more fuel, instead of attending to the stomach's instinct, in calling for less 
food. In all nature man is the biggest fool. 

In spring be a strict vegetarian, be a strict cold-water man, keep clean, keep 
cheerful, keep out of doors, and your spring-time will not be the sleepiness of the 
pig, but it will be as gleeful and as gladsome as that of the sweetest birds of May. 



115 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 141 



Changing Clothing. 

It has come within the observation of many a reader that serious and severe ill- 
ness has been induced, and even "fatal sickness caused, by a change of clothing. 
Injury never comes, perhaps, by putting on more or warmer clothing, but by dimin- 
ishing the amount inconsiderately. The first great general rule, and always the 
safest, is to make the change when you first dress in the morning ; if you wait until 
you are uncomfortably warm during the day, it is most likely to be in the early part 
of the afternoon ; in making the change then there are two or three causes of disease 
in operation ; the fact of undressing endangers a check of perspiration ; the gar- 
ments about to be put on may not be perfectly dry, there may be no opportunity, 
even if they are dry, to warm them up to the heat of the body ; and further, just 
about the time you have changed, the cool and damps of the afternoon and evening 
begin to come on, increasing until dark, while having been thrown off your guard 
by the warmth of the morning, you may not feel the necessity of a fire, and by tea- 
time you are surprised with a disagreeable chilliness 'running over you ; then the 
cold has been taken, to settle in the eyes, causing weakness and watering ; or in 
the head, giving a running at the nose, soiling a handkerchief in an hour ; or in 
the throat, creating a raw or burning sensation at the little hollow at the bottom of 
the neck and top of the breast-bone ; or on the covering of the lungs, to give the 
painful pleurisy ; or in the lungs themselves, in the shape of a troublesome bron- 
chitis, or a dangerous pneumonia ; or in the bowels, causing weakening diarrhea ; 
or on the covering of the bowels, inducing peritoneal inflammation, to end probably 
in death, in a few days. 

It is very unsafe to lessen the amount of clothing sooner than the first of May, 
and then not in quality, but in less thickness of the same material ; from yarn socks 
to worsted ; from a thick, knitted flannel shirt to one of common woolen flannel ; 
then, about the first of June, to a gauze flannel ; if this is oppressive to some, then 
employ canton flannel. But it is certainly a great mistake for any body to wear 
any thing else next the skin, even in the hottest summer weather, than woolen flan- 
nel. Silk shirts next the skin can not be advocated on any tangible grounds ; the 
moment a man begins to twaddle with you about " electrical influences," turn your 
heel upon him, and set him down as a presumptive and impudent ignoramus. 



116 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 142. 



EATING HABITS. 

The most common way to a premature grave, and one of the shortest cuts to 
that destination is down a man's throat. There is a multitude which no man can 
number, daily eating immoderately, thus sapping the constitution and laying the 
foundation for innumerable ills and a too early grave. The wise man does it, and 
the fool ; the virtuous and the abandoned ; the kind and the cross, of all climes, 
are among the errorists. But there are some who are wise as to this point, and the 
number is increasing ; the number of those who are men and women of force ; who 
think for themselves, observe for themselves ; who have vigor of intellect enough 
to compare causes and effects, antecedents and consequents. There is constantly 
coming to us the knowledge of mothers, who, by the teachings of this Journal, 
have been led to regulate their households rationally, and are reaping a rich re- 
ward in the shape of health for themselves, and what is dearer still, increasing 
health for their children. 

The first great point in the philosophy of eating is to perform that very neces- 
sary business with the greatest regularity. A young Scotch trapper, Thomas Glendy, 
told us thirty years ago, that the Indians, with whom he had been hunting, ate but 
once a day, and that was in the early evening ; that then, a single individual would 
consume several pounds of meat, smoke his pipe, lie down to sleep, get up by the 
dawn, hunt all day, eating nothing until the night again. An old beau of Wash- 
ington City took it into his head that eating was a trouble, and that he would per- < 
form that process but once a day. On occasions of his being invited out in the 
evening, he felt compelled to take something, although he had eaten his regular 
dinner ; but then he would eat nothing at all next day. These irregularities were 
very rare ; he died nearly eighty years of age, a sprightly and gallant old beau to 
the last. On the other hand, persons who are regularly irregular, seem to live a 
good while. Captain Hall lately stated to the Historical Society in this city, the case 
of some Esquimaux, who being carried to sea on a cake of ice, ate absolutely noth- 
ing for the space of thirty days, when each man swallowed about thirty pounds of 
meat and oil, and neither bursted up nor died. But observation has shown that, 
both as to man and beast, regularity in the hours of eating is indispensable to a 
healthful, thriving condition. Most articles of food require several hours,, to be 
placed in a condition to be passed out of the stomach; .and if a new supply 
of food is introduced before this process of digestion, of conversion, is completed, 
the former food is not passed out until the latter has been brought to its own con- 
dition ; the result of its being kept warm so long is, that it begins to decay, gas is 
generated, and the whole mass is corrupted. Those who eat often, who eat between 
meals, always have wind on the stomach, and other places ; but if it can not es- 
cape, it causes a feeling of weight or oppression, and this is dyspepsia, that horrid 
hag which has a thousand ails in her train. Half the " girls " have dyspepsia before 
they are seventeen, in consequence of their everlasting nibbling at every thing in 
the house. The most natural and healthful times for eating would seem to be at 
daylight, noon, and sundown; the last meal being very light indeed. 



117 



NOTICES. 

The American Tract Society, 28 Cornhill, Boston, and 13 Bible House, Astor 
Place, New-York, has issued the Wicket Gate, beautiful in manner and sweet in 
substance, being " Short Narratives of the turning of sinners to God, with words 
of counsel and warning ;" also The Senses, with numerous illustrations of sight, 
taste, touch, hearing, smell, etc., the motto being from Bayne, " Christ exalted our 
. whole conception of nature, by habitually associating it with the spiritual instruc- 
tion of man ;" also The Way to be Happy, or Willie the Gardener-Boy, by Cath- 
erine D. Bell, who has also written a deeply interesting and instructive narrative 
under the title of The Two Ways. Mr. J. G-. Broughton, at the Bible House 
Branch, has every variety of publications for the instruction and comfort of old 
and young, and we counsel our readers to go there the very first place when they 
come to the city, and get their best money's worth before it has slipped away for less 
valuable things than the Boston Tract Society's publications. 

Exchanges, whom it may concern, take notice that the Editor of Hall's Jour- 
nal of Health feels greatly obliged to them for the partiality with which they 
regard his writings. We constantly feel when we see our pieces copied, " I must 
try and make them more worthy of being transferred to the pages of other period- 
icals," as we see our defects a great deal sooner and more distinctly than others 
possibly can do, for we were born a cricket, in other words a critic, but we have a 
gift very uncommon, and that is when a criticism is adverse, to examine its correct- 
ness with perfect good-nature, and then to profit by it, however belligerently or 
spitefully the criticisms were made, because we know that the gift of kindly criti- 
cism is a divine emanation. 

In one thing we would like our exchanges to be a little more on their guard as 
to a small matter of right and wrong. They are sometimes careless in giving us 
credit for our good things ; and inasmuch as the fact of exchanging is often the 
merest act of courtesy, without any other quid pro quo than the mere weight of 
the paper at six cents a pound, we think we ought to be helped along a little. The 
Transcript of Philadelphia lately copied three or four pages bodily, and " left no 
sign" as to where it came from. The Saturday Evening Post, a veteran paper of 
whose pages there are many, over fifty years, who have pleasant memories, will take 
an article, cut it up into giblets, and scatter it all over its pages. See our April 
issue about Baldness, etc. The New-York Traveller, in which friend Ropes man- 
ages to twine in so many good pieces, takes our Health Tract on " Terrain Rid- 
dance," heads it "Things that Bite and Sting," and by giving no credit makes his 
readers believe that he believes we write so nearly as well as he does, that they can't 
tell the difference ; and in the same issue he gives more than two other pages of 
matter from our Journal, which, though not our own, and given as an illustration 
of our idea what true mental recreation was, would have afforded an easy oppor- 
tunity of referring to us in a friendly way. But that is not the way that the Home 
Journal of Morris and Willis, (grown increasingly valuable and instructive of late,) 



118 

and the Scientific American of this city do things. See how openly and above-board 
the latter prefaces three or four columns of extracts from our April No. On House- 
keeping, Whitewashes, Who are to Fight, etc. But it is a way which Munn & Co. 
have, open, manly, honorable, extending alike to the whole range of their business 
matters, whether as to their paper or their admirable and prompt manner of ob- 
taining patents- for the ingenious and the gifted, as thousands of inventors will 
testify. " There is no periodical on the list of our exchanges that we welcome 
more warmly than Hall's Journal of Health. Our readers are indebted to it for 
many interesting and valuable suggestions regarding their moral and physical health, 
and also matters relating to domestic economy, which we from time to time extract 
from its pages. The articles are always well written and convey the author's ideas 
lucidly and forcibly. We commend the above-named periodical to all persons de- 
siring to obtain useful knowledge at a very low rate. Dr. Hall is doing a lasting 
good by disseminating valuable information in a proper form." 

Practical Inference — It is such a nice thing to do right, to do things "on the 
square," as poor Dan Marble said he had tried to do, when he was just dying of 
cholera ; that we wonder every body don't do it, just for the love of it ; besides, 
it's most sure to prove profitable pecuniarily sooner or later ; and in this case 
sooner, for we were so pleased with the candid spirit of the writer, we said to a 
friend, " Munn & Co.'s a good fellow, give him ten dollars' worth of advertising," 
and he did ! For be it known, that persons not only come to the Editor of the 
' Journal of Health to get advice as to how they are to get well or keep well, but 
as to who and when they ought to marry, what kind of business they should go 
into, how they are to get employment, but also what is the best paper to advertise in. 
We have generally said, if you want to get the ear of the intelligent and thinking, 
advertise in the Scientific American. If you want to reach the rich and refined, 
those who have taste and cultivation, go to the Home Journal ; if you want to 
reach the solidly good families who are religious from principle, take The Presby- 
terian of Philadelphia or the Christian Intelligencer of New- York City. If you 
want to reach active, live, working Christians, spread yourself out in the columns of 
the Evangelist. If you desire to secure the attention of every-thing-arians whose 

mental and pecuniary acquisitions are generally on a par with " Nary a red," 

then take the New -York Weekly — ahem ! how do you spell it ? If our exchanges 
are not more particular in giving us proper credit, the result will be, that whenever 
the public sees any thing in a newspaper, really good, practical, succinct and plain, 
without a name, they will take it for granted that it is from Hall's Journal of 
Health. 

Countrv Milk, pure and fresh, is a matter literally of vital importance to city 
families, especially in summer, and where there are young children ; and every 
parent should make it an object of specific personal inquiry and investigation, as 
to where pure, rich, fresh milk can be had ; this is done with the utmost certainty, 
promptness, and regularity under the auspices of G. W. Canfield, Esq., at 146 Tenth 
street, near Broadway, and at the lowest price, as we personally know, after a four 
years' most satisfactory experience. 



jmm % S0T3UQMO3 80 ^WJGHIOMOHI 3HT 

FIRE ON THE HEARTH, 



-AND 



Furnace Heat Dispensed With. 

" A hard coal fire, burning fiercely, flat on the hearth, on a level with 
the floor warming the feet delightfully, with an oval fireplace nearly 
three feet across, with no visible blower, very little dust, and abso- 
lutely no gas ; the ashes need removing but once a year, while by 
the extra heat, pure air direct from out doors, is conveyed to an up- 
per room, without the possibility of meeting with any red hot metallic 
surface, or with any corrupting source whatever — it is simply pure 
air warmed. A Philadelphia correspondent who has used one of 
these low-down grates in a room eighteen feet square, for six years, 
says : " I have never known a day that the fire . made in the morning 
was not equal to the day, no matter what the temperature was outside." 

To those who dislike furnace heat, and who wish to have at least 
one room in the house where there are absolutely all the advantages 
of a wood fire — the oxygen which supplies the fire being supplied from 
the cellar, and not from the room itself— this open, low down, air- 
tight, easily regulated grate, or rather, fireplace, with its large broad 
bed of burning coals, or flaming Kentucky or Liverpool cannel, 
will be a great desideratum. No one who has a wise regard for the 
comfort, cheerfulness and health of a family of children, should be 
without one for a single day. One can be put in at any season of the 
year, in two days, at an expense of from thirty to fifty dollars accord- 
ing to the size. This Patent Parlor Grate consumes about the same 
amount of coal as would a common grate, giving out however, as is 
supposed, near one-third more heat — the soft, delicious heat of an old 
fashioned wood fire — (the oxygen being supplied from without,) as any 
gentleman or lady is invited to see, any cold day, at our office, 42 
Irving Place, New York." — HalVs Journal of Health, for Dec, 1859. 

— MADE by — 

WHO ARE ALSO MANUFACTURERS OF 

KITCHEN RANGES, and 

WARM AIR, CORRUGATED CAST IRON FURNACES, 

For Public and Private Buildings, with Registers <& Ventilators. 

REFERENCES GIVEN WHEN REQUIRED. 

Address,— ANDREWS & DIXON, 

No. 1324 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

[Opposite the United States Mint.) 



THE PHONOPHORUS, OR CONDUCTOR OF SOUND, 

AS USED IN CHURCHES. 

We take pleasure in calling your attention to the above-named instrument for the transmission 
of sound ; it is one of the latest and most successful triumphs of the inventive power which charac- 
terizes the age, and to that large class of the community afflicted with DEAFNESS, of pre-eminent, 
practical, and efficient utility, in relieving that disability. 

Indeed, so comprehensive may its application be made, as to overcome the difficulty of hearing 
every ordinary tone of voice enunciated by the speaker, in the remotest part of the largest 
Churches, Public Halls, Lecture-Rooms, and Auditoriums of every size. 

The philosophical principles which its operation involves, are so simple and clear, that to those 
at all familiar with the science of Acoustics, it is sufficient to say that by the peculiar construction 
of the " Phonophorus," the vibrations of the atmosphere within the instrument are made more 
intense than those on the surrounding air and of consequent additional potency on the tympanum 
of the ear. 

Yet to others it may be well to state, that in every instance where its merits have been practi- 
cally tested, it has, without an exception, imparted universal satisfaction. 

Among others of like character, the First Baptist Church of New-Brunswick, N. J., (Rev. M. S. 
Riddell, Pastor,) the Presbyterian Church, corner of Fifth Avenue and Nineteenth street, New- 
^Tork, (Rev. Dr. Rice, Pastor,) the Mercer-Street Presbyterian Church, New- York, (Rev. R. R. 
Booth, Pastor,) and the McDougal-Street Baptist Church, New-York, (Rev. D. Dunbar, Pastor,) 
have this instrument in successful operation, and those whose affliction it triumphantly relieves, as 
well as the intelligent observers of all classes, whose attention has been directed to the subject, are 
uniform in the recognition of its claims to the merit of great practical utility. 

Where the " Phonophorus" is used, there is no necessity even for the DEAF to absent themselves 
from a single intellectual advantage offered by social assemblies. 

Its adaptability to the PRIVATE DWELLING, the PUBLIC DRAWING-ROOM, to CHURCHES, 
LEGISLATIVE HALLS, COURTS OF JUSTICE, CONCERT and LECTURE-ROOMS— in fine, to 
every place where the organs of speech and hearing are called into requisition, is such, that the 
invaluable attributes of this Conductor of Sound may be made available to any requisite extent, 
to all such uses. 

The readiness with which the instrument may be introduced into Churches and other public 
buildings, not only without marring in the least their present internal arrangement, but in fact as 
an accessory in the matter of ornamentation, relieves the subject of every objection that can be 
urged in this particular. 

Not the least important of the purposes which the PHONOPHORUS is eminently calculated to 
promote, may be exemplified by a use of the instrument in a private tete-a-tete, to which it may 
be adapted with complete success, when a conversation between individuals (though one be deaf,) 
may be carried on in an ordinary tone of voice with the greatest ease and facility. 

Should there be any deaf persons in your vicinity or among your acquaintances, you would con- 
fer a favor on us and on them also, by sending us their names and Post-Office addresses. Among 
the testimonials received from Clergymen and others, are the following : 

TESTIMONIALS. 

New-Brunswick, June 14th, 1862. 
Some two years since, the First Baptist Church of New-Brunswick, N. J., introduced into their house 
of worship, an instrument invented by Mr. David D. Stelle, called a Phonophorus or Conductor 
of Sound ; the design of which is to enable the deaf to hear and join in the ordinary week-day and 
Sabbath services of the Church. The instrument has been well tested and has proved a success. 
The principle of its construction is scientifically correct, and can do no harm to the ear whatever. 
I hesitate not to say that unless the tympanum of the ear be destroyed, sound and words uttered 
in an ordinary tone of voice can be distinctly heard. It is hailed by some among my people, who, 
by defective hearing, have for years been precluded the privilege of public worship, as a real bene- 
faction. Therefore I would express my commendation of an invention which, for the time being, 
restores to such, " that sweet gift of our Heavenly Father," the sense of hearing. The answering 
and gratified look of those who for years have considered themselves hopelessly deaf, as they have 
joined in worship with others, must be my apology for penning this commendatory notice. 

M. S. Riddell, Pastor of First Baptist Church, New-Brunswick, N. J. 



New-York, June 5th, 1862. 
David D. Stelle, Esq. : Dear Sir: I cordially testify to the entire success of your apparatus as 
applied to my Church. It gives me no inconvenience and enables those who use it in the pews to 
hear every word without effort. I regard it as a great advantage to those who are infirm in hearing, 
and shall be glad to know that it is in general use. Yours, truly, 

Robert R. Booth, Pastor of the Mercer-Street Presbyterian Church, New- York. 



New-York, June 16th, 1862. 
D. D. Stelle, Esq. : Dear Sir : It affords me pleasure to certify to the great benefit derived by 
several of my congregation from the use of your Phonophorus or Conductor of Sound. It is now 
a year and a half since it was introduced into my Church, and it continues to work admirably ; 
enabling those who, on account of deafness, were before unable to enjoy the privileges of the Sanc- 
tuary, to hear every word from the pulpit clearly and distinctly. I have no doubt that ere long it 
will be in every Church in the land ; that not only the poor, but the deaf also, may have the 
Gospel preached to them. Duncan Dunbar, Pastor of McDougal-Street Church. 



New-York, June 3d, 1862. 
Mr. David D. Stelle: Dear Sir: The name "Phonophorus," or "Sound-Bearer," which you 
have given to your instrument, is very appropriate. In the instances where I have known it to 
be introduced in Churches, it has answered admirably the purposes for which it was recommended, 
and enabled persons to hear the sermon with distinctness and ease, who had for years been de 
prived by their deafness from the enjoyment of public religious exercises. Yours truly, 

0. Bronson, M.D. 

New-York, June 6th, 1862. 
Messrs. D. D. Stelle & Co., 346 Broadway : Gentlemen : At your request, I very cheerfully state 
that the " Conductor of Sound," which you have put up for me in Dr. Rice's Church, on the Fifth 
Avenue, has been perfectly successful. Without it I heard almost all speakers very imperfectly, 
and some not at all— with its assistance, I can without difficulty hear every word spoken from the 
pulpit. Yours respectfully, Richard Irvin. 

For further information in regard to the above, please call on or address 

D. D. STELLE & CO., 

WALLACE DUNBAR, Agent. 85 Leonard Street, New- York. 



A Comprehensive Book. 



Advantage of Puke Air during Sleep. 

Ill Effects of the Young Sleeping with the Old. 

Do. Well with the Sick. 

Safe Ventilation of Sick-Kooms. 

Ventilation of Buildings by Griscom. 

Hamilton's do. and Tenement-Houses. 

Baker's Plan of Warming and Ventilation. 

Andrews & Dixon by Open Fire-places do. 

Balefulness of Small and Crowded Chambers. 

Importance of Sound, Connected, Sufficient Sleep 

How to Secure it to Nursing Mothers. 

Do. to Infants at Night. 

Sleeplessness, its Pretention and Cure. 

Importance of full Sleep to Growing Children. 

Do. to those at School. 

Debilities, Nervousness, etc., from this and other causes- 

Cure and Prevention of. 

Amount of Sleep needed. 

Chambers should be Light, Airy, High, and Dry. 

Single Beds, Crowded Chambers, etc., etc. 



fly See book on "Sleep," 336 pages, 12mo, $1.25 ; or by mail, $1.40. By Dr. 
W. W. Hall, 42 Irving Place, New- York, Editor of "Hall's Journal op 
Health," $1 a year. Author of "Bronchitis and Kindred Diseases," "Con- 
sumption," "Health and Disease," each $1, or $1.15 by mail. Also of 
"Soldiir Health," 25 cents; "Health Tracts," 80 cents. 



II 

"HWal gistastt, Jtstofos, SMrittaro, ft.," 

Giving their nature, seat, cause, symptoms, cofisequences and prevention, by William 
Bodenhamer, M. D. Of Dr. B. and his practice, 

Rev. N. L. Rice, D. D., says in the St. Louis Presbyterian of August 21, 1856 : 

Attention is respectfully invited to the card of this gentleman in another part of 
this paper. The following is from the " Louisville Journal" of December 11th, 1855. 
We have the very best reasons for adding our favorable testimony. 

Dr. Bodenhamer — The card of this distinguished physician, who has bevjn for above 
two years past in New York, is in our columns, and we desire to call attention to it. 
Dr. B. resided for a number of years in Louisville, and in New Orleans, but is now 
established in New York permanently. 

Dr. B. in his peculiar department of practice, has no living rival. He has devoted 
about eighteen years almost exclusively to the medical and surgical treatment of the 
diseases of the lower bowel, such as piles, fistula, fissure, falling of the bowel, &c, 
diseases which are most painful and distressing in their nature, and from which, as 
the most experienced physicians can testify, not one fourth of our adult population 
are free. The successful treatment of these diseases is difficult under the most favor- 
able circumstances, but B.'s success has uniformly been most extraordinary — utterly 
without parallel in this or any other country. This succes.has been the result, in part 
of his peculiar method, but more especially of his having devoted so many years ex- 
clusively to the treatment of a single class of disease. Patients are continally flock- 
ing to him from distances of five hundred and a thousand miles, and never in vain. 

The peculiarities of Dr. Bodenhamer's treatment, are, that it gives scarcely any pain 
whatever, that a radical, a perfect cure is effected with certainty, without the slightest 
danger, and in a very short time, and that his patients are always able to attend to 
their business, never being confined to their beds or their rooms nor prevented from 
freely exercising or moving about wherever they please, by either pain or complica- 
ted dressing. Dr. B. is of the old school of physicians, and has no concealments as to 
his practice ; he cordially invites all physicians and others, who may feel an interest 
in the matter, to call and learn for themselves what his treatment is. 

We ought to add that Dr. B. is a most kind-hearted and just man, who will never 
make an improper charge against a patient. 

The new Orleans Crescent of February 25th, 1855, says: 

Dr. B. is well known in the South and South-west as having devoted a number of 
years to the study and treatment of the diseases named in this card. It is admitted 
that where the mind is wholly devoted to any one object, with talent and perseve- 
rance, excellence must ultimately be attained. The Doctor has truly invaded this diffi- 
cult and disagreeable province of surgery, and made it his own by conquest. The 
diseases affecting the rectum and contiguous parts, such as piles, fistulas, abscesses, 
&c, are far and wide spread, and the surgeon who can devise a system of effectual 
prevention and cure to these tormenting visitations, often fatal in their results, will 
deserve the thanks of the community at large. 

Hall's Journal of Health, says: 

" For nineteen years we have been an observer of the success of Dr. B.'s practice. 
Some of our old associates and friends and fellow citizens, who were afflicted with 
these diseases, in their most aggravated and painful forms, were, to our personal know- 
ledge, cured over fifteen years ago, remained cured, and are well up to this day. It 
is a scientific book, by an educated physician, who writes from the personal observa- 
tion and experience of twenty-five 'years on a single class of diseases. In skill and 
success Dr. B. has no superior living. In saying this, we say much, but no more 
than we believe to be due. The object of the book is threefold: 
^->To detail the symptom of the disease : 

i'o give instruction as to their prevention : 

To give information where they may be treated. 

We advise those who suffer with these ailments to purchase the book and then de- 
cide for themselves whether they will apply to the author or not." 






HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 



WE AIM TO SHOW HOW DISEASE MAY BE AVOIDED, AND THAT IT IS BEST, WHEN SICKNESS COMES, TO 
TAKE NO MEDICINE WITHOUT CONSULTING A PHYSICIAN. 



Vol. X.] JUNE, 1863. [No. 6. 

SUEGICAL DISEASES. 

EXTERNAL PILES 

are tumors at the edge of the anus, covered with skin and mu- 
cous membrane ; they are external to the muscle which closes 
the anus, and are called 

BLIND PILES, 

because they do not bleed. "Whatever interferes with the cir 
culation of the blood about the parts causes piles ; fullness and 
tension of the abdominal vessels does the same thing. The 
most common cause of piles is constipation, liver diseases, and 
pregnancy ; at least these used to be the most common causes, 
but of late years the ailment has been most frightfully aggra- 
vated in character, and increased in numbers, by the indiscreet 
use of aperient and purgative medicines, whether in the shape 
of pills, or waters from celebrated springs, or other liquids. 

Worms are also a cause of piles. Piles may be indolent or 
inflamed. When indolent, their inconvenience results from 
their size and situation, and the pain arising from their coming 
within the grip of the sphincter muscle, that which closes the 
lower bowel after defecation. When inflamed they occasion 
pain, heat, itching, fullness, and a feeling of tension, a feeling r i 
if there was something to come away, and yet it can not be made 
to do so. These and other symptoms may be complicated with 
inflammation of the bladder, pain in the thighs, back, etc.; 
sometimes it is an aching feeling, and there are mucous dis- 
charges. The skillful surgeon feels himself perfectly at home 
in all these ailments, and affords speedy and most grateful relief 
and permanent and perfect cure, when of comparatively recent 



120 hall's journal of health. 

origin ; but when they have been long neglected, and there are 
rnarked inflammatory symptoms, a cure is effected in one or two 
ways, either by applications to the surface or by ligature. 
Piles should not be cut or removed with the knife. The long 
continuance of piles is always destructive of health, and inva- 
riably shortens life, making it meanwhile, in a great many cases, 
a torture and a burden. 

WARTS, 

and other excrescences about the anus, are usually removed by 
external applications. U% 

Fistula in Ano 

Is an ulcerated canal in the neighborhood of the anus, and 
is the result of an abscess or injury to the parts implicated. 
The fistula gives rise to soreness, is continually discharging 
blood and matter, and never gets well of itself, because the 
muscles of the parts are too incessantly in action to permit any 
healing process, and besides, foecal matter is constantly passing 
over the sore. All palliative treatment further than perfect 
cleanliness is worse than useless, because valuable time is lost. 
Drugs injure the general health without having the slightest 
possible good effect on the fistula itself. The continued exist- 
ence of a fistula in these parts always undermines the constitu- 
tion, destroys all mental and moral comfort, and finally life 
itself. The usual remedy is the knife. It can be cured with- 
out this violence, and more certainly. Cases are on record 
where the evil remained after fifteen and even twenty-one cut- 
tings with the knife. The other method is perfectly safe, 
always efficient, and without suffering. 

Anal Fissure 

And excoriations thereabouts cause the most intolerable suffer- 
ings during evacuations ; there is often intense and constant 
itching. It requires the most practiced eye to detect the im- 
mediate nature and causes of these affections ; but when deter- 
mined, the appropriate external applications effectually and 
speedily remove the trouble. Last year, a citizen called, who 
had literally scratched holes in his flesh in his endeavor to re- 
lieve intolerable itching. He had been taking and using every 
thing he could hear of as even likely to avail, without the 
slightest given effect. He was cured within a fortnight. 



surgical diseases. 121 

Prolaplus Ani 

Is a reversion of the lower bowel and its protrusion, very much 
as in the pulling of a purse, or rather, the lining of a purse 
inside out. This is caused by a defect in the structure itself, or 
through violent strainings, as a result of piles, stricture, etc. 
The skillful physician is at no loss in giving immediate relief, 
and then takes effectual measures to prevent a return of the 
malady. 

Stricture op the Kectum 

Is caused by a thickening of its coats and a consequent dim- 
inution of the size of the canal. As it may be accompanied 
by some malignant disease, professional advice should be 

promptly sought in all cases. 

■ ■ : . J 

Stricture of the Urethra 

Is the contraction caused by inflammation. The commence- 
ment of stricture gives rise commonly to the following symp- 
toms — a frequent desire to urinate, accompanied with uneasy 
sensations ; a few drops remain after urination, and subse- 
quently dribble away; the stream of water is smaller than 
usual, and is forked, scattered, or twisted; longer time and 
greater efforts are required to pass water; itching and gleety 
discharges are occasional concomitants. The inroads of stric- 
ture are most insidious. Sometimes for years the patient may 
not feel any special uneasiness, but at length the urethra 
diameter becomes so small as scarcely to allow the passage of 
any urine except in drops, and even that by hard straining. 
Ultimately the most disastrous consequences take place ; fistu- 
lous openings occur externally, and the most severe surgical 
operations have to be submitted to, if life enough is left to en- 
counter them. Bodenhamer records a case where several of 
these openings occurred on the inner portion of the thigh, and 
these were the only outlets for the Urine^ which came away in 
drops day and night. A most horrible state of things, and all 
the result of a want of a little discreet surgical attention timely 
given. And a main object of these pages is to induce persons 
to give a prompt and early attention to the first i symptoms of 
any of these maladies by calling in the very best surgical 
talent which can be procured. ° 



122 



COFFEE-DRINKING. 

Until chemistry has a better claim than it has to be called 
one of the exact sciences, we had better give its dicta a wide 
birth as to their practical application in reference to food and 
drink. Some say that coffee is poisonous because it has strych- 
nine in it. Suppose it is granted that there is strychnine in 
coffee, and that a single grain of strychnine is so poisonous as 
to destroy life in a few moments, that does not prove that 
strychnine in coffee is poisonous, because there may be an ele- 
ment in the coffee which would not only nullify the poisonous 
quality, but render it absolutely safe, healthful, and nutritious. 
When a concentrated miasm is mingled with the air a man 
breathes, he will in a few hours sicken and die ; but miasm is 
of such an intangible aerial nature, that chemistry has no test 
sufficiently delicate to detect its presence. And if, because 
chemistry can find no poison there, a man persists in breathing 
it, he will most certainly suffer the gravest consequences. Sev- 
eral chemists who have had a; reputation, and have one still, 
have certified that they have found no material difference be* 
tween the milk of farm-house cows and those fed mainly on 
distillery-swill and confined to filthy apartments. It is true 
they do not tell us by what process they arrived at these con- 
clusions, but the bare fact of their finding no deleterious sub- 
stances in the milk of cabined, confined, swill-fed milch cows 
does not prove that no bad quality existed, but simply that 
they were not able to detect it, while we all know that just as 
certainly will infants sicken and die who are fed on swill-milk, 
as men will sicken and die who breathe a miasmatic atmos- 
phere ; so that, in practical" cases like these, the masses must be 
guided in their habits by their observation and their common- 
sense, and let the vagaries of science and scientific men go out 
to browse and mature, or, in common phrase, "go -to grass." 

Thus it is with men of confined views, of limited observa* 
tion, and still less information, who assert with cool, confidence 
that coffee is poisonous, just as if they knew all of any thing, 
when really they know all of nothing. The truly learned are 
cautious in their statements; they fear to deal in other than 
general expressions of opinion, and leave a bridge of retreat. 



COFFEE-DRINKING. 123 

They are tlie worst men in the world to deal in sweeping ad- 
jectives — " certain," and " always," and " never," with words 
like them, are not found in their modest vocabulary; " it ap- 
pears,"' "it seems," "it is probable" are frequent phrases in 
their conversations and writings. As to the. bold assertions 
that coffee is not healthful, is not nutritious, is poisonous, we 
must appeal to our general observation. People use it daily, 
and yet live to threescore and ten. For a hundred years past 
it is more and more used by all who speak the English lan- 
guage, and yet within the last hundred years the average of 
civilized life is greater by several years ; and the Anglo-Saxon 
race have increased more rapidly than in any other age. To 
say that they have done this in spite of the , increasing use of 
coffee, and that its ill effects will begin to be felt before a 
great while, is nothing more than the impudent assertion of 
a. cornered ignoramus. 

A single fact sometimes demonstrates a great truth; Within 
three years, a party bringing the mails from the Rocky Mount- 
ains were overtaken by a snow-storm ; and in their official 
report they stated that for two weeks their entire subsistence 
was a few bags of coffee on which they traveled. Had there 
been no nutriment in the coffee they must have died. To this 
the anti-coffee men will reply, " We don't* know that"' — nor do 
they know any thing else. Meanwhile, if some persons will 
not use coffee, there will be more left for those who do ; and 
as for ourselves, we ask the liberty of being allowed to eat and 
drink what we like, and we do most cordially allow that liberty 
to others, and " no questions asked." 

Minute chemical analysis says that the essence of coffee and 
tea are . identical. We believe that both are nutritious and 
healthful when taken with one restriction as a beverage— never 
increase it in frequency, strength, or quantity. 



Pointing Well. — An article from the Journal of Health has been 
going around all creation for nearly a year, commencing thus lucidly : "A 
person in good health, in the moderate pursuit of business, does not feel 
like drinking water, even in summer-time, if not very thirsty." We would 
like to know if any body ever felt like drinking water, summer or winter, 
if not thirsty. See what nonsense a dot and a letter can make a man talk. 
It should read thus : " Does not feel like drinking water even in summer, 
is not very thirsty." Make " if" " is," and omit comma after " water." 




124 

HEALTH TRACT, No. 144. 



,m > %& 

A large number of fatal diseases result from taking cold, and often from such 
Blight causes, apparently, as to appear incredible to many. But, although the causes 
are various, the result is the same, and arises from the violation of a single princi- 
ple, to wit, cooling off too soon after exercise. Perhaps this may be more practi- 
cally instructive if individual instances are named, which; in the opinion of those 
subsequently seeking advice in the various stages of consumption, were the causes 
of the great misfortune, premising that when a cold is once taken, marvelously 
slight causes serve to increase it for the first few days— causes which, under ordi- 
nary circumstances, even a moderately healthful system would have easily warded off. 

Rachel, the tragedienne, increased the cold which ended her life, by insufficient 
clothing in the cars, in traveling from New- York to Boston ; such was her own 
statement. 

The immediate cause of the last illness of Abbott Lawrence, the financier and the 
philanthropist, was an injudicious change of clothing. 

An eminent clergyman got into a cold bed in mid-winter, within fifteen minutes 
after preaching an earnest discourse ; he was instantly chilled, and died within forty- 
eight hours. 

A promising young teacher walked two miles for exercise, and on returning to 
his room, it being considered too late to light a fire, sat for half an hour reading a 
book, and before he knew it a chill passed over him. The next day he had spitting 
of blood, which was the beginning of the end. 

A mother sat sewing for her children to a late hour in the night, and noticing 
that the fire had gone out, she concluded to retire to bed at once ; but thinking that 
she could "finish" in a few minutes, she forgot the passing time, until an hour 
more had passed, and she found herself " thoroughly chilled," and a month's illness 
followed to pay for that one hour. 

A little cold taken after a public speech in Chicago, so " little " that no attention 
was paid to it for several days, culminated in the fatal illness of Stephen A. Douglas. 
It was a slight cold taken in midsummer, resulting in congestion of the lungs, that 
hurried Elizabeth Barrett Browning to the grave within a week. A vigorous young 
man laid down on an ice-chest on a warm summer's day, fell asleep, waked up in a 
chill, which ended in confirmed consumption, of which he died three years later. 
A man in robust health and in the prime of life began the practice of a cold bath 
every morning, getting out of bed and standing with his bare feet on a zinc floor 
during the whole operation ; his health soon declined, and ultimately his constitution 
was entirely undermined. 

Many a cold, cough, and consumption are excited into action by pulling off the 
hat or overcoat as to men, and the bonnet and shawl as to women, immediately on 
entering the house in winter, after a walk. An interval of at least five or ten min- 
utes should be allowed, for however warm or " close " the apartment may appear on 
first entering, it will seem much less so at the end of five minutes, if the outer gar- 
ments remain as they were before entering. Any one who judiciously uses this ob- 
servation, will find a multifold reward in the course of a lifetime. 



125 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 145. 



„ ■ i 

EESiaNATION. 

" ' ■ ■ '.••-.■ 

One of the most instructive articles we have read for a long time on the true 
meaning, nature, and uses of "resignation" is found in the Atlantic Monthly for 
April, 1863. It is full of a sound philosophy, and we certainly urge our readers, 
whether old or young, sick or well, fortunate or unfortunate, if they can possibly 
save twenty-five cents, to procure the number and read and study, and read it again 
from beginning to end. We have felt the truth of its sentiments a thousand times 
as a physician. It is said that there is but a step from the sublime to the ridiculous ; 
It is just as true that there is but a step between courage and cowardice in this mat- 
ter of "resignation;" but that step is the distance between life and death to many 
an invalid. One man is sick, and laying the blame of it on the Almighty, whines 
out, " It's the Lord's will," and sits about apd lounges and loafs around for weeks 
and months, waiting to get well. "We verily believe that full one half of such peo- 
ple, if not all of them, don't want to get well, for then they would have to get up 
and do something. There is another class, true men and women, persons of force 
are they, and capable of great deeds, who shake off sickness, and sloth, and idleness, 
and a craven submission to the mishaps which may befall them ; believing fully 
that resignation is a grace only when it bows to what can not be helped, and was 
not brought on by wickedness or the want of wisdom on their part. If calamities 
come upon us without our fault, and at the same time are clearly beyond removal 
by any power of our own, then a dignified and submissive resignation is a nobility, 
which only a great heart can achieve ; then there is a sweetness in resignation which 
pays for all that it eost; for, while bending the knee and bowing the head, the eye 
looks trustingly upward, and, piercing through the black and threatening cloud, 
discerns the gladdening sun in the distance, and patiently and piously bides its time. 
This is that faith in God which sanctifies and raises man to be akin to angels. If a 
man fails in business, it is not at any time of life a true resignation to give up for 
the remainder of his days and make no further effort to recover himself, any more 
than it is a true resignation for a man who gets sick to cry out, " The will of the 
Lord be done," as if it could be his will to see a child of his suffer, 
"For we hia offspring are." 

He may permit suffering, but he has no agency in bringing it on any creature of his. 
As long as sickness and trouble are the results of our own wrong-doing, of our 
yielding to sense and passion and appetite, instead of abandoning ourselves to help- 
lessness under the deceitful plea of a pious resignation, we should heroically shake 
them off as a viper or as some deadly spell. The mishaps of life are the result of 
ignorance, carelessness, or wickedness of ourselves or others; we should in every 
case seek out the specific cause, and if in our ourselves, rectify it, if from the mis- 
doing of others, endeavor to rectify it also ; and if no human efforts can accomplish 
such a rectification, then, and not till then, is it a true heroism and a sterling piety, 
a genuine " resignation," to say in loving confidence and hope : u Thy will be 
done !" 



126 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 143. 



DYiisra EASILY. 

The most complicated machinery, if properly made and handled, will work 
smoothly, easily, and well, until it is worn entirely out, all its parts having been 
worked equally; but" if it had met with constant shocks and jars and strains, or if 
a stone had been thrown among its wheels, an early or violent disruption of all the 
parts would have been an inevitable result. Thus is it with the greatest of all me- 
chanisms, the human body, whose builder was Omnipotence ; it, too, follows the 
great law, the more equally and regularly it is worked; the more care is taken of 
it, the longer will it last ; and its ending will come so gently, that it can scarcely be 
told by the stop-watch at what point of time the workings of life have ceased for- 
ever. It is uniformly thus with those who die at an advanced age ; and these are 
they who, either by instinct or reason, or a fortunate induction in early life into 
habits of regularity and moderation, and quietude and serenity, have prevented the 
shocks and jolts and jars which, in other cases, have broken up the bodily machin- 
ery before it has half worn out. It is the unequal working of single wheels of 
life which brings premature decay and dreadful, agonizing deaths. To the good 
man, it is distinctly promised : " Thofe shalt come to thy grave in a full age, like as 
a shock of corn cometh in, in his season." Not so the glutton, who taxes his 
stomach to its highest capacity ; not so with the effeminate, who deprives the body 
of it's wonted exercise, and thus puts a clog on its wheels, while the involuntary or- 
gans, those over which he has no direct control, work on in their natural rapidity ; 
not so with the licentious, who run riot in their abandonment to animal appetite ; 
these all die before their time, and their last sickness is painful and long, extending 
through weeks and months and weary years. But the very old are passing away 
from us all the time, of whom it is said, they were apparently as well as ever the 
day, and even the hour, before they died, and life went out as gently as the failing 
embers on the hearth. The genial and kindly-remembered " Laurie Todd," (Grant 
Thorburn,) a model of temperance, regularity, cheeriness, and industry, was stand- 
ing by the fire in pleasant conversation with his worthy wife one minute, and in al- 
most the next, he had passed on to his great account. His widow wrote to us a few 
days after his peaceful departure : " I do thank you especially for the March num- 
ber ; the testimony of the wise and good to the piety and virtue of dear Grant 
being just like a cordial to me in my hour of sorrow. He went out to seethe 
thermometer, with his glasses on, forgetting I had sent it away the day before, for a 
little repair. The last words he said were, ' No danger,' alluding to my caution that 
he would burn his coat, as he was standing by the fire ; the last words he ever 
wrote, ' lay down and went to sleep,' only thirty-six hours before his decease. So 
it may be said of him, that he wrote to the last ; although he could not see to read 
for the last two or three years of his life. I never heard him murmur or complain. 
He viewed the hand of God in every event of life. He was a great admirer of 
Washington, and his last conversation was of his funeral-procession in New- York, 
on the last day of 1799. His mind was clear, his voice so strong, that I little 
thought what the morrow would bring forth. God bless you, Dr. Hall, and may 
you and I, and all our dear friends, meet around the Throne. Thine sincerely, 
M. C. Thorburn." N. B. He died aged ninety-one years. 

Thus, peacefully, quietly, without pain, do the aged, and the good, who have lived 
temperately, industriously, and genially, almost always pass away. Let us, reader, 
live as they, that our end may be like theirs ! 



ABUSE. OF PURGATIVE MEDICINE. 127 

ABUSE OF PURGATIVE MEDICINE. 

Dr. Bodenhamer, in his valuable work on the Diseases of the 
Eeetum, makes the following remarks in reference to an often 
and serious cause of such maladies : 

" The abuse of purgative medicine is, at the present day, a 
frequent cause of anal and rectal diseases. The idea that it is 
either necessary to obviate constipation of the bowels, or on 
every slight indisposition to swallow some of the numerous and 
various purgative nostrums which literally fill the shelves of 
our drug-stores, is a popular error, and a source of incalculable 
mischief. It has laid the foundation of some of the most serious 
diseases of the lower viscera. The habitual use of such medi- 
cines to obviate constipation, I repeat, is the cau.se of more dis- 
eases of the anal region than any other one cause that has 
come under my observation. I have ascertained to a certainty, 
that in a very large number of the cases I treat for such diseases, 
the cause can distinctly be traced to this origin. 

. " The continued exhibition of such medicines, inflicts much 
reckless and unnecessary injury, by the undue and pernicious 
excitement of the whole intestinal canal which is thus induced, 
and all for the purpose merely of emptying the rectum and forc- 
ing the dilatation of the anus, which, after all, are accomplished 
at the expense of the intestinal fluids and the softening and the 
washing out of the excrementitious matters. In all such cases, 
a proper attention to diet, to exercise, and to the occasional use 
of an enema of cold water, or flaxseed tea, would obviate the 
difficulty without inflicting any injury whatever. It is, how. 
ever, by no means easy to convince some people that such medi. 
cine can not safely be made use of as a substitute for moderation 
in diet, for pure air, and the proper exercise of the whole mus. 
<$ular system — in short, for all the natural measures which long 
experience has shown to be necessary for the preservation of 
health. They sometimes experience much relief, much com- 
fbrt from the operation of the medicine, especially after having 
suffered for several days from constipation ; but this immunity 
from discomfort is but transitory and deceptive. The same 
difficulty soon returns with increased force, and the same reme- 
dy must again be resorted to, and in order to produce the same 
effect, must either be increased in quantity or in strength at each 



128 HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 

repetition. It is the pleasant feeling, or the exhilaration which 
is often experienced by this class of invalids immediately after 
the free operation of purgative medicine, which induces them to 
repeat the same on each and every recurrence of the constipa- 
tion or indisposition." 

" A few years ago," says Quain, in his work on Diseases of the 
Eectum, "a case came to my knowledge which will serve to illus- 
trate the baneful influence of the habit of using purgative medi- 
cine. The commander of a merchant-vessel, a person of robust 
frame and much ability in his profession, began to take Morri- 
son's pills to relieve constipation of the bowels at sea. Contin- 
uing the use of the medicine, he became in time reduced to ex- 
treme debility from constant purging. At length the appetite 
grew by what it fed on, to such an extent, that when confined 
to his bed from mere weakness, and unable to swallow the pills 
whole, the unhappy man had them bruised in a mortar, and 
took them with a spoon. He died of the drug." 

Dr. J. B. Flint of Louisville, Ky., says that " Nothing has 
been more remarkable in my surgical experience in the "West, 
than the disproportioned frequency of diseases of the rectum 
and adjacent textures — fistula, piles, prolapsus, etc. — and I advert 
to the fact chiefly for the purpose of adding a cautioning remark 
respecting the causes of it. Doubtless it is partly to be referred 
to the chafing and contusions incident to horseback-riding, 
which is a much more common mode of traveling here than at 
the East ; but it is mainly attributable to the habit of indiscrim- 
inate and excessive purgation, so prevalent both as a remedial 
and prophylactic measure. 

"A large portion of the practitioners of the valley of the Mis- 
sissippi have been educated under a system of medicine whose 
theory regards portal congestion and hepatic derangement, as 
the essential elements of all diseases, and whose practice con- 
sists, almost exclusively, in the exhibition of drastic purgatives. 
It is natural that the people should imitate the therapeutics of 
their medical advisers, when so simple and easily applied ; ac- 
cordingly they are as much in the habit of drenching themselves 
and teasing the alimentary canal, on every occasion of illness, 
with some concentrated purgative in the form of pills. 

" Under one of the most constant laws of irritation in mucous 
canals, the terminating portions of the apparatus of defecation 



ABUSE OF PURGATIVE MEDICINE. 129 

are thus perpetually suffering under propagated, as well as di- 
rect stimulation, and reacts in the various forms of disease under 
notice. Besides these direct mischiefs and others, involving the 
health jn other ways, occasioned by the pernicious doctrines 
referred to — which are indeed in themselves essentially empiri- 
cal — they encourage the grossest species of quackery by pro- 
moting the consumption of vast quantities of patent pills and 
other purgative nostrums. 

" Several years since, a gentleman from one of the Southern 
States consulted me for a fistula in ano which caused him much 
suffering. He stated that for a year or two previous to the form- 
ation of the fistula, he could never have an evacuation from 
his bowels without swallowing great quantities of Brandreth's 
pills ; that he frequently took as many as thirty and forty at 
one dose ; ' and,' said he, ' when they did commence to work, 
they operated like a saw-milV This is but one example out of 
hundreds that I might give to demonstrate the injurious effects 
of this pernicious practice. 

" The motto of most all the quacks of the present day for the 
cure of all diseases, is. Physic ! Physic ! ! Physic ! ! ! Purga- 
tive medicines are good in their proper place, but to purge for 
every thing is absolutely absurd ; therefore all such purgative 
nostrums, in the form either of pills, litters, mineral waters, or 
any thing else, should be eschewed as the cholera. 
*" Nearly all the nostrums or patent-right medicines which 
now fill the shelves of our drug-shops are founded by their 
authors upon the principle that disease is a unit; that there is 
but one general cause of disease, and but one general remedy, and 
that is always certain to be their own infallible and peculiar 
one; hence their panaceas, blood-purifiers, elixirs of life, etc., in 
the form of pills, bitters, sarsaparilla syrups, etc, etc. It is sur- 
prising how popular this theory is among the masses, and even 
among physicians. Those minds which are but superficially 
informed and unaccustomed to the slow and gradual progress 
of inductive science are readily seduced and captivated by the 
reasoning of those who advocate this pernicious system ; and 
this, after all, is not so much to be wondered at, when we take 
into consideration the great apparent simplicity of their views 
of disease — that it is nothing more nor less than f impurity of 
the blood, 1 { venous congestion, 1 or some other equally fallacious 



130 hall's journal of HEALTH. 

dogma ; and their practice, too, being so simple that it can be 
summed up in as many letters or words as will make up the 
name of one of their own nostrums. 

"The mischievous system, founded upon the principle of the 
unity of disease and the unity of remedy, is now advocated and 
adopted by quacks of all grades, both in as well as out of the 
profession, and is the great giant that prostrates at once all 
medical colleges, with the head-aching studies of anatomy, phy- 
siology, botany, pharmacology, chemistry, etc. It closes all the 
avenues to progress, and is the burial-ground of all improve 
ment in the noble and dignified science of medicine." 



IN MEMORIAM. 

■ '■•■• • ■ ' ' ' '....... 

More than thirty years ago, we had a neighbor in the far, far 

West, on the banks of the turbid Missouri, when St. Louis itself 
did not number seven thousand inhabitants. He was a man of 
culture, refinement, and an elevation of character which com- 
manded the respect and deference of all who knew him. Even 
then "gray hairs were upon him," and in his face were those 
lines of firmness of purpose,, of past, care and responsibility, 
which carried with them an air of authority ; and yet every 
thing about him indicated the polished gentleman ; and in the 
course of time these characteristics, modified by the benign in- 
fluences of the Christian religion, grew into so much that was 
kind and loving and benignant, that we can not resist the incli- 
nation to tell the story of his life to our readers, in the hope 
that those of them who are young may pattern after his firm- 
ness of purpose, his integrity, his temperate life, and, like him, 
live to a thankful old age ; for, writing on his seventieth birth- 
day, he says: 

"I am certainly becoming more and more infirm of body, 
from the effects of advancing age. However this may be, sure 
I am that God hath dealt with me through the past year, as 
well as through all my past life, in great mercy and kindness ; 
spiritually, I do hope more than ever before ; temporally, with- 
out any diminution of former allowances of comfort and abund- 
ance. Altogether, I may truly say, and I do say, : my cup run- 
neth over.' Lord ! give me grace to respond with becoming 



IN MEMOEIAM. 131 

gratitude to thee for all thy favors so largely conferred on 
thy unworthy servant, my family and household, and constrain 
me to live out my earthly pilgrimage consistently with my 
obligations of love and duty to thee, and consistently with 
what I well know to be for my true happiness, here and for- 
ever. I humbly ask this, my Father, for my Eedeemer's sake." 

As he grew older, the kindliness of his nature grew upon 
him, and his whole heart was set on devising some method by 
which he could, in the largest way, according to his means, 
benefit those who might come after him. The plan which seem- 
ed most feasible for him, was founding an institution of learning, 
the nature of which is indicated in an extract from the deed 
conveying one hundred and twenty acres of land adjoining a 
large and thriving town, for the endowment of Lindenwood 
Female College, executed July the fourth, 1856: 

" The Lindenwood Female College is to be set up and estab- 
lished on a large and liberal plan, and on a lasting foundation^ 
to consist of primary, high, and normal schools, with a domes- 
tic and boarding department connected therewith. It is to 
supply, at as low charges as practicable, ample facilities- for 
female education in the best sense [meaning] of the term, the 
proper development and cultivation of the intellectual, moral, 
and physical faculties. It is to present a school or schools 
wherein female youth, given in baptism to the Eedeemer, (not 
excluding others,) may be properly educated and qualified for 
the important duties of Christian mothers and school-teachers ; 
wherein the Holy Bible shall always have a prominent place, 
and be a permanent class-book ; in which the whole course of 
instruction and discipline shall be based on the religion of Jesus 
Christ, as held and taught in the Confession of Faith and Cate- 
chisms of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of Amer- 
ica, adopted by the General Assembly of said. Church in the 
year 1821. In fine, to supply schools adapted to qualify the 
pupils not only to enjoy the rational pleasures of life as ac- 
countable beings, but to become enlightened, accomplished, and 
useful members of society; to discharge with ease and grace 
the peculiar duties of the sex in all their various relations ; also 
so to convey and adapt instruction appropriately, as to give a 
decidedly national bias to the youthful mind." 

The place known as "Lindenwood," near St. Charles, Mis- 



132 

souri, was purchased by the donor; upward of fifty years ago, 
being all that was left of a large tract of landed estate owned 
by him previous to becoming security for two young men who 
had been his clerks in the Indian Department, by which he be- 
came indebted to the Government to the amount of twenty 
thousand dollars, to pay which he surrendered all his property ; 
Lindenwood was the surplus. He was upward of twenty 
years in the Indian Department, and as^Commiss-ioner to open 
and survey the road from the then western boundary of the 
United States to Santa Fe, in New-Mexico. He then retired to 
Lindenwood and erected a log-cabin in 1828, under the shade 
of the noble Linden trees which flourished there ; and there he 
lived when we first met him and his noble wife in 1832 ; and 
there he continued to live until 185.9, when the homestead was 
given up for the use of the " Lindenwood College," which was 
commenced in 1830 as a small school in a log-cabin, by the wife, 
whose pupils were chiefly composed of her sisters, nieces, and a 
few children of her intimate friends. There were soon more 
applications than the log-cabin would accommodate. An addi- 
tion- was then built : teachers from the East were employed, 
and the Institution continued, with varying success, until it 
passed into other hands in the shape of a regularly organized 
college. 

It will, no doubt, have been anticipated by the reader that 
such a character as has been described must have descended 
from the sterling old Puritan stock of the May -Flower days ; 
and so it was, for George Champlin Sibley, of Lindenwood,* 
Missouri, farmer, was born in Great Barrington, Berkshire 
county, Massachusetts, on Monday morning, the first day of 
April, 1782, and died January 31st, 1863, aged eighty-one 
years. His father was the late Dr. John Sibley, of Natchitoches, 
Louisiana, and the third of the fifteen children of Colonel Tim- 
othy Sibley, of Sutton, Massachusetts, who was the fifth son of 
John Sibley, of Salem, who died in 1754, aged ninety-five, who 
was the eldest son of John Sibley, a native of England, who, 

* It may as well be stated here that this beautiful place received, most appropri- 
ately, its present name long before Mr. Van Buren's Lindenwald was known. It 
was so called simply for the reason that numerous clumps of the Linden, strikingly 
large and beautiful, are the. natural forest growth of the spot now occupied by the 
homestead, and are carefully preserved. * 



IN MEMOKIAM. 



133 



with his brother Ebenezer, came to America in 1640, and set- 
tled in or near Salem. The brothers were of the Friends, and 
adherents of Oliver Cromwell, John Hampden, John Pym, and 
held religious and political opinions and views very decidedly 
of the Puritanic and anti-despotic parties of the day. It was to 
escape from the intolerant government and cruel policy of 
Charles the Fifth and Archbishop Laud, that they left their na-. 
tive land to seek an asylum from civil and religious oppression 
in the new settlements of "North- Virginia," now better known 
as " New-England." They and their associates were actuated 
and impelled by the same true and lofty principles of liberty 
and right that freighted the May-Flower in 1620. John, of 
England, died in 1710, aged ninety -six; Colonel Timothy Sib- 
ley, it should be noted, died in Sutton in 1819, aged ninety-two. 

The mother of George C. was Elizabeth, the eldest daughter 
of the late Eev. Samuel Hopkins, D.D., of Newport, Ehode 
Island, who, as it is recorded, " was the direct lineal descendant 
of Stephen Hopkins, one of the blessed men who landed at Ply- 
mouth in December, 1620." Thus it appears that the subject 
of this memoir inherited Puritan blood through both lines of 
his parentage ; and this he has ever claimed, together with the, 
legitimate concomitant principles in their fullest sense. 

Dr. John Sibley entered the Eevolutionary army in the medi- 
cal staff in 1777, being then scarcely "of age," in which capacity 
he served throughout the struggle with unflinching fidelity and 
zeal. He married Elizabeth Hopkins at Great Barrington in 
1780. Two sons were the issue, George Champlin and Samuel 
Hopkins; the latter was born at Newport, 16th April, 1784 ; 
died at Natchitoches, Louisiana, 17th November, 1823, leaving 
a widow and four children, two sons and two daughters. Of 
those children two only are now living — Elizabeth, the wife of 
Colonel Francis Lee, U.S.A., and Major Henry Hopkins Sibley, 
also of the army ; these both served under General Scott in the 
late war with Mexico, and were both breveted (Colonel L. 
twice) for brilliant and meritorious services. -f 

As soon after the close of the Eevolutionary contest as he 
could arrange his private affairs, Dr. Sibley settled in Fayette- 
ville, North-Carolina, with his family, in the practice of his 
profession. On the 25th October, 1790, his wife Elizabeth died 
This sad bereavement fell heavily on the Doctor and his two 



134 hall's journal of health. 



little sons, one nine, the other seven years old. Mrs. Elizabeth 
Hopkins Sibley was, in the truest sense, an accomplished lady 
— an accomplished ^Christian lady— and was such a wife and 
mother as very few have ever excelled. ... Dr. Sibley contin- 
ued to reside in Fayetteville till soon after the acquisition of 
Louisiana, when he removed to Natchitoches, on the Eed River, 
at which place he died 8th April, 1837, in the eightieth year of 
his age. 

From a long obituary that appeared in the ■Natchitoches Her- 
ald of the 13th April, 1837, the quotation of a few paragraphs 
may be here allowed : 

"At different periods of his life, Dr. Sibley was intrusted 
(unsolicited by him) with delicate and important duties by the 
General and State Governments, and also by the voters of the 
Senatorial district in which he resided; and never . have we 
heard expressed the least dissatisfaction as to the discharge of 
those duties. His death will be long and deeply lamented 
here. Our town has lost its chief ornament, the aged have lost 
a cheerful companion, the young an excellent example of what 
a gentleman should be, and the poor a friend whose ear was 
never shut against a tale of distress, who ever sympathized 
with them in their sufferings, and whose purse was ever open to 
relieve the destitute. 

"In private life Dr. Sibley was a devoted husband, a tender 
parent, a warm and faithful friend — of unblemished integrity, 
of lofty and honorable sentiments — affable in his manners, easy 
of access to those who sought advice and instruction. He was 
gifted with rare colloquial powers, and was enabled (enriched 
as was his mind with the experience, observation, and carefully 
hived learning of a long and well-spent life) not only, to give 
zest to the pleasures of rational conversation, but to impart 
much curious and valuable knowledge to be derived from no 
other source." 

The education proper of Major Sibley commenced practically 
almost in his babyhood, though his " school- days" were not 
ended till he had nearly attained his nineteenth year. At the 
feet of his pious Christian mother, lessons were taught and im- 
pressed that neither time nor eternity can eradicate. Such les- 
sons, from such lips, at such an age, are invaluable. They may 
sometimes, in the bustle of life, be more or less unheeded for a 






IN MEMOKIAM. 135 



time, but their legitimate office is, to give the true, reliable 
stamina to character, and they seldom fail to do so. 

When the good and the gifted die, especially in a serene old 
age, as Major Sibley did, it maybe practically useful to look at 
some of the circumstances which contribute to such results — to 
wit, a Christian and kindly old age ; an old age whose predom- 
inating moral quality was that humble, habitual thankfulness 
toward the Giver of all good, indicated in the diary extracts 
quoted above, or as expressed in some of the verses of glorious 
Isaac "Watts : 

" "Unnumbered comforts to, my soul 
Thy tender care bestowed^ 
Before my infant heart conceived 
From whom those blessings flowed." 

But a greater blessing than any thousand of life's comforts, 

is 

— " a cheerful heart 

That tastes those gifts with joy ;" 

that acknowledges them; that receives them as Major Sibley 
did, with a sense of unworthiness, and an all-absorbing grati- 
tude and love. 

While the life within was that of sunshine and thanksgiving 
the physical frame was maturing, as a shock of corn, for the 
ripeness of immortality — t still lingering on the shores of time 
beyond the age of fourscore years. 

Steady force of character, with determination, are of more 
value toward insuring longevity than a good constitution. 
Men of "purpose" can live down disease; can live above it, as 
did the hero of Macaulay's History of England, William the 
Conqueror, who was a wheezing asthmatic all his life, and he 
died at last by being thrown from his horse. 

The dogged determination to accomplish a business for which 
he was sent is illustrated in the latter part of the following 
narration, taken from a late National Intelligencer, the editor of 
which was the personal friend of Major Sibley: 

" The years of his childhood and youth were spent in North- 
Carolina, from whence, while yet quite a youth, Jie was appoint- 
ed by Mr. Jefferson to an office in the Indian Department, and 
sent to St. Louis soon after the purchase of Louisiana, and ar- 
rived there after Gen;. Wilkinson had taken formal possession 



136 hall's jouknal of health. 

of the country as U. S. Military Governor;' Not long after this 
he was sent into the Indian country as Indian Agent and fac- 
tor. It was at this period that he went out with a hundred 
Osage warriors, and visited the Grand Saline and Salt Mountain, 
and explored a region of country which he supposed had never 
before been seen by the white man. A report of the wonders 
of nature he there saw has been already published. His many 
letters written during his Agency to the Government attest his 
interest in the welfare of the red men of the West, as well as 
his untiring devotion to the duties of his station. : Those duties 
he performed with honor to himself and satisfaction to his Gov- 
ernment. As late as the year 1841 he wrote a long letter to 
Henry Clay on Indian affairs, which, if the advice therein con- 
tained had been heeded, the late dreadful scenes in Minnesota 
would never have taken place. Soon after he retired from the 
Indian Department he was appointed one of the three Commis- 
sioners to survey and mark out a road from Missouri to New- 
Mexico. He was the only one of the three who went to Santa 
Fe, where, and at Taos, he remained a year with the surveyoi 
and party before permission could be obtained from the Mexi- 
can Government to survey and mark the road through its ter- 
ritory. This duty, which involved some treaties with the In- 
dians, was performed with his usual zeal and fidelity." 

Major S. was a man of strictly temperate habits; for the last 
twelve years of his life he never took any medicine, nor did he 
drink any thing stronger than black tea or weak coffee. 

Who will deny that quite as much as firmness of purpose 
and a temperate life, a long and consistent love for the Bible 
and the practice of its teachings, with a heart steadily feeding 
on endeavors to promote the welfare of others, have an influence 
in protecting life to over fourscore years ; and, in fact, this is 
the truest philosophy in connection with that greatly coveted 
ability of "retiring from business," that while a man ceases to 
occupy his powers, his experience, his talents in monetary 
affairs, he should at once begin to employ them in a new direc- 
tion, with scarcely less energy than when in the whirl and tur- 
moil of the exchange, the counting-room, and the street; in the 
direction of planning and setting in motion organizations for 
happifying and elevating the great brotherhood of man ; these 
bring out the business energies in a new connection, in a con- 



IN MEMOKIAM. 137 

nection not where dollars and cents and self-interest harden and 
contract and defile all that is touched, but a connection which 
brings into hourly exercise the nobler part of man, his pity for 
the poor, his sympathy for the wronged, his benevolence toward 
all. Thus we find Major Sibley consecrating his later years to 
temperance, to the cause of African colonization, to the spread 
of the Bible, and to the early and proper education of girls. 
Says the National Intelligencer, " He was a great friend to Afri- 
can colonization ;" and it was in this connection that the very 
day before he died the last effort of his pen was to write and 
forward an article on slavery to The Presbyterian, of Philadel- 
phia, in as fair and beautiful and steady a hand as he would 
have written at the age of twenty-five. Dying with his har- 
ness on, working for humanity to the very last. He was the 
friend, the promoter and advocate of the Bible cause, having 
been for many years, and continued to be until his death, Pres- 
ident of the St. Charles County Bible Society of Missouri. 
Major Sibley was also a zealous advocate of Christian educa- 
tion, as is proved by the standing monument, "Linden wood 
College," erected (by subscription) on a tract of land which he 
had owned for nearly fifty years, and on which he lived over 
thirty years — the most beautiful, the best improved, the most 
valuable part of which, amounting to one hundred and twenty 
acres, with the hearty consent of his wife, he gave to the Col- 
lege. * 

But we are unwilling to close this article without naming 
another influence which made itself felt for good in forming 
the whole character of Major S. from early manhood, to wit, 
from the day he was married, in 1815, to Mary, eldest daughter 
of Col. Eufus Easton, at that time a delegate to Congress from 
the Territory of Missouri. They never had any children. For 
nearly fifty years she was an angel of light to him. She had 
herself an energy of character of such a firm, steady, Christian 
consistency of purpose, that in the course of years it won her 
husband over to embrace the same religion, to feed upon the 
same hopes of immortality, and to rest on the same foundation- 
stone upon which she herself grounded all her anticipations of 
a glorious existence beyond the grave. The means which she 
used to bring him over to the faith once delivered to the saints, 
were mainly two, one secret, the other open and known of all 



138 hall's journal of health. 

men. Secret prayer, and a life of patient, consistent, unswerv- 
ing piety extending through many years ; but glorious fruit came 
at last! May many of the young gentlemen who read this 
article be so fortunate as to obtain such a wife as Mary Sibley 
was ; may many a mother from this hour resolve that she will 
educate her daughters to perform as well the duties of an edu- 
cated, pious wife. 









■*-♦*■ 



CONSTIPATION. 

Dr. William Bodenhamer, of New-York,- has been, more 
successful in treating those conditions of the lower bowel which 
require surgical aid than any other physician at home or 
abroad. The following, taken from his last-published work on 
those maladies, merits universal practical personal attention : 

ti Continued care and anxiety of mind are also causes of 
constipation of the bowels. The great anxiety to which those 
are subjected who are continually and actively engaged in 
their business or profession, exerts a powerful influence upon 
the functions of the alimentary canal ; it not only depresses the 
nervous system, and causes indigestion, but also renders torpid 
the peristaltic action of the bowels. As a confirmation of the 
truth of this, as soon as such persons emancipate- themselves 
from the cares and anxieties of their business, by taking an ex- 
cursion into the country, the mind soon recovers its wonted 
cheerfulness, the spirits their elasticity, and the bowels their 
normal function. Indeed, when we take into consideration the 
contentions, the competitions, and the responsibilities which this 
class of persons have daily to encounter, especially in large 
cities, it is a matter of no surprise that they should surfer from, 
languor and depression, from indigestion and from constipation, 
with all its numerous evil consequences. To be forcibly im- 
pressed with the extent of the evils resulting from this cause, 
it is only necessary, to pass along Broadway or the Bowery 
early in the morning, or late in the evening, and behold the 
multitude of anxious and careworn countenances which one 
sees daily at those hours in these two great thoroughfares of 
New- York. This spectacle will furnish a good commentary 
upon the wear and tear of human life. 



CONSTIPATION. 189 

"Sedentary habits, or the sedentary occupations of life, greatly 
tend to constipation and inactivity of the bowels — hence men 
of literary pursuits, or those closely occupied in study, as stu- 
dents, or employed afc the desk or counter, as clerks and ac- 
countants ; or those who are confined to seats, as tailors, seam- 
stresses, milliners, etc., are all extremely liable to suffer greatly 
from confined bowels.. The want of bodily exercise generally 
lessens the demand for food, weakens the digestive organs, and 
indigestion and constipation are almost a necessary conse- 
quence. Witness .the' large number of poor young women in 
New- York who sit and ply the needle from daylight in the 
morning till ten or eleven o'clock at night, with .scarcely inter- 
mission enough to take their meals, or to attend to the calls of 
nature. This employment, so unremitting in exercise, continues 
from Monday morning to Saturday night *" in one, weary 'iny, un- 
varying sedentary position? No class of persons in' this metro- 
polis are so deserving of sympathy and commiseration as these 
poor women. Spirit of Tom Hood, look down upon these 
- white slaves ' and pity them. Well didst thou sing : 

v '0 men with children dear ! 

men with sisters and wives ! 
It is not linen you re wearing out, 

But human creatures' lives ! 
Stitch, stitch, stitch, 

In poverty, hunger and dirt, 
And still she sews with a double thread 

A shroud as well as a shirt.' - ■ 

" How many sing that ' song of the shirt" 1 in New- York to- 
day whilst they sew their shrouds ? 

u Some of the causes of constipation among the. richer and 
higher classes of people are the modern and irregular hours of 
society, including late breakfasts, late dinners, and all the long 
nocturnal pastimes of music and dancing in crowded and heated 
rooms, etc. ; all of which necessarily imply many contraven- 
tions and restraints of the laws and of the regular discharge of 
the functions of nature." 



140 HALLS JOUBNAL OF HEALTH. 

SURGERY NOTICES. 

Many applications are made to us, from time to time, to know where may 
be obtained safe, skillful and competent surgical aid. In all operations re- 
quiring undisputed professional ability, a keen eye, a steady hand and a 
comprehensive grasp of intellect, we believe there are few superior to Dr. 
Henry A. Daniels, of New-York City, author of a treatise on the Fifth Pair 
of Nerves and several other anatomical and surgical monograms ; a gentle- 
man of whose professional ability, skill and cooperation, several of the most 
eminent practitioners in this country have greatly availed themselves, at 
various times, and of whose success in the removal of tumors, in correcting 
deformities of face, cheek, lips, eyes, and person ; strabismus, (cross-eyes ;) 
in rectifying misplacements, curing leucorrheas, strictures, piles, fistulas, 
and all important surgical cases, many patients will gladly testify. Any of 
our readers who will place themselvesin the hands of this talented consult- 
ing and operating surgeon, may rest assured that whatever a skillful surgery 
could do for them, will be happily done by Dr. Daniels. A grateful soldier, 
cured of an injury received in camp, writes from Washington City : " It will 
always give me great pleasure to testify to Dr. D.'s ability as an operative 
surgeon." The New-York Independent, very chary of its praises, says in 
its issue of January 22d, 1863 : " Doctor H. A. Daniels, late Professor of Sur- 
gery in the Pennsylvania Medical Hospital of Philadelphia, but now of 221 
Sixth Avenue, New-York, has become justly renowned for skillful and suc- 
cessful treatment of some of the sorest ills ' that flesh is heir to.' Let all 
who are afflicted with the grievous maladies which it is his peculiar province 
to cure, and who have suffered at the hands of ignorant pretenders, or by use 
of vulgar nostrums, lose no time in availing themselves of the advantages 
which advanced science now holds out to them." 

The following notice is copied from the New- York Independent : 

I insert this testimonial for the purpose of publicly returning my most 
sincere thanks to Dr. H; A. Daniels, of 221 Sixth Avenue, for his skill in 
reproducing for me the' lower portion of my nose, which I lost by an injury 
some years ago. Anne Murphy, 

547 Eighth Avenue, N. Y. 

From the Philadelphia Mercury 
Surgical Operation. — On Thursday last an enormous steatomatous 
tumor was cut from the back of Mrs. Davis, of Thirteenth street, by H. A. 
Daniels, M.D. — The wen or sebaceous cyst weighed over four pounds. Dr. 
Daniels was assisted by Dr. S. Pancoast in the operation, in the presence of 
A. P. Thomas, M.D., J. S. Longshore, M.D., and Hannah Longshore, M.D. 
The lady is doing extremely well, and rejoices in the removal of the abnor- 
mal difficulty. 

From the New-York Herald, Dec. 18, 1862. 
I hereby return my thanks to Dr. H. A. Daniels, 221 Sixth Avenue, near 
Fourteenth street, for skillfully removing, without pain, a large foreign sub- 
stance from my ear, which had troubled me for a considerable time. I can 
fully testify to the Doctor's ability as a surgeon. G. Boweryem, 

132 Bleecker Street. 

A Missionary at Corisco, West- Africa, writes : "I received but a few 
days ago a bound volume of Hall's Journal of Health. I thank you 



SUBGEBY NOTICES. 141 

for it. I have looked through it with pleasure. I have occasionally seen 
numbers of your publications when in my native land. I certainly wish 
you great success in inculcating the principles which your Journal advo- 
cates. With prayers that you may enjoy many years of usefulness, I re- 
main sincerely yours." A correspondent says of our book on "Sleep": 
" I have read and profited by it. Many thanks for its teachings, and God 
bless you for writing it." A lady in ordering some copies of "Soldier 
Health" for the army, adds: "I hope it is not abridged too much, for it is 
too good to leave any thing out. I wish to send a copy to many in the army." 

The American Tract Society, 28 Cornhill, Boston, and 13 Bible-House, 
New- York City, has issued in beautiful style, " Calls to the Saviour," (64 
pp.,) or reasons why every sinner should " Come to Jesus." It is full of com- 
fort and encouragement to those who are seeking a "better way." Another 
little volume of 128 pp., by Rev. James D. Burns, of London, is full oi 
sweetness to every hoping Christian heart. "The Happy Home," or the 
Story of Annie Lyon, with its illustrations, will gladden the eyes and swell 
the heart of every good child who reads it. "We congratulate the Society in 
its issue of two useful, truthful books. In " The Honey-Makers" and " The 
Senses," both children and grown persons will be deeply interested ; and 
more, they will be led to admire the wisdom and goodness of God while 
they peruse these two charming books. Is the Society beginning to find 
out that a deeper religious sentiment can be waked up in the minds of the 
young by showing to them the wonders of Omnipotence in his works, than 
by the trashy narration of the vagaries of a maudlin imagination ; by stories 
one part truth, nine hundred and ninety-nine parts "make ups" ? A nar- 
ration of actual facts, in a natural, literal way is always instructive, is a 
"True Story," but such a book can not be found oftener perhaps than once 
in a hundred volumes of the publications designed for the young, and for 
Sunday-schools. Ought this so to be? "Kenny Carl's Uniform" is as in- 
structive as it is interesting, and will delight youthful readers. 

To Subscribers. — A lady, in writing for a missing number, not only ex- 
pects to have it supplied at our own cost, but growls while receiving it, 
saying : " I thought my responsibilities ended with paying for the Journal." 
Let subscribers remember that all a publisher's obligations end with de- 
positing the publication properly in the post-office. Publishers do not agree 
to deliver their issues at the door or into the hand of subscribers out of 
town, but merely to deposit them in the post-office, then the government 
takes the responsibility, and the subscriber the risk. Publishers, generally, 
out of mere good-will, supply missing numbers, but it is their own loss. 
The intelligently conscientious will send the money for missing numbers, 
Tor when they subscribe it is with the understanding that the publication is 
to be sent by mail, and the subscriber tacitly agrees to run the risk, but 
afterwards to ask the publisher to make good the default is simply unjust. 
The usual manner of mailing publications, makes it difficult to omit any 
name. Persons writing to us must not ask for receipts to be returned, the 
reception of this Journal is a receipt, for it is never sent without pay in ad- 
vance. ^W All subscriptions must be for a year, and the year must com- 
mence with the preceding January. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 144. 



■ . ■ 

HOUSEHOLD ECONOMY. 

i • 

No honest man, no wife of sterling principle, can consistently allow a penny's worth to be 
wasted, as long as a dollar is owing to any body. It is the sinful and dishonest waste in the 
kitchen which is the last pound to break the earners back, as to many a striving husband and 
father in cities and large towns. There are so-called wives who never enter the cellar or store- 
room ; who never look at bills, to see if there are wrong charges, or if provisions ar,e rising 
rapidly in price, that they might arrange matters so that the aggregate family expenses shall 
not be increased. A dozen pounds of meat may appear on the dinner-table to-day, for a family of 
small children and servants, and to-morrow it is all gone, and they " never noticed it." If coffee 
was a dollar a pound, they would never be the wiser, unless it was mentioned in some conversation. 
The general result of such indifference is, that the husbands of more thrifty, more notable wives, 
have eventually to pay the bills. We often talk glibly about French frivolity ; but there is much 
in their domestic management which entitles them to our respect and appreciation. The Paris 
correspondent of that excellent paper, the New- York Commercial Advertiser, writes : 

f There are few American families who know exactly the expenses of a year ; they all know, 
probably, that it costs about so many hundred or thousand dollars on the whole. But every Eu- 
ropean family knows the expense of every year, month, and day ; the exact cost of every dinner, 
supper, or breakfast, of every morsel they eat, of every drop they drink. Every German or 
French housewife knows not only how much the meat, potatoes, and bread of any meal may cost, 
but, also the water in which she has cooked them,' and the coal or wood she has burned to boll the 
water. 

" In Paris, water is sold by barrels and pailfuls. In a house of live stories there are two fami- 
lies on each floor, making ten who ascend the same staircase, up which all articles for family use 
must be carried. Water, coal, and all heavy articles must be taken up before noon, as about that 
time the concie>-ge cleans the hall and stairs, and they must be kept clean for callers in the after- 
noon. In every kitchen is a receptacle for water, containing two or more pailfuls. In one corner 
of the box is a small portion of porous stone, which serves as a filter, and to which is a separate 
faucet. The porteur brings two large pailfuls of water for three cents, every morning. It is 
therefore, very easy to know how much the water costs in which the dinner is boiled. 

" In the same kitchen is a box for coal, which contains the quantity for which they pay forty 
cents, and they know exactly how many meals can be cooked with this quantity. If they have 
guests to dinner, they use an extra quantity of water and coal, and know how many cents' worth 
are devoted to each guest, and then of course they know if they can afford to invite anybody 
again. 

" They know exactly how much of every article is used every day. The streets of Paris are 
lined with small groceries, where every thing is purchased by the cent's worth, and are certainly 
very convenient for people who earn only a few cents per day. 

" The morning meal in every French family is bread and coffee, what they call cafe au lait, and 
is made of equal portions of coffee and chickory placed in a biggin, upon which hot water is 
poured so long as it runs through black. Of this they take two spoonfuls to a half-pint of boiling 
milk. Three or five cents' worth Of coffee is purchased every day, and the milkman and baker of 
course come every morning. 

" The second meal is at noon, though it is called breakfast, and is merely a luncheon, cold, or 
the remnants of yesterday's dinner. For these two no cloth is put upon the table, and : all ceremony 
is unnecessary. .... 

" The dinner is at six, and consists of meat and one vegetable, and something as a salad. The 
salad is dressed with oil and vinegar — a spoonful of vinegar to three of oil, with pepper, salt, and 
mustard, and also a little onion and garlic. The commencement of dinner is of course soup, a3 
this is invaluable in every continental family. There are also soup-shops, where a pint or a quart 
can be purchased every day, between four and six. But as often as once or twice a week they 
have a boiled dinner, what they c&Mpot aufeu. In America, the liquor in which meat and vege- 
tables are boiled for such a dinner is thrown away. It must certainly contain the best juice of the 
meat, and be very good and nourishing. In Europe it is every drop saved and eaten. They fill 
an earthen pot with meat and vegetables, never omitting the onions, and Igt it boil away one half. 
For the soup, they season it with pepper, and sometimes with sorrel, parsley, and other herbs and 
spices, and thicken it with vermicelli or crumbs of bread. Whether it is delicious or not, it cer- 
tainly seems too good to throw away. 

" The dessert is almost invariably bread and cheese in winter, with a little comfiture. I do not 
mean to say that every family lives in this way ; but I have been in many, and seen little differ- 
ence. One is expected to take a bit of cheese about an inch square, and a teaspoonful of com- 
fiture. The little shop-windows are also lined with jars of preserves, which are sold in quantities 
of two or three cents' worth, like any thing else. 

" Cheese in the same way, a bit a few inches square for dinner. The pepper and salt are no ex- 
ceptions to the three-cent rule, little three-cornered papers being the only receptacles for them. 
Cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, and similar spices have no location in a continental family, where they 
never make a pudding or pie or cake of any description, and where they would consider it the 
greatest extravagance to eat such things. We are talking of families who have a, regular income 
of six hundred to fifteen hundred dollars a year. Such a family does not allow the whole expense 
of the table to be more than eight or ten dollars a month each person, and we know those who limit 
it to five or six, and yet who live very comfortably." 

■ 




- 

At the Fairs of the 

U. S AGRICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 
American Institute, New- York. 
Mechanics' Association, Boston, 
Fran klin Institute, Philadelphia. 
Metropolitan Mechanics' Institute] 

Washington. 
Mechanics' Institute, Baltimore. 
Mechanics' Association, Cincinnati. 
Kentucky Institute, Louisville. 
Mechanical Association, St. Louis. 
Mechanics' Institute, San Francisco 



«% % 




i& 





^ 


■ 




At the State Fairs of 


Maine, 


Ohio, 


Vermont, 


Indiana, 


Connecticut, 


Iowa, 


New York, 


Tennessee, 


New Jersey, 


. Illinois, 


Pennsylvania, 


Kentucky, 


Virginia, 


Michigan, 


Mississippi, 


"Wisconsin, 


Missouri, 


California, 



WBth ©ISass- '(§"H©tfo jppess^ir© Im&my&ii L@@p>-@fo©A, NJ©w.8tyll© fflzmmwi 



Office-505 BROADWAY, New York. 

This -machine makes the "LOCK-STITCH," and -ranks highest on acconht of the elasti- 
city, permanence, beauty, and general desirableness of the stitching when done, and the "wide 
range of its application. — Beport of the American Institute, New York. 



The "Wheeler & Wilson Company has prepared tables showing, by actual experiments 
of four different workers, the time required to stitch each part of a garment by hand, and 
with this Sewing Machine. Subjoined is a summary of several of the tables. 



BY MACHINE. 

Hours. Min. 

Gentlemen's Shirts, 1 16 

Frock Coats, 2 S8 

Satin Vests, . .1 - ■ 14 

Linen Vests,... ....0 48 

Cloth Pants, 51 

Summer Pants, 38 

Silk Dress, 1 13 

Merino Dress, 1 4 



BY HAND. 

Hours. Min. 
14 26 



BY MACHINE. 

Hours. Min. 
57 
1 



Calico Dress,.. .....0 

Chemise, ........ a 1 

Moreen Skirt,... 35 

Muslin Skirt . .0 SO 

Drawers,.... 28 

Night Dress, .1 7 

Silk Apron,... ...0 15 

Plain Apron, 9 



BY HAND. 

Hours . Min. 
6 37 



ByH'd. 
Patent Leather, fine Stitch. 7 
Fitting Ladies Gaiters,. ....28 

Stitching Shoe Vamps, 10 

Binding Hats, , 33 



With Mach. 
175 
510 
210 

374 



Ratio. 
25 
18 
21 
11 

1,500 and 2,000 



NUMBER OF STITCHES MADE PER MEOHJTE. 
ByH'd. With Mach. Ratio. 

Stitching fine Linen, 23 640 28 

" Satin, ..24 520 .. 22 

* Silk, .....30 550 18 

Seaming fine Cloth, 38 594 16 

When the machines are driven by power, the ratio is much higher- 
stitches per minute not being an unusual average. 

Seam3 of a considerable length are ordinarily sewed, with the best machines, at the rate 
of a yard a minute, and that, too, in a manner far superior to hand-sewing. 

One feature in the use of the Wheeler & Wilson Sewing Machine, resulting from the 
wide range of its application, is the varying branches of business to which it is applied as 
fashion changes. Thus, a house or a person furnished with these machines may, at different 
seasons, employ them in making Army Clothing, Skirts, or Mantillas, or Diamond Ruffling, or 
Shirts, or stitching Hats and Caps, etc. It is not as if they were limited to one branch of 
manufacture, and must remain unused unless that particular article were in demand. So long 
as sewing is to be done, these machines are sure of something to do. Hence the Wheeler & 
Wilson Sewing Machine is the machine for all kinds of Family Sewing, and for the use of 
Seamstresses, Dressmakers, Tailors, Manufacturers of Shirts, Collars, Skirts, Cloaks, Mantillas, 
Clothing. Hats, Cops, Corsets, Ladies'Gaiters, Linen-Goods, Umbrellas, Parasols, Silk Goods, etc. 

The LocK-Sliteh made by this machine cannot be ravelled, and presents the same appear- 
ance upon each side of the seam, a single line of thread extending from stitch to stitch. It 
is formed with two threads, one upon each side of the fabric and interlocked in the centre of 
it. In beauty and regularity, and in the firmness of the seam formed, it excels hand sewing. 

The qualities which recommend the Wheeler and Wilson Machine are : 1. Beauty and 
excellence of stitch alike upon both side3 of the fabric sewed. 2. Strength, firmness, and 
durability of seam, that will not rip nor ravel, and made with — 3. Economy of thread. 4. Its 
attachments and wide range of application to purposes and materials. 5. Compactness and 
elegance of model and finish. 6. Simplicity and thoroughness of construction. 7. Speed, 
of operation and management, and quietness of movement. 



■MnTTmra 



■■■»■, 



NOTICES. 

Thk American Tract Society, 28 Cornhill, Boston, and No., 13 Bible House, New-York City, 
under the efficient management of Mr. J. Gr. Broughton, has issued Herbert ; or, True Charity, 
45 cents. Patience; or, the Sunshine of the Heart. Ruth and Little Jane; or, Blossoms of 
Grace. Rose ; or, The Little Comforter. Mart S. Peake, of Fortress Monroe. If bur subscribers 
will refer to the bottom of the last page of the January number, they will find another list (with 
prices) of the admirable publications of this Society, and we cordially advise our friends who come 
to New-York, and wish to treat their little ones at home with reading which is at once delightful 
and instructive, to call on Mr. Broughton, at No. 13 Bible House, and examine his list of books. 

Always Thankful, is the suggestive title of a discourse delivered in Springfield, Ohio, November 
27th, 1862, by Rev. Sylvester F. Scovel, son of the late lamented and loved President of Hano- 
ver College, Indiana. Thankful for all things individually, and having faith in God that he will 
bring this nation safely, gloriously through her present trials, ruling and overruling, and shaping 
all that man does to the highest happiness of his creatures, and the greatest glory of his own great 
name. It is a delightful subject, handled wisely and well. " Always Thankful 1" having faith in 
God ! what a glorious attainment, and possible to all ! 

••' Dental Journal for the People." Edited by W. W. Allport, D.D.S., Chicago, Illinois. Pub- 
lished monthly, at fifty cents a year. It is an unoccupied field, and one of very high importance, 
as it seeks to instruct the people as to the proper care of the teeth. Such a journal, well conduct- 
ed, ought to be taken by every family in the nation, and we hope Dr. Allport will receive the 
patronage and encouragement which he evidently merits. 

American Medical Association meets at Chicago, 111., June 2d, 1863. By order of Committee 
of Arrangements. N. S. Davis, M.D., Chairman. 

National Almanac and Annual Record. By Geo. W. Childs & Co., 628 and 630 Chestnut 
street, Philadelphia ; also, A. Roman & Co., San Francisco ; N. Triibner & Co., 60 Paternoster Row, 
London ; Hector Bossange, Paris, $1. It is the most comprehensively valuable Almanac ever 
issued in this country ; and as an evidence of its appreciation, the publishers are selling a thousand 
copies weekly. We advise the copy bound in muslin, at $1.25. It will be a work for reference for 
many years to come. "We will send it full bound, post-paid, for five new subscribers to Hall'? 
Journal of Health, at one dollar a year. It is filled with valuable statistics, history of the 
States, officers of the United States and the so-called Confederates; obituaries; census, banks, 
tariffs, public laws, books published in the United States in 1862, excise tax, post-office department, 
etc. etc. 

CONTENTS FOR JANUARY. 
Farmer Health — How best Secured; Eating:— Rapidity, Frequency, Quan* 
tity ; Catching Cold ; Dress, Head-dress ; Shoes, Corns ; Housewifery ; 
Potatoes; Baldness; Skating, etc. 

CONTENTS FOR FEBRUARY. 
Premature Deaths; Success in Life; Responsibility of Writers; do. oi 
Editors ; Influence of Mothers; Controlling Temper ; Our Daughters ; 
Unskilled Labor; Farmers' Wives Overtaxed — in what Manner — the 
Remedy. Either Number sent post-paid for 15 cts. ; both for 25 cts. 

CONTENTS FOR MARCH. 
Dirt; Pulpit Power; Witnesses Three; Cherished Flower; Paine and 
Thorburn; Wire-workers; the Dying; Industrial Facts; Public 
Schools ; the Irish ; Cute Things ; Ventilation ; The One Spot. 



CONTENTS FOR APRIL. 

Recreation ; Interesting Facts-; Reformers ; John Randolph ; Bible Con- 
firmations ; Paine and Lawrie Todd ; Religious Newspapers ; their Age ; 
^dReflecUan;HenryClay,etc.,etc.,etc. 

■ 






Paine's Institutes of Medicine, 7th edition, y Ilarper Bros. 1130 
pp., 8vo. 400 of these pages are devoted to Physiology ; 100 to Pathology ; 240 to 
Therapeutics, and an Appendix of 150 pp. elucidating theories and subjects pre- 
viously treated, and enforcing and expounding the principles advocated in the 
body of the work. There are two indexes admirably, concisely, and aptly ar- 
ranged, furnishing a key to every section and subject. Of this standard publication 
a cotemporary justly says : 

" A medical work which holds its ground with the profession for sixteen years, 
which in that time runs through seven editions, which has been used as a text-book 
by half a dozen generations of medical students — a work which embraces in its 
comprehensive grasp the three prime domains of a physician's study : physiology, 
pathology, and therapeutics, or the laws of life, the laws of disease, and the laws 
of cure — a work which is the accumulated experience of fifty years' professional 
and professorial life, must have some extraordinary merit that it thus endures 
the test of time, withstands the assaults of criticism, and maintains its popularity 
with the most progressive of professions." 

Vocal Gymnasium, 25 E. 27th Street, conducted by Prof. Hurlbert, is 
commended to the attention of all who wish to improve the voice, singers, public 
speakers, etc., etc., whether for ladies or gentlemen. To become a good reader 
ought to be considered an indispensable part of a common education. To sing and 
to read well are literally rich placers of happiness in after-life. 

Weather-Indicator. — Mr. Charles Wilder, of Peterboro, New-Hamp- 
shire, is the manufacturer of Woodruff's Barometer, combining in a remarkable 
degree cheapness, accuracy, simplicity, durability, and portability. Prof. Mapes 
gives it high praise. A correspondent of that excellent and favorite paper, the 
Country Gentleman, says : " I have never failed, by close observation, to ascertain 
when a storm was coming on, or when about to abate. I have saved the cost of it 
in a single season." Premiums have been awarded to Woodruff's Weather-Indi- 
cator by the New- York, Vermont, Michigan, and U. S. Agricultural Societies over 
all other competitors. The prices vary according to finish only, from five to 
twenty dollars ; they are equally accurate, and all are ornamental. For sale also 
by C. J. Yangorder, Esq., of Warren, Trumbull Co., Ohio. 

831 BROADWAY, NEW-YORK, 

Will hereafter be the publication-office of HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH, 
where Mr. P. C. Godfret, so well known to New-Yorkers as the courteous and ac- 
commodating proprietor of the Union Square Post-Office, which he still 
manages with so much credit to himself, will keep on hand all our publications, 
wholesale and retail, for all who apply in person for the same; Those who order 
the Journal or any of our books by mail, must address simply, Dr. W. W. Hall, 
New-York. All letters delivered in person, and all packages, books for review, etc., 
must be left at 831 Broadway, below 13th Street. The Editor's office hours are 
strictly from 9 to 3 only, at 42 Irving Place, New- York. 

Braitnewaite's Retrospect of the progress of Medical and Surgical 
Science throughout the world, for the six months ending with, Dec. 1862, being 
part 46, has just been reprinted by W. A. Townsend, 30 Walker Street, New-York, 
for $1.25. It is issued twice a year for $2, making an 8vo. of 650 pp. This use- 
ful and now standard publication is the best vade mecum extant for the young 
practitioner and for the elder members of the profession, who have not leisure for 
extensive reading, but who wish to know at a glance what is doing in the medical 
world from time to time. It is commended to the patronage of educated physi- 
cians of all schools. - 

; 

Quarter- Century Sermon, by Eev. Thomas Brainard, D.D., of the 
Third Presbyterian Church of Philadelphia, is received, and is characteristic of 
one of the most earnest, indefatigable, efficient, and able ministers in his branch 
of the Christian church. 



-orb9M lo golutittarrl Ranis'! 

■. 

THINGS WORTH SEEING IN NEW-YORK. 



Astor Library, free to all from 9 AM. until sunset. Attendants will hand any book calleJ 
for, to be used in the room. Lafayette Place, near Eighth Street, one block east of Broadway. 
116,000 volumes.' 

Barnum's Museum, 222 Broadway, near Astor House. Twenty-five cents admission. Open 
from 8 A.M. until 10 P.M. 

Bible House, ' on ' Fourth Avenue, one block east of Broadway, through Eighth Street, 
seven stories, occupying one whole block of ground, having cost- $310,000. It employs three 
hundred persons, pays out four hundred and fifty thousand dollars a year, and in a year issued 
eight hundred and fifteen thousand Bibles and Testaments, in every variety of style and binding, 
from thirty cents for a complete Bible, up to twenty dollars each. The paper is received on the 
pavement, and is delivered in the seventh story a complete Bible. 

Book-Making.— The most extensive printing- establishment in America is that of John A. 
Gray, Esq., on Frankfort Street, three blocks east of the City Hall, six stories, running twenty- 
six printing-presses, employing between two and three hundred men, women, boys and girls, 
within the building, and turning out every day an incredible amount of work, from a common 
pasteboard card up to bills, pamphlets, newspapers, magazines, and books in every style; and 
every thing well done, under the direction of one man, through that ceaseless vigilance, energy, 
firmness, and equanimity essential to all important positions; the pledge for even a temporary 
employment in the mammoth establishment being an engagement to be punctual , industrious, 
careful, quiet, clean, obedient,, just and gentle in speech— qualities fit to be enumerated daily at 
the breakfast-table of every family in the land. Let them be "learned by heart" by every child 
that lives. 

Central Park, reached by city cars, from Astor House, for five cents, by Third, Sixth, and 
Eighth Avenue lines ; 844 acres ; cost, to January 1, 1861, $7,600,000; appropriation for 1860, 
$2,500,000; total cost of purchase and improvements, up to January 1, 1861, $10,100,000. It 
is five miles from the Battery, is two and a half miles long, and half a mile broad ; laid out by 
Frederick Law Olmsted, born in Conn., Lieutenant E. L. Yiele, Engineer-in-Chief. 

Cooper Institute, junction of Third and Fourth Avenues, built at an expense, including the 
ground, of over $630,000, by Peter Cooper, born in New- York City, Feb. 12, 1*791. When com- 
pleted, the noble man gave it to the city, to be devoted to the elevation of the working-classes of 
his birthplace, by instruction, without charge, in ordinary daily occupations, in sanitary, social, 
agricultural, and political science, and teaching addressed to the eye, the ear, and the imagina- 
tion. The rents of the ground-floor are intended, to pay all the expenses .of keeping the building 
in perfect order. He was born poor, worked hard in a hatter's shop until he was seventeen, then 
learned' coach-making. He built, at Baltimore, after his own design, the first locomotive engine 
ever used on this continent. Peter Cooper still lives. His name will be held in -affectionate and 
respectful remembrance by millions yet unborn. Library and reading-room free to males and 
females. ' _ 

Greenwood Cemetery is visited by great numbers. Host of the omnibuses convey you to 
South Ferry for six cents ; ferriage, two cents ; by Hamilton Avenue boats, from which horse- 
cars take you to the cemetery, five miles, for six cents. Carriages can be had at the gates, for 
one dollar an hour, for one or four persons. Intelligent drivers will point out the most striking 
monuments, with items of their history. Opened September 5, 1840, and up to Dee. 31, 1860, 
had received 81,325 of the dead. 

Paintings, by the great masters, ancient and modern, from the twelfth century ta the present 
time, at The Institute of .Fine Arts, 625 Broadway. It includes the celebrated Dusseldorf 
Gallery, and the Jarves Collection, and is the largest and most recherche collection of paintings 
on this continent. Valuable additions are being constantly made. Admission, twenty-five 
cents. 

Photographic Galleries are free to all, and will afford visitors, the means of passing an 
hour with the highest satisfaction. The most prominent, in alphabetical order, are, Anson, Brady, 
Frederick, Gurney, Johnson, and Mead, all on Broadway. 

Printing. — One of the greatest wonders of the city, and of the world, is the printing-press at 
The World's office, 37 Park Row, nearly opposite the Astor House. It can turn off twenty-five 
thousand impressions in an hour. It is made up of fourteen thousand seven hundred and thirty 
distinct pieces, weighs fifty thousand pounds, is fifteen feet broad, sixteen feet high, forty feet 
long, and cost thirty thousand dollars. Fifty years ago, it required' two men nearly one hour to 
print a hundred newspapers. Any gentleman ov lady, on application at the office, will have its 
working shown them. 

• 



THE PHONOPHORUS, OR CONDUCTOR OF SOUND, 

AS USED IN CHURCHES. 

We take pleasure in calling your attention to the above-named instrument for the transmission 
of sound ; it i3 one of the latest and most successful triumphs of the inventive power which charac- 
terizes the age, and to that large class of the community afflicted with DEAFNESS, of pre-eminent, 
practical, and efficient utility, in relieving that disability. 

Indeed, so comprehensive may its application be made, as to overcome the difficulty of hearing 
every ordinary tone of voice enunciated by the speaker, in the remotest part of the largest 
Churches, Public Halls, Lecture-Rooms, and Auditoriums of every size. 

The philosophical principles which its operation involves, are so simple and clear, that to those 
at all familiar with the science of Acoustics, it is sufficient to say that by the peculiar construction 
of the " Phonophorus," the vibrations of the atmosphere within the instrument are made more 
intense than those on the surrounding air and of consequent additional potency on the tympanum 
of the ear. 

Yet to others it may be well to state, that in every instance where its merits have been practi- 
cally tested, it has, without an exception, imparted universal Satisfaction. 

Among others of like character, the First Baptist Church of New-Brunswick, N. J., (Rev. M. S. 
Riddell, Pastor,) the Presbyterian Church, corner of Fifth Avenue and Nineteenth street, New- 
York, (Rev. Dr. Rice, Pastor,) the Mercer-Street Presbyterian Church, New- York, (Rev.' R. R. 
Booth, Pastor,) and the McDougal-Street Baptist Church, New-York, (Rev. D. Dunbar, Pastor,) 
have this instrument in successful operation, and those whose affliction it triumphantly relieves, as 
well as the intelligent observers of all classes, whose attention has-been directed to the subject, are 
uniform in the recognition of its claims to the merit of great practical utility. • 

Where the " Phonophorus" is used, there is no necessity even for the DEAF to absent themselves 
from a single intellectual advantage offered by social assemblies. 

Its adaptability to the PRIVATE DWELLING, the PUBLIC DRAWING-ROOM, to CHURCHES, 
LEGISLATIVE HALLS, COURTS OF JUSTICE, CONCERT and LECTURE-ROOMS— in fine, to 
every place where the organs of speech and hearing are called into requisition, is such, that the 
invaluable attributes of this Conductor of Sound may be made available to any requisite: extent, 
to all such uses. 

The readiness with which the instrument may be introduced into Churches and other public 
buildings, not only without marring in the least their present internal arrangement, but in fact a3 
an accessory in the matter of ornamentation, relieves the subject of every objection that can be 
urged in this particular. 

Not the least important of the purposes which the PHONOPHORUS is eminently calculated to 
promote, may be exemplified by a use of the instrument in a private tete-a-tete, to which it may 
be adapted with complete success, when a conversation between individuals (though one be deaf,) 
may be carried on in an ordinary tone of voice with the greatest ease and facility. 

Should there be any deaf persons in your vicinity or among your acquaintances, you would con- 
fer a favor on us and on them also, by sending us their names and Post-Office addresses. Among 
the testimonials received from Clergymen and others, are the following : 

TESTIMONIALS. 

New-Brunswick, June 14th, 1862. 
Some two years since, the First Baptist Church of New-Brunswick, N. J., introduced into their house 
of worship, an instrument invented by Mr. David D. Stelle, called a Phonophorus or Conductor 
of Sound ; the design*of which is to enable the deaf to hear and join in the ordinary week-day and 
Sabbath services of the Church. The instrument has been well tested and has proved a success. 
The principle of its construction is scientifically correct, and can do no harm to the ear whatever. 
I hesitate not to say that unless the tympanum of the ear be destroyed, sound and words uttered 
in an ordinary tone of voice can be distinctly heard. It is hailed by some among my people, who, 
by defective hearing, have for years been precluded the privilege of public worship, as a real bene- 
faction. . Therefore I would express my commendation of an invention which, for the time being, 
restores to such, " that sweet gift of our Heavenly Father," the sense of hearing. The answering 
and gratified look of those who for years have considered themselves hopelessly deaf, as they have 
joined in worship with others, must be my apology for penning this commendatory notice. , 

M. S. Riddkll, Pastor of First Baptist Church, New-Brunswick, N. J. 



New-York, June 5th, 1862. 
David D. Stelle, E3q. : Dear Sir : I cordially testify to the entire success of your apparatus as 
applied to my Church. It gives me no inconvenience and enables those who use it in the pews to 
hear every word without effort. I regard it as a great advantage to those who are infirm in hearing, 
and shall be glad to know that it is in general use. Yours, truly, 

Robert R. Booth, Pastor of the Mercer-Street Presbyterian Church, New-York. 



New-York, June 16th, 1862. 
D. D. Stelle, Esq. : Dear Sir : It affords me pleasure to certify to the great benefit derived by 
several of my congregation from the use of your Phonophorus or Conductor of Sound. It is now 
a year and a half since it was introduced into my Church, and it continues to work admirably ; 
enabling those who, on account of deafness, were before Unable to enjoy the privileges of the Sanc- 
tuary, to hear every word from the pulpit clearly and distinctly. I have no doubt that ere long it 
will be in, every Church in the land ; that not only the poor, but the deaf also, may have the 
G-ospel preached to them. Duncan Dunbar, Pastor of McDougal-Street Church. 



New-York, June 3d, 1862. 
Mr. David D. Stelle: Dear Sir: The name "Phonophorus," or "Sound-Bearer," which you 
have given to your instrument, is very appropriate. In the instances where I have known it to 
be introduced in Churches, it has answered admirably the purposes for which it was recommended- 
and enabled persons to hear the sermon with distinctness and ease, who had for years been de 
prived by their deafness from the enjoyment of public religious exercises. Yours truly, 

0. Bronson, M.D. 

New-York, June 6th, 1862. 
Messrs. D. D. Stelle & Co., 346 Broadway: Gentlemen : At your request, I very cheerfully state 
that the " Conductor of Sound," which you have put up for me in Dr. Rice's Church, on the Fifth 
Avenue, has been perfectly successful. Without it I heard almost all speakers very imperfectly, 
and some not at all — with its assistance, I can without difficulty hear every word spoken from the 
pulpit. Yours respectfully, Richard Irvin. 

For further information in regard to the above, please call on or address 

D. D. STELLE & CO., 

WALLACE DUNBAE, Agent. 85 Leonard Street, New-York. 



MILK, 

"New, Fresh, and Pure, from farm-house, grass-fed Cows, delivered 
Twice a Day, within Twelve Hours after the Milking, at Six 
Cents a Quart during the Summer, and Seven Cents in the 
Winter, by the 

146 East Tenth Street, between Broadway and Fourth Avenue- 

Capital, Ten Thousand Dollars. 

The Mi]£ is delivered to Families twice a day, in Two Quart (and over) 
Cans, from covered, handsome, four- wheeled Wagons, everything having an 
air of neatness, cleanliness, and thrift. 

Each Family has two cans of its own, with name, locked with duplicate 
keys, the owner having one, the Agent who fills them at the Office-., the other j 
hence, nothing can be added by the drivers. 

The Milk is delivered fresh by the Farmers to the Agent in Rockland 
County, who accompanies it, under lock and key, to the Tenth Street Depot, 
where Mr. Canfield superintends the filling of the Family Cans, which are 
then locked and dispatched through the city, to deliver the Milk precisely as 
it came from the cow, except that it has been cooled, and kept uniformly 
so, up to the time of delivery, without the possibility of having been skimmed 
or adulterated, or the milking of one part of the day mixed with a different 
milking. 

Families who desire it, can be furnished regularly with Milk from the 
same cow, for Children, at Eight Cents a Quart. Hotels, and Families using 
largely, supplied at reduced prices. 

To keep the Milk good, each can should be placed immediately in a cool 
place, and kept there, with the cover off all the time, and sending to the table 
or kitchen only what will be used at the time. 

The Association is composed of men of wealth and influence, who believe 
that private interest and public good can be subserved by securing to the 
Citizens of New York, night and morning, without noise, pure, fresh, new 
Milk, from farm-house cows, fed on grass and hay. 

The following unsolicited article is from the New York Express, of 
February 25, 1859 : 

" The Academy of Medicine are preparing a Report on Swill Milk, which 
we hear will realize the worst statements made during the Swill Milk 
excitement. Families with infant children cannot be too careful about the 
Milk they give their little ones. There is no true safety except in the 
honor of Dairymen and City Dealers. We some time ago called attention to 
the Rockland County Milk Association, of which Mr. Canfield, a highly- 
respectable citizen, is Superintendent. All that we then said in favor of the 
Af Nation has been more than realized in our own experience, in that of 
the Nursery and Child's Hospital, and by the analysis of some of our best 
physicians. Some of the Farmers there have invested their capital in this 
enterprise, and invite the strictest scrutiny into the character of their Dairies, 
and the quality of their Milk." 

S. W. CANFIELD, General Agent. 

ttOAOUIAW 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 



WE AIM TO SHOW HOW DISEASE MAT BE AVOIDED, AND THAT IT IS BEST, WHEN SICKNESS COMES, TO 
TAKE NO MEDICINE WITHOUT CONSULTING A PHYSICIAN. 



Vol. X.] JULY, 1863. [No. 7. 



THE PHYSICIAN. 

Next to the clergy, the educated physician is the greatest 
benefactor and conservator of the race, performs more personal 
service without fee or reward, and at his own individual ex- 
pense, than any other class in society. Yery much that doctors 
do is not appreciated by the great public ; is never dreamed of 
by the masses. The common feeling toward a medical man is 
that he is expected to come to us when we send for him, to know 
what is the matter with us, what we need, and, after we get well, 
to send his bill, receive payment, and the whole is settled. But 
in all this, his solicitudes; the balancing of his hopes and fears; 
the comparisons he has to make in his own mind ; the judg- 
ments he has to form ; and the responsibilities he has to assume, 
singly and alone, without counsel, without sympathy — these are 
not taken into account ; money could not pay for them. 

There is another item which does not enter into the imagina- 
tion of one man in a thousand. New forms of accidents are 
constantly occurring; new diseases are every now and then 
manifesting themselves for the first time in human history — 
sometimes so obscure, so singular, so unaccountable, that the 
public are stricken with alarm, often approaching absolute terror. 
Just before the cholera reached our shores in 1832 and '33, the 
feeling of the multitude was to run away from it ; when it did 
come, many died from the effect of abject, unresisting fear. 
The physician went to meet it, to investigate its nature and re- 
port upon it, if he ever returned, that his brethren might know 
how to handle it and save the people. But did the public ap- 
plaud ? did they vote to him the freedom of our great cities ? 



144 hall's journal of health. 

did they honor him with public ovations, and receive him with 
flowers and songs and the rejoicings of the populace ? Did any 
man or body of men offer to pay him for his time, his trouble, 
his risk, or even to refund the actual outlays of his journey. 
Not a mill toward that object was contributed by a single hu- 
man being. 

It may interest the inquiring reader to know the mode of 
procedure in reference to new diseases ; whether attacking in- 
dividuals, families, neighborhoods, or a whole nation. The 
main points to be ascertained are the causes, the symptoms, the 
nature, and the cure of the malady. If any one of these can 
be determined with reasonable certainty, all the others are 
pretty sure to follow sooner or later. In reference to the 
Asiatic cholera, one of the first impressions sent to us from 
across the Atlantic was, that persons in apparent perfect health 
were suddenly attacked and died in a few hours, in spite of all 
and every thing that could be done. The experienced physi- 
cian had to look at it just as it presented itself; he seized hold 
of the great predominant symptom ; that which overshadowed 
all others, and which was always present, never absent in one 
single case in all the millions previously reported ; that was 
the " looseness " or thin, light-colored watery passages. This 
being the case, it began to be inquired how long that symptom 
had been observed ; when was the looseness first noticed. In 
other words, health consists in one action of the bowels in each 
twenty -four hours — less, is disease ; more, is disease. The patient 
was then desired to note the time when he first began to have 
more than one daily action of the bowels. It was then ascer- 
tained, by comparing notes, that in no single case of any intelli- 
gent and observing person, did it happen that the looseness 
came on suddenly ; but its commencement was traced back 
from one to two, three, four, or more days ; and the conviction 
was settled upon, as a general rule, that an actual attack of 
cholera never presented itself until the bowels had been acting 
more than once in twenty-four hours for several days ; later on 
it was determined that the rule proved be considered universal. 
In some cases the unobservant, the uneducated, or the imbecile, 
reported differently, but the testimony of the cultivated and the 
reflecting, backed by the personal experience of those physi- 
cians who were themselves attacked with the disease, had to be 



THE PHYSICIAN-. 145 

received as conclusive. It was not long before this fact was 
heralded through every medical publication in the land ; was 
reduced to popular form, and handed to the newspapers, em- 
bodying the great fact, that cholera was, in all cases, ushered in 
by u premonitory symptoms," which, if promptly attended to 
on general principles, were as easily, as safely, and as certainly 
removed, as the very commonest disease known ; in fact, it was 
soon found out, that if a man seeing himself have two or three 
actions of the bowels in twenty-four hours, in cholera times, 
would only go to bed and keep quiet in body and mind in a 
cool, clean, well-aired room, the disease would be averted and 
the man be well in a day or two without a single atom of any 
kind of medicine whatever. This great fact has remained in- 
controvertible to the present hour. 

But it will be of greater interest to detail a case of very re- 
cent occurrence in the army ; and there is something of the fear- 
ful about it. Three regiments of soldiers — the Forty- third, 
Forty-fifth, and Fifty-first Massachusetts Volunteers — were en- 
camped together as near as possible. Within a month, an un- 
heard-of disease appeared among them. The soldier was sud- 
denly attacked without warning, with a chill, and died within 
twelve hours, almost as certainly as attacked. The Forty-fifth 
had five cases, all fatal ; the Fifty -first had seventeen cases, not 
one recovered ; the Forty-fourth had twenty cases, of which 
twelve died ; the remaining eight lingered, but did not recover. 
The instinct of any community under such circumstances would 
have been to run wildly away ; this was not possible for sol- 
diers. The surgeon had to look at the danger face to face, and 
do all that was possible, first to find out the cause and then re- 
move it. A common mind might have looked into matters for 
a month or a year, by which time every solitary man would 
have made his last bivouac under the clods of the field. Not 
so with the surgeon ; his first care was to notice if one regiment 
suffered more in proportion to its numbers than another ; and 
if so, what circumstances were there in the regiment which suf- 
fered most, different from those in the regiment the least afflict- 
ed. The Forty-third regiment did not report a single case, yet 
these three regiments were close together. All the Forty-third 
lived in tents ; the other two lived in wooden barracks. But 
soldiers had lived in wooden barracks thousands of times before, 



146 hall's jouknal of health. 

without any such disease appearing ; still there was the great 
difference staring the surgeon in the face. The linen tents 
gave life ; the wooden barracks spread a deadly disease. These 
barracks were made of hard, green pine timber. It was obvious, 
then, that the first great step to be taken was to order a change 
of quarters, and thus see if barracks made of hard, green pine 
lumber was adequate to the generation of such a deadly malady. 
As soon as the quarters were changed, the disease forthwith 
disappeared. The Fifty-first regiment were allowed to remain 
longer in their barracks ; the disease meanwhile spreading itself, 
when they, too, shifted their quarters, and the malady suddenly 
disappeared. There can be no two opinions in a case like 
this ; the cause of the sickness was living at that season of the 
year in houses made of hard, green pine- wood ; and the cause 
having been demonstrated, it only remained to remove it. 
This is the highest, the noblest aim of the physician, to prevent 
disease ; and who shall not say, that is a diviner skill than to 
cure? 

But a burning shame would attach to the educated prac- 
titioner who would be satisfied with this attainment ; hence in 
pity for the ignorant who might hereafter inadvertently expose 
themselves to the causes of disease, or be compelled to such ex- 
posure by those who had authority over them, it is important to 
find out the nature of the ailment, which often gives a clue to 
the remedy ; the quickest way of doing this is to examine the 
dead body and see what parts of it are affected in a manner 
different from one which had perished in perfect health, by ac- 
cident. In this case, several parts of the body were in a healthy 
condition ; other parts were affected as they might have been 
in several common diseases ; but some of these parts were af- 
fected in some cases but not in all. It was necessary then, as a 
point of departure, to notice if any part of the body of one dy- 
ing of this strange disease, was always affected, and affected in 
the same way. This would be specific ; it would be a found- 
ation-stone, the "head of the corner," It was soon found with 
great uniformity that the membrane which invests, or lines the 
brain was inflamed, and as the spinal cord is but a prolongation 
of the brain, this inflammation was traced all along its course 
to its extremest distance, at the very tip end of the seat. Now, 
when it is remembered that if a single organ or lobule of the 



THE PHYSICIAN. 147 

brain is inflamed, even a single square inch of it, the man is 
crazy as to that' particular organ ; when it is remembered fur- 
ther, that if a single inch of the spinal marrow is inflamed, it 
disorders every part of the human body which is supplied with 
nerves from that particular section, it can be readily seen how 
naturally it would follow that the whole system would so soon 
perish, when the entire brain and the entire spinal column, was 
in an actively diseased state in this new malady. 

This disease is so recent, and of such a nature, that time has 
not been allowed to ascertain more than three prominent points : 
first, the cause ; second, the seat ; third, no treatment is of any 
avail. Further advances, however, will doubtless be made in 
due time, and published to the world. 

This article has been written to give the general reader some 
idea, some better appreciation of what the practice of medicine 
really is, and how it is that a man learns to be a doctor ; that 
u doctoring," as it is sometimes termed, is not to be taken up 
like a trade ; it is not a thing to be learned in all its parts like 
the making of a dress, or the construction of an engine. A 
man may learn to make a box in an hour, and he may continue 
to make other boxes like it to the end of time ; and all the 
progress he makes is in mechanical handiness, so that he shall 
make boxes hereafter in a neater manner and in a shorter time. 
The physician does not become master of his art by learning to 
cure one disease, by giving a particular drug ; and then learn 
to cure another disease, by giving another medicine, until he 
has gone through all maladies yet known to man. He can't 
learn to be a successful physician by reading books ; it is an 
impossibility. The very first case a young gentleman is called 
to, the day after he receives his diploma, is just as likely as not 
to have an element or circumstance connected with it unlike any 
he ever read or saw or heard of. But we are not then to con- 
clude that he is powerless ; that he is like a ship at sea without 
rudder or sail ; that he knows no more what to do than any 
body else ; very far from it. He has been indoctrinated into 
the general principles of medicine, and he knows he has to ob- 
serve, compare and decide ; observe the symptoms, compare 
them with others which he has seen, read or heard of, and then 
by the exercise of a calm judgment, determine what remedies 
are applicable to that particular character and class of symp- 



148 

toms. Thus an educated physician may intelligently prescribe 
for an ailment new to him, with as reasonable hopes of success 
as a man skilled in the mechanic arts can fabricate a piece of 
furniture or a machine, the like of which never entered the 
brain of mortal man before, according to the description given 
him by the person desiring it to be made. He does this by the 
practical application of certain known principles of. adaptation, 
of cause and effect ; and only such a man is entitled to be con- 
sidered as master of his trade. And he only becomes a skillful 
and successful physician who practices his profession, not by 
the administration of medicines for symptoms, according to the 
book, but by the apt application of certain well-established 
principles to the particular case in hand. 

It may be useful in this connection to impress one wholesome 
truth on the popular mind, which, by the way, sadly needs en- 
lightenment in this particular direction. It is a part of the 
education of the medical profession, and which no honorable 
man ever ignores, to have all things in common ; every thing 
that is new as to the cause, character and cure of disease. As 
soon as an educated physician finds a new remedy for an ail- 
ment, he communicates it to the medical journals, and within a 
year it is known all over the civilized world ; the result is, his 
brethren in all nations have the benefit of his discovery ; they 
do the same thing in return, and thus the physician who keeps 
up with the times, has not only the advantage of his own ex- 
perience, but that of all the scientific and practical members of 
the profession throughout the world. But if by chance the 
charlatan or the quack becomes acquainted with a valuable 
remedy for a particular disease, instead of generously throwing 
it open to the whole world for the benefit of suffering humanity, 
he locks it up in his own bosom, hoards the precious treasure 
as the miser does his gold, and doles it out in the shape of a 
" patent medicine" to those only who can pay for it ; others 
may die for aught he cares ; and those who countenance and 
aid and abet him, by giving him certificates for publication, do 
but make themselves partakers of his meanness, and justly 
merit the contempt of the humane and the good of every land. 



THE PEW SYSTEM. 149 



THE PEW SYSTEM. 

Statisticians have said that more persons kill themselves in 
summer-time than during the remainder of the year. Suicide 
is nearly always the result of mental suffering, of remorse, oi 
worldly care, of disappointment, of misplaced confidence, of an 
abiding impression of forsakenness. The best balm for suffering 
hearts like these is found in the comforting and soothing influ- 
ences of Christian doctrine ; and these are to be found by the 
stranger, the troubled, and the outcast, in the house of God on 
the Sabbath-day, and that, too, without the necessity of exposing 
the secrets of their hearts to others, for these are fully known 
to Him who can be "touched with the feeling of our infirm- 
ities," and hence knows how to sympathize with his discouraged 
and suffering children. Multitudes more of such are found in 
cities and large towns, than in the village and the country 
church ; and yet common custom has brought it about that a 
large number of the houses of public worship in cities are closed 
in the summer. This ought not to be. There can be no doubt 
that the regular incumbents severely need two or three months 
of recreation in the country, of entire release from pastoral duty 
at home, of rest for the mind, and renovation for the body. 
But a great good could be accomplished in various ways, and 
no time lost, if there were to be an interchange of labor be- 
tween city and country pastors ; for the three summer months, 
each could preach without special study ; each could enjoy a 
change of air, and food, and associations, and exercises ; while 
the members of exchanging churches would have a variety of 
spiritual aliment not altogether without its good uses. It would 
answer a great good purpose also to have it universally known 
that during the hot months, all houses of religious worship 
should be absolutely free to all comers; this arrangement 
would not only be a return to apostolic times, when " the poor 
have the Gospel preached to them," but it would aid in filling 
up depleted congregations, and thus enable ministers to officiate 
with greater ease, comfort, and encouragement ; for it is well 
known that the fuller any house is, not only is it easier to 
preach, but there is an influence in large numbers, in crowded 
houses, which predisposes the mind to the more eager and 
profitable reception of the truth which may be presented. 



150 

It must not be said that the public are welcome to seats in 
our churches ; they are not welcome to any first-class church in 
New- York City. Doubtless, the public are welcome theoreti- 
cally ; and, in fact, pains are taken to advertise in the public 
papers very extensively, that religious services will be he]d at 
such a place and such an hour, and "respectfully invited to at- 
tend," is the stereotype phrase. No doubt the minister's heart 
would be delighted to have the house filled from floor to dome ; 
no doubt every member of the society, parish, or congregation 
would be highly pleased to see the whole house full — provided, 
yes, provided, he had his own pew all to himself and his own 
family. Such persons would be even glad to give up their own 
seats to any eminent citizen or distinguished name. But as 
for being pleased to find his pew occupied by John Smith and 
all the little Smiths, and the great big red-faced Mrs. Smith, 
that is out of the question, even though this same John Smith 
and family were " known of all " to be a very fine family and 
without reproach. But now for the proof, for doctors always 
like to clinch their statements with "cases" in point, which 
have come under their own personal observation. 

Now we give the reader notice beforehand, that we are going 
to be personal and specific ; a kind of spice necessary to make, 
an article for a July day at all readable. We must, however, 
state first and foremost, in self-defense, that we seldom go to 
any other church than our own ; and the worse the weather, 
the more need we feel it to be a kind of holding up of the hands 
of our worthy minister ; and there is more in this statement 
than would seem to be on the surface ; for to attend church 
twice a day on the Sabbath, requires of us a six-mile walk 
along Fifth Avenue ; which is as great a test of faith under the 
broiling sun of July as in the zero of mid- winter. If we do 
not go to our own church, it is because there is "no meeting " 
there, or we are " professionally engaged," or otherwise called 
away. When our house is closed, we have sometimes, under a 
strong outside pressure, such as a public announcement, or flam- 
ing advertisement, or to gratify some visitor to our city, gone to 
other places, but not with very agreeable results always. 

The only prominent church in New-York in which we have 
seen things done in the right way is at "Brother Chapin's," 
that is ; Henry Ward Beecher's " Brother," not ours ! As he 



THE PEW SYSTEM. 151 

believes that all are to be saved, sooner or later, (it will be very 
late as to some fellows we know,) he and his leading men invite 
all to come, and welcome all who enter their doors, by having 
some half a dozen of their leading men to stand at the entrance 
of the aisles for the purpose of showing strangers to convenient 
seats without waiting a moment ; this is Christian politeness ; 
this is a true civilization. 

To begin at our own church, (an editor takes the privilege of 
seeing and hearing all he can, and also of making any practical 
use of it he chooses, by making it fit in wherever suits him 
best,) we once heard a rich Broadway merchant blowing up our 
worthy sexton, " before folks," for having shown a stranger 
into his pew, which was only occupied besides by himself and 
handsome young wife. On another occasion, a poor old 
"brother" who used to sit in the gallery came down to the 
communion by invitation, but got into the " wrong pew" that 
time, for it belonged to a " sister " in the; church, and the way 
she did blaze away for his presuming to occupy her seat with- 
out being invited, would have astonished the pastor who ha$ 
delivered to her the " elements " not half an hour before ! It 
turned out that the poor old man never came to church after- 
ward, for he sickened and died the same summer, and, no 
doubt, went up higher than that sister will ever get. 

"We have before named our adventure with a gifted lady on 
our arm, who particularly wanted to hear the celebrated incum- 
bent of the All Souls' or All Saints' striped building on Fourth 
Avenue. There were not fifty people in the pews, but there 
were more at the door- way, waiting to be shown to seats ; for 
the public had been " invited to attend" through the Saturday 
papers. The sexton must have thought there was an endless 
job before him, and in despair of getting through with the in- 
creasing crowd, he made a tremendous sweep of his arm, ex- 
claiming, at the same time : " There's plenty of room in the 
gallery." We have several times been to the Brick Church on 
Murray Hill, Fifth Avenue, and to the best of our present re- 
collection, never have been invited to a seat ; no doubt we would 
have been, had we waited long enough. But when there are 
even ladies standing, at the end of the "long prayer," it is 
time to accommodate yourself, which we have uniformly done 
by going up into the gallery and sitting on the steps, whence 



152 hall's journal of health. 

we have seen persons still waiting for a seat at the commence- 
ment of the sermon ; this was, however, on the occasion of a 
splendid doctrinal discourse by that eminently able and gifted 
divine, the Eev. W. L. Eice, D.D., whose power of lucid ex- 
planation of scripture doctrine is not equaled hj any clergy- 
man we have ever listened to at home or abroad. A one-horse 
sexton is not enough for our large churches ; there ought to be 
two men, (or women ushers, as we have seen in London,) at the 
head of each aisle, until the moment of taking the text, when 
the outer doors should be closed. But worse than any thing 
yet happened to us last summer. We had for a long time 
wanted to hear that great and good man, the Rev. Dr. "Williams, 
(Baptist ;) but his church was "closed for the summer." On 
our way home, we chanced to pass the "Mercer-street Church," 
and recollecting that the secular papers of the day before had 
announced that a distinguished scholar and divine would offi- 
ciate, whom we had long wanted to hear, we stepped in ; at 
least half the pews had not a single occupant, and as we saw no 
sexton about, we concluded that the seats were " free indeed," 
and took one near the door, on the left-hand side of the central 
aisle ; such seats being usually appropriated to strangers, loung- 
ers and " niggers ;" and being the only occupant, with our little 
boy of eight years, we forthwith became absorbed in the minis- 
ter, in trying to find an answer to the question : " What man is 
that?" Not for the words that came out of his mouth, but for 
the manner. Meanwhile we had most completely forgotten the 
fact of the public announcement; for we soon found ourself 
almost audibly exclaiming: " This certainly can't be the pastor 
of this church." " No city congregation could by any possi- 
bility have elected such a concentration of affectedness as that." 
Then the mind got mixed up entirely ; for it ran off into a 
balancing of the question of deformity, as if we were looking at 
Mr. Williams, who has some bodily defect ; but his mind how 
grand and lofty ! The speaker was all crouched down, as if he 
were going to make a hoop out of himself. He was reading a 
portion of Scripture. His nose almost touched the book ; one 
shoulder seemed to be about a foot long and pointed with a 
very obtuse angle down into the cellar ; the other about two 
inches long, looked sky high ; then we transmogrified ourself 
into an inquisitive old-time Yankee — that is to say, a pharisee ; 



153 

and wanted to know if " this man were born so," or if not, what 
kind of an accident could have induced such a deformity, or 
what sin had he committed, that such a thing should have'be- 
fallen him. And then the manner of his reading ; it was in 
that soft, smooth, measured, oily manner and tone, which is 
apt to be assumed by those who are deliberately attempting to 
deceive,, or to charm. We make no charges ; and only wish to 
state what was passing in the mind ; but before we could come 
to any conclusion that was at all satisfactory, we were tapped 
on the shoulder, and looking round, there was the sexton, who 
in a very civil manner asked if a seat nearer the pulpit would not 
be more pleasant ? The reader will know how quick thoughts 
can fly sometimes, and how soon the mind jumps to conclusions. 
We felt pleased at the consideration of the sexton, and flattered 
also at his attention ; thinking, in fact — shall it be confessed ? — 
that he saw something about us which led him to believe we 
were not a common individual. And as he was the first person 
whose optics were sharp enough 

" To see what was not to be seen," 

we were about setting him down in the book of our estimation 
as a very smart man ; and expressed, with a respectful declin- 
ation, our obligation for his consideration. "But," said the 
worthy man, " the owner wants to occupy the pew himself." 
Now we didn't get mad as fire. That would neither have been 
wise nor profitable nor becoming. In truth, it would have 
been " infra dig." The thought ran through the mind a hun- 
dred times quicker than can be expressed. " It's all right ! very 
natural that a man should want his own pew ;" and half feeling 
that we ought not to have entered it, we whispered to the 
" owner" on leaving it, that we would go nearer the pulpit, 
where we could hear better. This was said for two reasons : 
first, that his feelings should not be hurt by our leaving the 
pew altogether; and second, we were willing enough to get 
nearer ; as we enjoy religious services better, the nearer we can 
get to the pulpit. We heard an excellent, able, pertinent and 
instructive discourse ; the minister stretched himself out " as 
straight as a shingle ;" his voice was distinct and manly ; his 
shoulders square and even and well balanced, and we went 
home, glad to have gone where we did. But what do you 



154 THE PEW SYSTEM. 

think, reader? when we got home, we found old "Clooty" there » 
and he set us thinking over all that had passed, and would you 
believe it? we feel some inklings of irritation every time we 
think of it to this day. There were at least a dozen pews near 
without a single occupant; and the "owner" ought to have felt 
free enough to have entered his own pew, or occupy any of the 
vacant ones. How long he may have stood waiting for us to 
see him, we can't say ; he might have stood to the end of the 
discourse, for, as we stated, we were in serious quandaries ; in 
an investigating turn of mind ; were, in short, in the pursuit of 
knowledge under difficulties. We have not written this article 
as an abuse of the pew system, for it may be necessary under 
all the circumstances of the times. But it does seem more in 
accordance with the essence of the Christian religion, which is 
brotherly kindness and charity, that it should be offered to all, 
to the poor and the distressed, the stranger and the helpless, 
with the same "freedom" as it was given, which was without 
money and without price. The great pioneer Church, the Me- 
thodist, has flourished under the free-pew system, far beyond 
that of any other evangelical denomination ; the Society of 
Friends have free seats; with them the beggar has as absolute 
right to a place in their meeting-house as any prince or poten- 
tate. At all events, we close with two suggestions : first, let 
city churches be literally free to all during the three summer 
months ; second, hold out no false light of inviting the public 
to attend through the public papers when thej must stand wait- 
ing a quarter of an hour, and when invited to a seat, may be 
invited also to get up and march and counter-march two or 
three times during the discourse, to let in the "owner's" 
family. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 145. 



EMANATIONS. 

Philosophers have said that light and heat are ponderable bodies, and that 
although these have been coming out from the sun for six thousand years, that 
immense illuminary has not appreciably diminished in size. 

The sweetest rose of the beautiful May throws out its delightful fragrance from 
the first flush of the spring morning until dewy eve, and remains as sweet as ever 
and quite as large. 

The face and air of beauty charmed a thousand hearts yesterday ; a thousand 
more feed upon it to-day, and other thousands of eyes will look upon it to-morrow 
with a lingering rapture, and the next day it will be not less beautiful than it was 
a week ago. 

Influences go out hourly from the wise and good, and as years roll on these 
influences gather force, while the wise become wiser, and the good better, hour 
by hour. 

So with business men of integrity, of sterling and tried principles, they throw out 
an influence from themselves which is a power for good in every community, to 
restrain the wrong-doer, and awe villainy. 

All these are " emanations," influences ; material, moral, social ; there are also 
" emanations" malign. 

In an autumn morning of the sunny South, or amid the flower-clad prairies of 
the wide-spreading West, or on the shores of our own Northern lakes and inland 
seas and crystal flowing streams from among the mountains, as delicious as the 
still air is, it is more so in the cool of the evening after the sun has gone down 
from the sky ; and yet that balmy atmosphere is so loaded with miasmatic poison 
that it breeds disease and pestilence and death in a night ; it will do the same on 
successive nights, to one or a million of human beings, without any appreciable 
diminution in either the amount or malignity of its venom ; and so ethereal is it 
that no alembic of the chemist has ever been able to detect its presence, even to 
the amount of a single atom. 

The very sight of filth and squalor and rags, of a victim of the horrifying small- 
pox, of the wretch whose whole body is a mass of festering corruption — any of these 
fill the most transient observer with unutterable disgust. 

Proximity to moral worth, to maiden purity, to virtuous womanhood, to high 
Christian character, as infallibly elevate, ennoble, and sanctify, as associations with 
lawlessness, bestiality, and crime, degrade and ruin and destroy. 

If then we desire that emanations should go out from us fairly loaded with influ- 
ences and powers which are healthful, beautiful, elevating, and benign, we must be 
clean in person, as well as pure in heart ; we must strive to be as faultless in dress 
as we desire to be engaging in manner ; we must bring to our assistance all the aids 
of taste and art in order to present to the world as far as possible a comely and 
perfect physique ; just as reason and grace are summoned to help us attain a high 
moral and religious character. In plainer phrase, if your clothes are dirty, wash 
them, or stay at home ; if they are ragged, patch them, or keep out of the street ; 
if you are deformed, employ a tailor or dressmaker of genius ; if you have lost a 
limb, get a Palmer leg ; if you have a snaggled tooth, consult Allen of Bond street, 
for comeliness is a duty as much as health, and so is religion I 



156 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 146. 



DROWNING. 



As multitudes go a bathing during the heats of summer, and even the very best swimmers are 
liable to be drowned, perhaps more liable than others, from their very fearlessness, it is a proper 
precaution for every individual to be familiar with the means of resuscitation. The London physi- 
cians advise, 

1. To send instantly for a medical man, and while he is coming, place the patient in the open 
air, unless the weather is very cold ; expose the face and chest especially to the breeze. 

2. To clear the throat.— Place the patient gently face downward, with one wrist under the fore- 
head, in which position all fluids will escape by the mouth, and the tongue itself will fall forward, 
leaving the entrance into the windpipe free. Assist this operation by wiping and cleansing the 
mouth. If there be breathing, wait and watch ; if not, or if it fail, then, 

3. To excite respiration. — Turn the patient well and instantly on the side, and, 

4. Excite the nostrils with snuff, hartshorn, volatile salts, or the throat with a feather, etc., and 
dash cold water on the face, previously rubbed warm. If there be no success, lose not a moment, 
but instantly begin, 

5. To imitate respiration. — Replace the patient on his face, raising and supporting the chest 
well on a folded coat or other article of dress. 

6. Turn the body very gently on the side and a little beyond, and then briskly on the face, 
alternately ; repeating these measures deliberately, efficiently, and perseveringly, about fifteen 
times in the minute, or every four seconds, occasionally varying the side. [By placing the patient 
on the chest, its cavity is compressed by the weight of the body, and expiration takes place ; when 
turned on the side, this pressure is removed, and inspiration occurs.] 

7. On each occasion that the body is replaced on the face, make uniform but efficient pressure, 
with brisk movement on the back, between and below the shoulder-blades or bones, on each side, 
removing the pressure immediately before turning the body on the side. 

8. After respiration has been restored, promote the warmth of the body by the application of hot 
flannels, bottles or bladders of hot water, heated bricks, etc., to the stomach, the arm-pits, between 
the thighs, and to the soles of the feet, to induce circulation and warmth. 

9. During the whole time do not cease to rub the limbs upward, with firm, grasping pressure, 
and with energy, using handkerchiefs, flannels, etc. 

JO. Let the limbs be thus warmed and dried, and then clothed, the bystanders supplying the 
requisite garments. 

Cautions. — 1. Send quickly for medical assistance and for dry clothing. 2. Avoid all rough 
usage and turning the body on the back. 3. Under no circumstances hold up the body by the 
feet ; 4. Nor roll the body on casks ; 5. Nor rub the body with salts or spirits ; 6. Nor inject tobacco 
smoke or infusion of tobacco. 7. Avoid the continuous warm bath. 8. Be particularly careful, in 
every case, to prevent persons crowding around the body. 

General Observations. — On the restoration of life, a teaspoonful of warm water should be 
given ; and then, if the power of swallowing has returned, small quantities of wine or brandy and 
water, warm, or coffee. The patient should be kept in bed, and a disposition to sleep encouraged. 
The treatment recommended should be persevered in for a considerable time, as it is an erroneous 
opinion that persons are irrecoverable because life does not soon make its appearance, cases hav- 
ing been successfully treated after persevering several hours. 

In endeavoring to rescue a drowning person, take him by the arm from behind, between the 
elbow and the shoulder. A good swimmer can, by " treading water," catch both arms thus, and 
keep the person from going under for an hour, the very struggles of the victim aiding in buoying him 
up, for his feet then are mainly engaged, and he also, to that extent, " treads water." If a drown- 
ing person is seized anywhere else, he is pretty sure to clutch with a death-grip, and both perish. 

Any one can remain for hours in water, whether he can swim or not, by clasping his hands be- 
hind him, throwing himself on his back, so as to allow only hia nose to be out of the water ; a very 
little presence of mind, force of will, and confidence, will enable any one to assume this position. 



157 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 147. 



DIETING- 



Is usually considered to mean the same thing as a kind of starvation. The idea 
which the educated physician attaches to the term is a judicious regulation of the 
quantity and quality of the food, according to the circumstances of each case. A 
healthy man may diet himself in order to keep well ; an invalid may diet himself 
with a view to the recovery of his health ; yet the things eaten by the two will 
widely differ in their nature, bulk, and mode of preparation. A vast multitude are 
suffering hourly by the horrors of dyspepsia ; no two are precisely alike in all 
points, since there is an endless variety of combinations as to age, sex, occupation, 
air, exercise, mode of eating, sleeping, constitution, temperament, etc. Yet dys- 
pepsia is always brought on by over and irregular eating ; it could be banished 
from the world in a generation, if the children were educated to eat moderately, 
regularly, and slowly ; the parents who do this will do their offspring a higher good 
than by leaving them large fortunes, which, in three cases out of four, foster idle- 
ness, gluttony, and every evil thing. As the rich can get any thing to eat or drink 
when they want it, they, with indulged children, bring on dyspepsia by eating 
irregularly and without an appetite. The poor — those who have to work for a liv- 
ing — induce the horrible disease by eating too rapidly and at unseasonable hours ; 
mainly by eating heartily at supper, and going to bed within an hour or two after- 
ward. In the heyday of youth and manly vigor there may not for a while be 
noticed any special ill effect from such a practice — in truth, it is at first inappreciable, 
but it is cumulative, and impossible not to manifest itself in due time. Infinite Be- 
nevolence forgives a moral delinquency ; but omnipotent as he is, and loving to- 
ward all, it is not in the nature of his government of created things to work a 
miracle, to suspend a natural law, in order to shield one of his creatures from the 
legitimate effects of a violence offered the physical system by excesses in eating, 
drinking, or exercise. 

Perhaps hearty suppers make more dyspeptics than any or all other causes com- 
bined. If dinner is at noon, nothing should be taken for supper but a single cup 
of weak tea, or other hot drink, and a piece of stale bread and butter. After 
forty years of age, those who live in-doors, sedentary persons — that is, all who do 
not work with their hands as laborers — would do better not to take any supper at 
all. Half-the time the sedentary, who eat at noon, do not feel hungry at supper ; 
especially if they see nothing on the table but bread, and butter, and tea. But 
nature is goaded to act against her instincts in almost every family in the nation 
by "relishes" being placed on the supper-table, in the shape of chipped beef, 
salt fish, cake, preserves, or other kinds of sweetmeat, and before the person is 
aware, a hearty meal has been taken, resulting in present uncomfortableness, in 
disturbed sleep, in a weary waking in the morning, bad taste in the mouth, and 
little or no appetite for breakfast, all of which can be avoided by beginning early 
to eat habitually, according to the suggestions above made. 



158 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 148. 



SUMMER DRINKS. 

In passing along Nassau street, near the Post-Office, any hot summer's day, 
there may be seen a sign on which is written " Iced Whisky." The newspapers 
abound in recipes for making a great variety of cooling drinks for the summer- 
time. A corner of the Post-Office of the great city of New-York is hired to a man 
for a few dollars a year, who has perhaps a dozen different kinds of " cooling " 
drinks, patronized mainly by store-boys, and paid for, in too many cases, by pen- 
nies filched from their employers. The cigars and tobacco sold at the same place 
are, doubtless, paid for in the same way, and are as cooling as the " iced whisky " 
near the office of the Evening Post. The absurdity of any thing having a cooling 
effect on the human system which contains a particle of alcohol, whether cognac, 
lager, or cider, need not be remarked on. If these things are cooling, how comes 
it that they are never by any chance offered in summer-time without ice, or iced 
water ? It is greatly to be regretted that the United States Government, or the 
Postmaster of New- York, should, for a few dollars a year, be "particeps criminis " 
in making spendthrifts, drunkards, and thieves of store-boys, who are generally, 
perhaps, sent from the country with a certain degree of purity of character, tender- 
ness of conscience, and constitutional vigor, with a view of becoming merchant- 
princes and useful men. A similar crime against society is committed, inadvertent- 
ly no doubt, by our family and religious newspapers, in sending out their directions 
for making " cooling drinks for summer," in the shape of root-beers, lemonades, 
mulled wine, and the like. Whatever tempts to drink liquids, even cold water in 
hot weather, endangers health and life itself. Even the iced Croton at our dinner- 
tables and at the public schools (by the contributions of the scholars) is wholly in- 
jurious to the general health and most pernicious to the teeth. It is not true that 
soda-water even is harmless. A boy who takes a glass to-day in the corner of the 
Post-Office will feel like doing it to-morrow, and in less than a week the desire for 
it will come the instant he gets in sight of that famous corner ; after a while he 
will want another glass in the afternoon ; later on, it will be lemonades, into which 
the venders have already begun to introduce coloring matters, syrups, wines, and 
" old Bourbon." These are the beginnings of the end of a drunkard's dreadful 
fate. If a man is really thirsty, there is nothing more delicious, nothing which is 
more gratefully and perfectly satisfying, than a glass of cool water, with the advan- 
tage of its costing nothing, and besides leads to no bad habits. The men in glass 
manufactories, where the heat is fearful, drink water only, and that not iced, and 
remain healthy and vigorous. Field-hands on cotton and sugar plantations find a 
wholesome drink in a mixture of molasses and water ; this is a safe drink for har- 
vesters ; so also is " buttermilk," it being not only cooling and nutritious, but 
otherwise healthful as a liver stimulant. 



159 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 149. 



DIPHTHERIAL DISEASE, 



Diphtheria is now a familiar household word ; within a very few years, indeed, 
it had never been heard of by one in a million of the masses. Its fearfully sudden 
and fatal character, especially among children, makes it of the highest importance 
that those, at least, who have families should know something of its nature, its causes, 
its symptoms, and its cure. By examining a great many who have died of it, some 
general facts have been ascertained, which are of considerable practical interest. 
Neither chemistry nor the microscope have yet been able to determine that any 
particular structure of the body is uniformly invaded ; nor have any characteristic 
lesions or destruction of parts been found. One thing, however, is certain: the 
whole mass of blood is corrupted, is diseased, is destitute of those elements which 
are necessary to health ; it is of a dark, grumous, ugly appearance, filling up every 
vein and artery, stagnating everywhere, clogging up the whole machinery of life, 
oppressing the brain, and arresting the flow of nervous energy in every part of the 
system. No wonder, then, that it crushes out the life, in a very few hours, of feeble 
childhood, and of older persons who have but little constitutional force. 

The three most universally present symptoms of diphtheria in the child are, 1st, 
general prostration of the whole system ; 2d, an instinctive carrying of the hand 
to the throat ; 3d, an offensive breath. 

As chemistry has not been able to detect any poisonous ingredient in the atmos- 
phere where diphtheria prevails, we are left to the inference that the air of such a 
locality is simply deprived of one of its essential health-ingredients ; for let it be 
remembered, that if a little more oxygen were added to the atmosphere we breathe, 
the very first match that was struck would envelop the world in fire in an instant 
of time, while if there was a little more nitrogen added to it, all that breathes would 
suffocate and die within the hour, so easy is it for Omnipotence to wrap the solid 
globe in flames, or sweep from existence the entire race of animals and man ! 

Children are almost exclusively attacked with diphtheria because it is a disease of 
debility — a disease which depresses every power of life — hence the weaker the sub- 
ject is, the more liable to an attack. An adult has only to maintain himself, the child 
has to dp that and to grow also ; hence it has a double call for a constant supply of 
strength ; and a very little deficit in that quality of the air which gives vitality to the 
blood, is sufficient to make it a fit subject for a diphtheritic attack. The few grown 
persons who have diphtheria have invariably some scrofulous or other weakening 
element. Neither a man nor a child in really vigorous health is ever attacked with 
it ; they only suffer who are at the time deficient in stamina — have not the proper 
resisting power against the inroads of disease. 

There is no evidence whatever that diphtheria is " catching." The matter and 
breath of it have been introduced into the eyes, lips, mouth, arm, etc., of physicians 
who have generously hazarded these experiments upon themselves, without the 
slightest ill effects whatever. When several members of a family are attacked, it is 
not because it is derived one from another, but because of similarity of constitution, 
habits of life, eating, drinking, air, and other surroundings. It has not as yet been 
established that a stranger, going into a family where there is diphtheria, takes the 



The treatment is a well-ventilated room, sustaining nourishment, and strengthen- 
ing remedies. 

Diphtheria is not innoculable ; prevails in every climate, in all seasons, and is 
equally at home in the princely mansions which line the spacious and well-cleaned 
street, and in the houses of stenchy courts and contracted alleys. It has no fixed 
course, may recur any number of times, but only fastens on the scrofulous or those 
whose constitutions are impaired, or have poor blood ; the immediate cause of 
attack being the breathing of a faulty or defective atmosphere. 



160 
HEALTH TRACT. No. 150. 



LOOSE BOWELS. 



There are three kinds of loose bowels, technically called f ■ diarrhea," or a " flow- 
ing through" of water, bile, or blood. If it is water, it is diarrhea proper ; if it is 
bile, it is bilious diarrhea : if it is blood, it is dysentery. Simple diarrhea is a thin, 
light-colored discharge from the bowels, occurring five, ten, or twenty times in 
twenty-four hours ; if let alone it becomes Asiatic cholera in certain states of the 
atmosphere. Its great characteristic is the extraordinary debilitating effect which 
speedily pervades the whole body ; the patient feels, when he sits down, as if it 
would be a happiness just to be allowed to remain there. Absolute quietude is an 
elysium to him. Instinct calls for the most perfect rest possible, and thus points 
out the most certain and appropriate of all modes of cure, which is absolute and 
continuous rest on a bed, in a cool, clean, well-aired room, until the passages 
assume the consistency of mason's mortar, and not oftener than twice in twenty- 
four hours. In health the bowels are incessantly moving, not unlike worms in a 
carrion; hence the ancients designated it as the "vermicular action," vermis 
meaning a worm. If there is not activity enough, we have constipation, or torpid, 
sleepy action ; when this action is excessive, it is diarrhea. Every step a man takes 
has a tendency to set the bowels in motion ; hence one of the most certain and fre- 
quent and efficient cures of constipation, when the bowels act but once in two or 
three or more days, is to be moving about on the feet almost all the time. If then 
motion tends to increase the activity of the bowels, when that activity is too great, 
instinct, alike with reason, dictates as perfect quietude as possible. If the symp- 
toms do not abate by simply resting on a bed, a greater quietude of the vermicular 
motion is compelled by simply binding a strip of woolen flannel, about fourteen 
inches wide, tightly around the abdomen or "stomach," so as to be double in front, 
the effect of which is to give the bowels less room to move about in ; affords re- 
markable strength to the whole body, and keeps the surface warm, soft, and moist. 
As the dis'ease is a too great flow of fluids through the system, drinking fluids of any 
description only aggravates the malady. Yet, as the thirst is sometimes excessive, 
lumps of ice may be chewed and swallowed in as large pieces as possible, to any 
extent desired. No food should be eaten except rice, parched like coffee, boiled as 
usual, served, and eaten with an equal bulk of boiled milk. This may be varied by 
boiling a pint of flour in a linen bag, in milk, for an hour or two, skin off the out- 
side, dry it, grate it in boiled milk, make it palatable with salt or sugar, and eat as 
much as desired every fifth hour during the day, eating and drinking nothing else. 
This treatment will cure nine cases out of ten, if adopted promptly within forty- 
eight hours ; if not, call in a physician. 



161 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 151. 



CHOLERA., 



Or "Asiatic Cholera," as first known in this country in 1832 and '33, is chiefly a 
disease prevailing in warm weather, or rather in a warm atmosphere, for it can be 
created at any season, and in the coldest latitudes, by combining the 'proper degrees 
of the three essential requisites, to wit, moisture, vegetable decay, and a regular 
heat, exceeding eighty degrees. The great and distinguishing feature of cholera 
is a copious, frequent, and painless discharge from the bowels of a substance almost 
as thin as water, with a whitish tinge, as if rice had been washed in it, or as if a 
little milk had been dropped in it. When this occurs the patient soon begins to 
perspire profusely, the skin assumes a leaden hue and shrivels up, the nails become 
blue, insufferable cramps come on, and the victim's death occurs in a few hours 
with the most perfect calmness, in the fullest possession of all the faculties, and 
absolute freedom from every pain. 

Three things ought to be known, in reference to cholera, by every human being : 

First : The writer has never known a case in which it was not preceded, for one, 
two, or more days, by the bowels acting twice, or oftener, in every twenty-four 
hours; universally styled "the premonitory symptoms." 

Second: A cure is impossible under any conceivable circumstances, without 
absolute quietude of body, on a bed, for days together ; the time of confinement 
being shortened, in proportion to the promptitude with which the quietude is 
secured, after the first action of the bowels has taken place, which gives a feeling 
of tiredness, and, on sitting down, a sensation of rest and satisfaction. 

Third : When the patient ceases to urinate he begins to die, and its resumption 
is a certain index of recovering health, always and infallibly. 

One of the usual attendants of an attack of cholera is an unconquerable tendency 
to vomit. The very instant any thing reaches the stomach, even if it is but cold 
water, it is ejected ; the mildest food meets the same fate in such cases, much less 
will medicine find a lodgment, except one, and that it is impossible to vomit up if 
it once reaches its destination ; that medicine has no taste, it is small in bulk, will 
retain its virtues for a quarter of a century, as the writer knows by personal ex- 
perience and repeated observation. Unless it is in the very last stages, it is 
believed capable of arresting the disease in nine cases out of ten — a pill made up 
of ten grains of calomel with a little gum-water ; if the symptoms do not abate in 
two hours, double the dose, and let it work itself off; do nothing else, but let the 
patient be quiet and eat all the ice he can possibly want. 



162 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 152. 



DYSENTERY 



Is literally a " difficulty among the intestines ;" it is a discharge of blood from the 
bowels, accompanied with what has been aptly called " an atrocious pain." You 
feel as if you would be relieved by an evacuation, but when the attempt is made, 
there is a fruitless straining, termed tenesmus, and nothing comes of it, unless it be 
blood. The rectum, or last foot of the lower bowel, is the main seat of dysentery, 
which is commonly called "bloody flux." It should be always considered a dan- 
gerous disease. At first the discharges are odorless ; but as the parts come more 
under the influence of the disease, they become disorganized, rotten, and insuffer- 
ably offensive. Dysentery most abounds in hot, dry weather, and is oftenest caused 
by bad air, a sudden check of perspiration, or by whatever makes the skin of the 
body cold. In fact, dysentery may be considered an exaggerated or aggravated 
diarrhea — the latter is water, the former, blood. The great distinguishing features 
of dystentery are bloody passages, with a frequent, fruitless, and painful effort to 
stool. It is one of those diseases which are very apt to go on to a fatal termina- 
tion, if let alone ; a disease which is often made more speedily fatal by being 
ignorantly tampered with ; and whether blood is passed from the bladder or the 
bowels, a skillful physician should be called in as promptly as possible, as promptly, 
indeed, as if it were an attack of cholera ; but while he is coming, there are 
several things which may be safely done for the comfort of the sufferer, if not for 
his cure. The patient should not sit up a moment ; should keep as quiet as possi- 
ble ; should eat absolutely nothing but boiled rice, or flour-porridge, and swallow 
bits of ice to the complete quenching of the thirst. A little cold flaxseed-tea may 
be swallowed from time to time. A favorite prescription of some of the old phy- 
sicians of a past generation, and which is now said to be in vogue in Russia for 
several forms of diarrhea and dysentery is the use of raw meat — thus, take fresh 
beef, free from fat, scrape it into a pulp with a knife, season it with salt to make 
it more palatable, or with sugar for children, to whom begin with one teaspoonful 
three times a day, gradually increasing the amount as they become fond of it. 
Adults may use it by spreading it between two slices of stale bread. Its merit 
consists in its being easily digested, very nutritious, of small bulk, and readily 
assimilated to the system. It is well known that children having the summer com- 
plaint will ravenously eat, or rather chew or grind between their gums, a piece of 
the rind of bacon or ham, to which is attached half an inch of fat, and begin to 
improve in a few hours. The whites of forty eggs " whipped," and then sweetened 
with white sugar, and drank largely through the day, without any other food, is an 
admirable remedy in these ailments. Or for dysentery or protracted diarrhea take 
half a teacup of vinegar, with as much salt as it will take up, leaving a little excess 
of salt at the bottom, add boiling water until the cup is two thirds full, remove the 
scum, let it cool, and take one tablespoonful three times a day until relieved. It 
has not failed of cure in many hundred trials. 



163 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 153. 



BILIOUS DIARRHEA 

Is always an effort of nature to save herself from impending disease ; hence it is 
a curative process, and should not be interfered with. The passages in dysentery 
are bloody and painful always ; in simple diarrhea they are always thin, almost 
watery, always large and light colored. In cholera, which is aggravated diarrhea, 
the»passages are infallibly painless; on the other hand, bilious diarrhea is known 
by the passages being colored either dark, green, or yellow, often with a burning, 
griping, or other ill feeling before the passages come on. Bilious diarrhea ought 
never to be checked, except by medical advice, because it is an effort of nature to 
rid the system of that which would destroy it, if allowed to remain within it. Life 
has been destroyed thousands of times by failing to distinguish a bilious diarrhea 
from common diarrhea, simply by not noticing the color of the discharges, and 
thinking that nothing more is necessary than to " cheek it ;" and that whatever 
does this the quickest is the best remedy. Opium, and paregoric, and laudanum, 
and morphine are resorted to with a fatal recklessness ; they arrest, but they do 
not cure ; they hide, cover over, but do not eradicate ; but that is not the worst 
of it, they often send the disease to the brain, especially in children, to result in 
certain death in a short time. In most cases, all that is necessary in bilious diarrhea 
is to take nothing, keep still, keep warm in bed, and do not eat an atom of any 
thing, except when really hungry. There is but a step between bilious diarrhea 
and bilious or cramp colic, these last ending in death often within a few hours. 
The difference between them is only this — nature forces the bile out of the system 
in bilious diarrhea ; in bilious colic she has not strength to do it, and in this latter 
case, unless speedily and efficiently aided, death, painful, agonizing and speedy, is 
the result. 

Bilious diarrhea is often preceded by costiveness, and is generally brought on by 
bad air or by chilling the skin, either by cooling it off too soon after exercise, or 
by remaining in water or damp garments for a long time ; the effect in either case is 
the same, to wit, to close the pores of the skin and drive the matters back and 
inward, which would otherwise have escaped beneficially from the body. A sud- 
den burst of passion or other shock or great mental emotion may bring on an attack 
of bilious diarrhea. Those, therefore, who have observed themselves to be subject 
to attacks of bilious diarrhea, may easily postpone them indefinitely by arranging 
to have the bowels act freely once every twenty-four hours, by cultivating an equable 
frame of mind, and by habitually avoiding every thing which causes a chilly feeling 
to the skin ; for he is not the greatest man who can the most readily cure diseases 
in others, but he who is most successful in preventing them in his own person. 



164 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 154. 



DISINFECTANTS. 

The best disinfectants are those which cost the least, are most easily applied, and 
which cause the least inconvenience to the health, or the textures to which they 
are applied. If a disinfectant corrodes metals, stains garments, disfigures furniture, 
or is poisonous when outwardly applied or swallowed, it is comparatively valueless. 

There is no disinfectant universally applicable. But it may be truly said that 
the best plan, and one which every clean, tidy, and sensible person would instinct- 
ively adopt, is to remove all causes of disagreeable or unhealthy odors ; disinfectants 
should only be used when that is impracticable. Many persons burn sugar in the 
sick-room ; this destroys nothing ; it is merely a deodorizer, all that was there be- 
fore is still present, it is only giving a stronger odor ; it in reality only renders the 
air of the room more impure and more hurtful, not only to the one who is sick, 
but to every visitor and attendant ; in fact, the actual tendency is to diminish the 
chances of recovery. Besides, a disinfectant may destroy a special ill odor, but 
may be in itself more hurtful than the odor it was intended to obviate. From all 
the knowledge yet obtained on the subject, it does not appear that the odor of de- 
caying animal substances is particularly injurious to the health, not even that which 
arises in the dissecting-room, or in the removal of the dead from burying-grounds, 
where the scent has been so stenchy as to cause fainting or an approach to suffocation, 
and the workmen had to be relieved every few minutes, no disease followed. Still, 
it is of curious interest to know that the odor escaping from human bodies, alive, 
sick, or well, will produce the most deadly forms of typhoid and ship-fever in a few 
hours. Hence, never use' disinfectants until every possible effort at cleanliness has 
failed to secure a pure atmosphere. 

Sinks, Privies, etc. — One pound of copperas, known as sulphate of iron, costing 
but a few cents, dissolved in four gallons of water, poured over a sink two or three 
times, will most completely destroy all offensive odors. Repeat during hot weather 
as needed. Musty ' Cellars are rectified in the same way, or by sprinkling the 
copperas itself over the floor, besides being beneficial in keeping rats away. 

The Scientific American says : One pint of the liquor of chloride of zinc, in about 
two gallons of water, and one pound of chloride of lime, in two other gallons of 
water, then mixed, is perhaps the most effective of any thing that can be used ; and 
when thrown upon decayed vegetable matter of any description, will effectually destroy 
many offensive odors. Chloride of lime, or common quicklime, is better to scatter 
about damp places and heaps of filth. 

Four parts of ground plaster of Paris, and one part of pulverized charcoal, well 
mixed, is an excellent absorbent of all noisome smells. The powdered charcoal 
alone applied to glass vessels and any table-ware, after being well washed with soap 
and water, effectually removes all odor. The best purifier of bad breath is to take 
a teaspoonful of finely pulverized charcoal in the mouth on going to bed ; it need 
not be swallowed, but simply allowed to remain around the teeth, gums, cheek, etc. 

The hypochlorites, as well as the solutions of bromine and iodine, act admirably 
in destroying miasm and disinfecting the air. The manganate of soda or potash, 
dissolved in warm water and poured into sinks or drains, not only prevents the 
sending forth of disease, but gives out at the same time a considerable amount of 
oxygen to refresh the atmosphere. 



165 
HEALTH TRACT, No.. 155. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ITEMS. 

During the year 1861, fifteen hundred dead bodies were examined at the hospital 
in Vienna, of which Professor Rokitansky has direction, to ascertain the causes of 
death. The most prevalent diseases were : 

255 Consumption, 120 Pneumonia, 101 Cancer, 

178 Typhus Fever, 105 Puerperal, 67 Peritonitis, 

144 Brain, 109 Heart. 57 Dysentery* 

Food. — Fish as food, weight for weight, has very nearly as much solid nutriment 
as butcher's meat, game, or poultry, while containing a substance called iodine, 
which is not found in land animals, it has a tendency to correct a scrofulous and 
consumptive habit. Fishermen, who naturally live largely on fish, are especially 
strong, healthy, and prolific. In no class are there found larger families, handsomer 
women, and greater exemptions from human maladies. To what extent these re- 
sults follow a fish diet is as yet a matter* of conjecture. But iodine is the universal 
remedy up to this time for scrofulous diseases. 

Meats contain the most nitrogen ; the nitrogenous portions of our food make 
flesh, and go to supply the wear, and tear, and wastes of the body ; these are ulti- 
mately passed from the system in the urine. If more nitrogenous food is eaten 
than is needed to supply these wastes, nature converts it more rapidly into- living 
tissues, which are, with corresponding rapidity, broken down and converted into 
urine. This is when the food is digested ; but when so much is eaten that it can 
not be digested, nature takes alarm as it were and endeavors to remedy the trouble 
in one of three ways : The stomach rebels and casts it off in disgust by vomiting ; it is 
worked out of the system by an attack of diarrrhea, or the human beast is made 
so uncomfortable generally that he can't be still ; if he goes to bed he tosses and 
tumbles half the night ; if he don't go to bed he is taken with the fidgets and can't 
be easy in one position for half a minute at a time, so that, in one way or other, he 
is compelled to an amount of muscular effort necessary to work off the surplus ; 
and as a further punishment, his appetite is more or less destroyed for several 
meals afterward. Little or no nitrogen is poured off with the perspiration, breath- 
ing, or fasces. 

Births. — The having a boy or a girl seems to have been a power reserved in the 
hands of the great and wise Creator of all. The relative proportion, the world over, 
legitimate and illegitimate, gives about one hundred and six males to one hundred 
females. In the maufacturing and agricultural districts in England the proportion 
is identical, seeming to show that the male race is not diminished by crowded 
houses, unfresh vegetables, bad vapors, poverty, and the like ; but it does seem 
that luxury, inaction, and brain-labor give two per cent less of boys. The greatest 
thinkers are less apt to have sons ; less apt to have vigorous children ; less apt to 
have children at all ; and when they do have them they are more likely to die early. 
The determining power of sex seems thus far to be in the woman, but involuntarily so ; 
she being adapted, an old man is as likely to have a son as a young one, which is 
contrary to generally received opinions. 



166 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 156. 

SABBATH OBSERVANCE. 

The nations of the earth which now most respect the Sabbath, and most discour- 
age labor, pastimes, and mere amusements, during its sacred hours, are the freest, 
the happiest, the most prosperous, and the farthest advanced in the progress of art, 
manufacture, and invention ; and that city or town or village or community, of any 
Sabbath-respecting nation, which best keeps the Sabbath as a day of rest for body 
and mind, is the most noted for all that is orderly, law-abiding, and substantial ; 
and that family, of any Sabbath-loving community, which best observes it by quiet, 
by religious worship, and the performance of Bible duties, is the most substantial 
and respected and reliable in that community, while any individual member of a 
Sabbath-keeping family who most spends the hours of that sacred day in medita- 
tion, in worship, and the prayerful reading of the Scriptures, will uniformly be 
found to follow a blameless life ; to possess the respect and confidence of the whole 
community ; and all men will know where to look for him, however evil may be the 
times — to wit, on the side of justice and right and liberty and law and sterling prin- 
ciple. 

No man can be so blinded as not to know that the Sabbath is least respected 
where there is most of all that is vulgar and profane and abandoned ; and that those 
who care the least for it are literally thieves and murderers, drunkards, prize-fighters, 
horse-racers, and the utterly depraved of all classes ; and that these, the wicked, do 
" not live out half their days." As a means then of longevity, of worldly prosperity, 
of individual elevation of character, every good citizen will not only do what is pos- 
sible in himself to secure a religious observance of the Sabbath-day, will not only 
countenance and encourage others to do the same, but will volunteer his pecuniary 
aid to further these things in the community around him. 

For some years past a number of gentlemen of eminence, socially, civilly, and 
financially, have, as " The New-York Sabbath Committee," been laboring with ex- 
traordinary steadiness of purpose, dignity, wisdom, and success, for the promotion 
of the better observance of the Sabbath-day in the metropolis of the nation. In do- 
ing this they have labored day and night ; have encountered innumerable obstacles ; 
have met with every variety of discouragement, obloquy, and opposition from all 
classes of society, except the wisest, the highest, and the best ; and without bluster, 
without threats, without vituperation, abuse, or epithet, but by the calm, dignified, 
and persistent presentation of indisputable facts and sterling principles, they have 
gone on from step to step, " conquering and to conquer;" have put down the crying 
of Sunday papers ; have abolished the open and shameless Sunday liquor-traffic ; 
have driven the concert-saloons out of existence ; and with these plague-spots have 
passed away the atheistic advocates of "The People's Day," "The Poor Man's Day," 
" Sunday Theaters," "No Sunday at All," and "Sunday Bum." In doing these 
things they have printed and widely circulated twenty-four " Sabbath Documents," 
from eight to thirty-two octavo pages each, in beautiful large print, containing a 
vast amount of Sabbath literature, which Christians of all countries would be de- 
lighted to read. But let it be remembered by every reader that a limited number 
of gentlemen have sustained this movement from the outset, without appealing to 
the general public for funds. The enterprises now in progress contemplate national 
reforms, involving increased expenditures. Where is the reader who will not desire 
to participate in the pleasure of promoting them, and promptly forward his liberal 
and free-hearted contribution to J. M. Morrison, Esq., President of the Manhattan 
Bank, New-York City, who is Treasurer ? Letters and orders for " Sabbath Docu- 
ments" may be addressed to " The Secretary of the Sabbath Committee, No. 5 Bible 
House, New-York.'^ 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless: for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 



WE AIM TO SHOW HOW DISEASE MAT BE AVOIDED, AND THAT IT IS BEST, WHEN SICKNESS COMES, TO 
TAKE NO MEDICINE WITHOUT CONSULTING A PHYSICIAN. 



Vol. X.] AUGUST, 1863. [No. 8. 



THE CENTRAL PARK. 

Ox the twenty-seventh day of June, 1863, at six and a half 
o'clock in the afternoon, we counted, within five minutes, watch 
in hand, from our -study -window, overlooking Fifth Avenue, 
at a point just one half a mile from its main entrance, one 
hundred and ten pleasure- vehicles pass, not including gentle- 
men and ladies on horseback, making over thirteen hundred in 
a single hour, on the chief drive to "the Park," which is the 
name given " for short " by practical New-Yorkers, to the mag- 
nificent pleasure-grounds of the great Metropolis ; destined to 
be the " lungs," and a great fountain of health for the teeming 
thousands of the chief city of the Empire State. And as every 
reader of these pages who has ever visited the Central Park 
would love to see it again ; and those who have not driven 
through it, or promenaded its delightful walks, may one day 
do so, if they have even a trace of taste or admiration for what 
is splendid and beautiful, it- will doubtless add to the gratifica- 
tion of the many, to be able to have at least a synopsis of the 
chief items of interest connected with this great enterprise, as 
taken from official sources, to wit, the report of 1862, furnished 
by the courtesy of the Hon. Thomas 0. Fields, the Secretary of 
the Board of Commissioners, and one of its Auditing Committee. 

It may aid the memory by dealing mainly in round numbers. 

The Central Park contains 843 acres. 

The land alone cost nearly $4500 an acre, or $3,788,751. 

Improvements to January 1st, 1863, $3,583,674. 

Total cost to January 1st, 1863, $7,372,425. 



168 hall's journal of health. 

Our rural cousins will exclaim, "What an expensive whis- 
tle!" and may straightway conclude that "it cost more than it 
comes to," which means that it is more than it is worth. But 
that is a mistake. It does not cost the present generation of 
New-Yorkers one cent. The expense has been saddled on pos- 
terity, on the very plausible ground, that as we have the trou- 
ble of building it, our children ought to pay for it, especially as 
they only can have the enjoyment of it in its matured beauty 
and magnificence. In short, the money was borrowed to be 
paid in a decade or two hence ; the present generation only 
taking care of the interest ; but even that is met by the taxes 
derived from the increased worth of the lots adjoining the 
Park. The assessed value of the three wards which surround 
the Park, in 1856, before it was commenced, was $26,000,000. 
The increased value at this time is about $25,000,000 more ; 
yielding the city in taxes sufficient, with certain rentals, to pay 
the interest on the Park debt. 

The largest number of workmen employed on the Park at 
any one time was "3666. 

The average daily force during one year was 3000. 

As the workmen are emploj^ed and paid by the day, they 
can only work in good weather. The average number of work- 
ing days in a month was 21. 

Average number of working days during a year, 2(10. 

Up to January 1st, 1862, the number of cubic yards of earth, 
etc., removed was 2,000,000 ; of cubic yards of rock excavated, 
250,000. 

The number of brick used to that time was 5,000,000. 

The total number of plants, vines and deciduous trees set out 
was 53,000. 

The highest point of the Park is at Eighty -third street, and 
is 140 feet above tide-water. The lowest point is a few inches 
below tide- water, at One Hundred and Seventh street. 

The new reservoir covers one hundred and six acres ; is 
about thirty feet deep, holds a thousand millions of gallons of 
water, and cost a million and a half of dollars. Around its 
rim is a walk for pedestrians ; outside of that»is a bridle-path, 
and beyond that again is a beautiful carriage-drive. 

Five miles of bridle-path have been completed ; eight miles 
of carriage-road ; eighteen miles of foot-path. 



THE CENTRAL PARK. 169 

It is a five-mile drive from the Battery, or lower part of the 
city to the nearest Park-gate, which is in Fifty-ninth street. 
The Park is bounded by two parallel lines, east and west, of 
Fifth and Eighth avenues, and is half a mile broad by nearly 
three miles long. 

The Central Park was originally laid out to extend north and 
south between Fifty ninth and One Hundred and Sixth streets, 
but it was afterward found that for completeness, it should reach 
to One Hundred and Tenth street, four blocks farther, or. one fifth 
of a mile. And now for a digression, for the pnrpose of contem- 
plating a phase of human nature. This desired addition was main- 
ly a hill of rock and a swamp ; hence was of comparatively little 
value ; still it was private property, and the Legislature empow- 
ered the Supreme Court to appoint several gentlemen who should 
be " good and true," to say what the land was worth. Such men 
were selected as were considered above reproach and unpur- 
chasable. Eighteen weary months were spent in coming to a 
conclusion; some men would have finished, it up in as many 
days, as a whole community were interested in its prompt set- 
tlement. The decision arrived at was that this rock and piece 
of swamp, which had been running to seed since the days of 
Adam, was worth a million and a half of dollars, about half as 
much as the entire Park besides, which was two miles nearer the 
city, and contained over ten times as much land. The report was 
such an absurdity, that the contemplated plan of addition was 
abandoned. It did not appear that any of these commissioners 
owned any of the land, nor that they had any relatives or friends 
or partners at all interested in the matter. It may have been an 
error in judgment. But they had been to some cost of time, 
trouble, and money in ascertaining what the swamp and rock 
were worth, and it was very proper that they should be paid for 
the same ; when asked to name the amount for their services, 
they put it down at the sum of $73,335.52. Over half of 
this amount was claimed by nine men for personal services 
of themselves,- except the surveyor* who must have had assist- 
ants. The people and the press made such a racket about this 
bill of costs, that the Supreme Court decided that it could not 
decide as to its propriety, but selected an unpurchasable man as 
referee, the Hon. John B. Haskin, who reported to the court 
that the charges were " extravagant and unreasonable, and that 



170 hall's jouknal of health. 

this court should make an order vacating, annulling, and setting 
aside said bill of costs, and every part and parcel thereof." The 
commissioners then had leave to correct their bill, which they 
did, and struck off twenty thousand dollars ; but the court and 
referee thought it was still ■ too much by twenty -five thousand, 
and fixed it at the sum of thirty thousand dollars ; less than 
half the original sum. In connection with this transaction, it 
is suggestive to notice the conduct of certain other parties. 

The widow of the lamented Crawford, the sculptor, has gen- 
erously bestowed eighty- seven casts in plaster for the ornament- 
ation of the Park. K. K. Haight, Esq., has, with great liberality, 
donated the statue of Flora, the chef d'oeuvre of its eminent 
author. Our fellow-citizen, the Hon. Auguste Belmont, has 
also made a liberal contribution in the same direction. 

ANIMALS IN THE PARK. 

The nucleus of a collection for the study of natural history 
" from life," is already found in contributions from the liberal- 
minded at home and abroad. 

1860, May 24th. — Twelve white swans, presented by the 
Senate of the city of Hamburgh. 

October 18th. — Twenty-four white swans, presented by the 
worshipful company of Yintners, London. 

Twenty-six white swans, presented by the worshipful com- 
pany of Dyers, London. 

November 1st. — Ten white swans, presented by the city of 
Hamburgh. 

Two trumpet cranes, presented by G. Granville White, Esq. 
One peacock, do. 

One American eagle, presented by Albert S. Joslyn. 

One deer, presented by Joseph Conrad. 

One deer. 

Gold fish, presented by Wm. D. Murphy, Esq. 

Two Canadian geese, presented by Charles A. Graham, Esq. 
• 

PARK CONSERVATORY. 

Eesponsible parties have secured the right to construct and 
keep in order an immense conservatory, from which visitors 
may obtain, at a reasonable charge, the flowers and fruits of all 
countries, climes, and seasons, fresh from the bush and tree. 



THE CENTRAL PARK. 171 



MUSIC IN THE PARK. 

Every Saturday afternoon, from May to Novenlta-, when the 
weather is suitable, a large company of accomplished instru- 
mental performers are engaged by the liberality of the Third 
and Sixth Avenue Railroad Companies, to discourse the melody 
of sweet sounds to delighted listeners ; more than three thou- 
sand of whom were estimated to have been present on the last 
Saturday of May, which was the " opening day " of the present 

season, described by one of the daily papers thus : 
i 

" Agreeably to the announcement which appeared in our yesterday's 
issue, the music season commenced yesterday afternoon in the Park. The 
midday storm had somewhat prevented the usual large assemblage from 
being present ; nevertheless a goodly number of persons arrived around the 
newly painted and gilded music-stand, which in itself, for its beauty alone, 
is an object of attraction. Ladies on horseback, in carriages, and on foot, 
were to be seen enjoying the music, and numbers of wounded soldiers re- 
clined on the grass around the temple of Apollo, the natural carpet having 
been thrown open for public use. The birds could both be seen and heard 
during the intervals between the pieces, and the flowers and sheep, with 
the absence of all things usually seen in the busy, money -making world, 
would almost tempt the visitor to believe that he was actually in the coun- 
try, instead of the center of Gotham. The rain had freshened up the vege- 
tation and made it look charming. Every tree, plant and shrub is now in 
full bloom, either of leaf or flower, and the rhododendrons in the Ramble 
are exceedingly beautiful. A row on the lake exhibits new charms and 
attractions, among others that of the swans and other water-fowl engaged 
in the duty of incubation. The pleasure-boats are well conducted, com- 
fortable, and hired out at reasonable rates. The Casino is now in progress 
and will soon be erected. 

The Park authorities announce it as their intention to throw open the 
lawn to Sunday-school parties and picnics on application to the commis- 
sioners. On Friday last the Free Academy had the use of the ball-ground. 
It is the desire of the Managers of the Park that schools and children 
should enjoy the use of the grass when it is not detrimental to the beauty 
and progress of the Park. 

SKATING IN THE PARK. 

This is the most popular, the most largely, and most joyously 
patronized of all the amusements of the Park, and the facilities 
of enjoyment afforded, have caused it to be considered both a 
healthful and graceful accomplishment all over the country. 
Seven years ago, the sight of a pair of skates on sale in a shop- 
window was a rarity. They may now be seen on a winter's 



172 hall's jouknal of health. 

day by thousands. The number of skating-days in a year 
varies from twenty to forty ; and it has been estimated that as 
many as ten thousand persons have been seen on the ice at a 
time at " the Lake," which covers twenty acres, and presents 
one of the most delightfully animated panoramas which can be 
conceived of. 

To show the though tfulness of the Managers of the Park, 
and as an evidence of their own vivid remembrance of the 
pastimes of childhood, arrangements have been made for the 
boys to enjoy the sport of " coasting," or riding down-hill in 
little hand "sleds." 

The floor-like surfaces of the Park drives afford the most de- 
lightful sleighing for a great part of the winter, after the snow 
has once fairly covered the ground ; then it is continuous until 
the final thaw of the early spring, as the snow is not cut up, and 
fouled by wagons, carts, and other business vehicles ; for these 
are not allowed to enter the Park on any pretense, except 
through under-ground and out-of-sigkt roads ; so that the Park 
has its attraction for winter as well as summer, and is des- 
tined to afford an incalculable amount of pleasure to those now 
living ; but greater still to generations to follow, when it will 
be enjoyed in its more mature beauty. 

Not one of the least gratifications connected with a visit to 
the Park is the police regulations ; dressed in a gray uniform, 
the police are stationed in every portion of the Park, to prevent 
depredations on the shrubbery and instantly correct any disor- 
der on the part of thoughtless or momentarily excited persons ; 
to check fast driving and riding, so that nothing may occur to 
mar the pleasure or safety of an excursion to the Park. Great 
care is taken to exclude wagons, or persons carrying bundles, 
or drunken people. And in case of accident to vehicle or 
horse, the police are always at hand to give all the assistance 
possible or required ; and ready also, to give courteously, any 
desired information. 

The community were fortunate in the appointment of the 
gentlemen who should have the control over the construction 
of the Park, and over the expenditure of the millions which it 
would require to complete the great work. Well have they 
performed their high trusts, and their names are worthy of be- 
ing placed on public record; they are, Charles H. Eussell, 



THE CENTS AL PARK. 173 

Thomas C. Fields, K. M. Blatchford, J. P. Butterworth, A. H. 
Green, Waldo Hutchins, H. Gr. Stebbins, Moses II. Grinnell, and 
Mr. E. P. Barker, Assistant Secretary, to whose ready courtesy 
we are indebted for statistical items in advance of the sixth an- 
nual report, for the year ending with December 31st, eighteen 
hundred and sixty two. 

BOATING IN THE PARK. 

Omnibus-boats give a ride around the lake of twenty acres 
for ten cents. " Call-boats" for private parties, admitting but 
six persons, are had at reasonable rates. 

ACCESS TO THE PARK. 

The Sixth Avenue cars leave the Astor House every two 
minutes, and for five cents convey you to the entrance of the 
Park on Pifty-ninth street, where carriages, holding four or more 
persons, will spend an hour in riding around and about the Park 
for two dollars. Vehicles for one or two are less. The Third 
Avenue cars leave the front of the Astor House every two min- 
utes, and for six cents convey passengers to Seventy-first street 
whence they can walk across to the Park, half a mile distant. 
Those who take this route can more readily walk over the Park, 
being put down near a central position ; but we have not seen 
accommodation-carriages at that point. 

It is interesting to notice the varying character of the persons 
who visit the Park at different times.^ The comers before break- 
fast are chiefly ladies and gentlemen on horseback ; we see them 
from our study-window as early as four and a half o'clock of a 
summer morning. Those who come after breakfast may be 
classed generally as strangers in the city ; these come in vehi- 
cles. About four o'clock of a May afternoon, the head of the 
cavalcade of fashion is first seen increasing in number steadily 
and rapidly, for about two hours ; there are a few on horse, but 
the great body are those' whose liveried coachmen and splendid 
span, and faultless turn-outs, plainly show them to be the elite, 
the millionaires, the aristocrats of the hour. 

But the " great exhibition," we are sorry to say, is on Sun- 
days. Thither thousands, and tens of thousands (sometimes) 
of pedestrians wend their way. The most numerous class is 
the quiet, economical German, alone, or with his wife and 



174 hall's journal of health. 

children ; respectable and worthy citizens, accustomed to spend 
at least a portion of the Sabbath in this way, in the fatherland, 
they think it no harm. Americans who walk out to the Park 
on Sundays are mostly, to all appearance, of a low class, wild, 
rough, and rowdyish. Now and then a respectable-looking 
man is met going or returning, but he is either an invalid, a 
stranger, or some person of no special social position, usually. 

The riders to the Central Park on Sundays embrace all 
classes of society, except the better class of citizens. In a mile 
and a half walk on Fifth Avenue, from dwelling to church, on a 
Sabbath afternoon, requiring less than half an hour, we have 
repeatedly counted over two hundred vehicles. But we do not 
remember to have seen a liveried turn-oat, or to have recos: 
nized a respectable New-Yorker. The vehicles are of every 
size, age, shape, and pattern under the sun, holding from one 
person to a dozen ; but whether sulky, barouche, gig, phaeton, 
or carriage, all have the "hack" look, showing they were 
hired, consequently were occupied by strangers, clerks, appren- 
tices, journeymen, and fast young men generally ; further indi- 
cated by the inevitable segar stuck in the mouth, slouched hat 
boisterous mirth, a commonish look in the face, and a rowdy 
demeanor generally. Such, at least, is the impression left on 
the mind after they have passed along. The Sunday visitors 
to the Park, whether on foot, horse, or carriage, are evidently 
not the most elevated and refined members of our community. 

The position of the most interesting and prominent localities 
of the Park is as follows : 

Fifty-ninth street is the southern or nearest the city proper 
boundary of the Park. 

Sixtj^-tkird street passes centrally an open ground of ten 
acres. 

Sixty -eighth street crosses the beautiful " green " of fifteen 
acres, also the splendid "Mall." 

Seventy-fourth street divides the skating and rowing lake of 
twenty acres ; also the site of ornamental water, in connection 
with the Conservatory. 

Seventy -seventh street crosses centrally the lovely "Kamble" 
of thirty-six acres. 

Eighty -third street divides the old reservoir of thirty-five 
acres. 



THE CENTEAL PAEK. 175 

Ninety-first street bisects east and west the new reservoir. 

Qne Hundredth street crosses an open ground of twenty-three 
acres. 

The Central Park was laid out by Frederick Law Olmstead, 
a native of Hartford, Connecticut, after having visited the 
chief pleasure-grounds of Europe, and we may well suppose 
that it combines the beauties of them all. Lieutenant E. L. 
Viele, now General Yiele, of the Union Army, was the original 
Engineer-in-Chief, which office is now ably filled by William H. 
Grant, Esq. 

By all means let that portion of the Park be visited as a 
matter of suggestive interest, lying between One Hundred and 
Sixth and One Hundred and Tenth streets, embracing an area of 
seventy-three acres, containing a rock and a swamp ; for sur- 
veying which, somebody charged the city thirty-two thousand 
dollars. 

Now, in the heat of summer, the more knowing ones arrange 
to reach the Park about sun -down, and even later, leaving it 
about nine o'clock, thus avoiding the crowd and dust and heat 
of the afternoon, and breathing the cool, refreshing breeze which 
comes from the broad Atlantic, but a few miles distant, without 
having to pass over the dense and business part of the city ; it 
is literally the breeze from the sea, all pure and fresh, which 
visits the Central Park on these beautiful summer evenings. 
Being near by, we have visited it after night, and find it the 
resort of families on foot, of gentlemen and ladies, wh,o pass 
hours together in the most delightful promenades along the 
sandy shore of some quiet lake, or in some secluded by-path, 
under low hanging trees ; next emerging all at once into a 
rustic summer-house, fanned by the evening winds ; the lights 
of the distant city shining like so many diamonds of the first 
water ; the stars glitter in the blue sky above, the moonbeams 
dance on the bosom of the placid lake and clattering rivulet ; 
the cool air is loaded with the scent of sweetest flowers and re- 
verberates the diapasons of frogs ; while whispers soft and low, 
but more luscious than molasses, tell that love is there. 



176 hall's jouknal of health. 

MAKING MONEY 

Is about one of the best promoters of health we at present think 
of; it enlivens the mind, which induces greater bodily activi- 
ties, and these, as all know, are better than any medicine for 
the securement of health and the prevention of disease. The 
same amount of muscular effort, expended in an encouragingly 
remunerative employment, will do many times more good 
toward removing and preventing sickness, than if it was merely 
and solely intended for that end. But it takes more of a man, 
requires more mind, more moral force, to save money than to 
make it ; the idea being expressed, although in not very ele- 
gant phrase, "Any fool or knave can make money, but it re- 
quires a wise man to keep it," to save it. Ift fact, poor Old 
Richard used to say: "A penny saved is tuppence gained." 
A man is a man, in proportion to the amount of self-denial he 
can exercise over himself, in proportion to his moral courage 
to deny himself as to his appetites and gratifications. Spend- 
thrifts have none of these high qualities, consequently, the world 
over, they are contemptuously set aside with the expression : 
"Oh! he's no account." Where there is most poverty, there 
is most crime, destitution, disease, and premature death ; so that 
it is not by any means out of place in a journal of health, to 
suggest what may promote the comfort of its readers and show 
how they can economize ; and when that economy may be prac- 
ticed without involving self-denial, but actually saves time, 
trouble, and labor, it is a thing worthy of consideration. Hence, 
with great confidence, we direct attention to the following arti- 
cle on 

Health, Comfokt, and Economy, 

Which are all largely promoted by the use of an apparatus patent- 
ed within the present year by Warren L. Fish, for boiling, frying, 
stewing, and steeping food, and toasting bread, with the flame 
that lights the room, at an expense of gas (at twenty -five cents 
per hundred feet) of less than two cents an hour ; if kerosene 
oil is used, the cost is still less. There is no dust, dirt, or ashes, 
and the varying circumstances to which the apparatus is appli- 
cable, would be scarcely conjectured at first sight ; it is handy 
for young and old, for sick and well, for the laborer and the 
student, night or day, summer or winter. A single match will 



MAKING MONEY. 177 

put it in operation instantly, and in fifteen minutes, cold water 
is made to boil. Coal is selling, at this writing, at ten dollars 
a ton in New- York, while at Boston and Cincinnati it is twelve 
dollars. At these prices a breakfast which it would cost twelve 
cents to cook in a common range, which is a city cooking-stove, 
would cost one cent ; can be prepared by Fish's lamp at a less 
cost than the price of the wood necessary to kindle the coal in 
the range, to say nothing of the trouble of kindling and subse- 
quent cleaning up of ashes, cinders, and the dust over the whole 
room. Kindling a fire in a stove or range in midsummer, adds 
greatly to the heat of the whole house, even when the range is 
in the basement or cellar. 

In summer-time, none but actual laborers ought to take any 
thing for breakfast and supper but cold or toasted bread and 
butter and a cup or two of hot tea or coffee, which can be pre- 
pared at the cost of a cent or two for a whole family. By hav- 
ing one of these lamps, a clerk or student could save ten times 
or more the price of the lamp in a year, by simply preparing 
hife own breakfast, while persons who board, or go to the coun- 
try for the summer, would by its use be able to add greatly to 
their comfort by preparing their own tea or coffee, and little 
delicacies in case of sickness. But as an article for the sick-room 
and the nursery, this lamp is invaluable ; no mother of a grow- 
ing family, if she knew its value, would be willing to do with- 
out it for a day. The husband who has any manly feeling for 
the wife of his bosom, and even a slight concern for the lives 
of his young children, would sooner live on bread and water 
for a month, if necessary, to save the two dollars requisite to 
purchase one of these admirable household articles, than to be 
without one of them for a week, simply because any child is 
liable to be taken sick any night, and in almost all the illnesses 
of childhood, warm water is more or less • necessary ; it is a 
prompt and perfect cure for 

Croup, 

One of the most dangerous of all the diseases of young child- 
ren, often destroying life in a few hours, simply by having 
boiling w^ater, with two or three cloths in it, to be applied 
alternately to the throat, as* hot as can be borne with the hand, 
the feet and hands to be kept warm all the time, the whole 



178 HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 

body also being wrapped up warm, and the water not being- 
allowed to dribble on the clothing ; this to be continued until 
the cough is loosened and the little patient breathes easy and 
falls asleep. By. one of these lamps, water can be made to 
boil in ten minutes, or even less, while if a fire has to be kin- 
dled in a range or stove, or ordinary fire-place, a very much 
longer time would be necessary. Bat as a convenience for the 
sick-room in general, Fish's Lamp is literally invaluable. For 
hospitals, for the tent or barrack of the stationed soldier, for 
camping out, for picnics, going a-fishing, etc., it is an article of 
comfort beyond all proportion to its cost. Circulars will be 
given on application, or sent, free of charge, by addressing 
Wm. D. Eussell, Agent, 206 Pearl street, New-York. 

^Various articles have been introduced in these pages to the 
notice of our subscribers, but not until we have seen for our- 
selves that it was all that was claimed for them, knowing that in- 
ventors, patentees, etc., are nearly always too enthusiastic to be 
truthful, and we were unwilling to be instrumental in palming 
an imposition on our readers. When requested to notice an 
article, we always require to be well paid ; but we have had 
occasion to notice books and other things voluntarily, without 
knowing the proprietors or receiving any compensation for the 
Same before or since, from the sole wish of conferring on our 
readers a direct pecuniary benefit, and adding to their personal 
comfort, for between an editor and his habitual readers there 
grows' up a feeling of personal acquaintance and even friend- 
ship, without ever having seen each other, and with this there 
is an instinctive desire for the performance of mutual kind offi- 
ces. We are not aware that any person who has purchased an 
article on the faith of our special recommendation of the same, 
has ever been disappointed ; while time, as to ourselves, has 
but increased the appreciation had, for example, for Worcester's 
celebrated Hinged Plate Piano ; Andrews & Dixon's inimitable 
low-down grate for open fire-places, burning any kind of coal 
or wood. Pyle's 0. K. Soap we believe the best ever made. 
Milk sold by the Eockland County and New-Jersey Milk As- 
sociation, at 146 East Tenth street, near Broadway, drawn daily 
from farm-house cows, rich, fresh, and unadulterated, all of 
which the Company guarantees. But now in this number we 
have four new things to commend, three of which will certainly 



MAKING MONEY. 179 

save time and toil and money ; the fourth will add more to the 
pure satisfaction and pleasurable feelings of our better nature, 
than can be obtained at as little cost in that direction, in the 
wide world besides. Fish's Patent Lamp Heating Apparatus 
has already been named ; its conveniences and advantages have 
been understated rather than exaggerated. Another labor and 
money-saving patent is a machine for wringing out clothes after 
having been washed, or rather it removes the water from the 
fabrics without the straining which attends the ordinary wring- 
ing with the strong hands of stout Irish washerwomen. Ladies 
know that the most costly laces are deprived of the water by 
simple pressure or squeezing in the hand ; to wring them would 
be but to ruin, showing clearly that wringing clothes causes a 
destructive strain. If, then, fine lace lasts longer by having the 
water simply pressed out of them, any other woven fabric will 
last longer if the water is pressed out of it instead of being 
wrung, as commonly practiced. Hence the testimony of hotel 
proprietors, gentlemen of intelligent observation, and women 
who are notable housekeepers, and have used the Univeesal 
Clothes-Wringer for several years, not only in favor of the 
less injury done to clothing, but of the great amount of labor 
saved in this, one of the most laborious parts of the weekly 
wash. One of the important advantages of this wringer over 
all others is, it has no«netal about it to rust or stain the clothing. 
Another of the new inventions is remarkable in several re- 
spects. It does not save money directly, but it saves time to 
many a hard- worked mother, and it 

Saves Blood ! ! 

By destroying a thousand lives in fifty-nine seconds and three 
quarters. Another queer truth about it is, that it is the pro- 
duct of a brain which one would think would be the very last 
kind of persons in creation to have thoughts in that direction. 
Imagine Eaphael or Michael Angelo, or a Eubens, devising 
the best ways and means of 

Killing a Louse. 

And yet here is a man who we believe is the most accomplished 
miniature-painter this country has ever produced, a man whose 
gentleness of nature has become a proverb among his friends. 



180 

and whom to look at one would suppose would not have the 
heart to tread on a worm or kill a fly, and yet we have known 
him for several months to turn his back upon his refined and 
elevating profession, and has spent day and night and dollars in 
devising a plan for destroying life in so wholesale a manner, 
that to number it by thousands a day is mere child's work for 
his discovery. Possibly his mind has taken this direction from 
the force of the very significant circumstances, that having 
spent some of the best years of his life in planting and cultivat- 
ing, in his mountain home in the distant South, one of the most 
beautiful, productive, and extensive fruit-farms on this conti- 
nent, and just as he was settling down in his age to drink in 
its beauties and luxuriate in its luscious products for the re- 
mainder of his life, he was hastily driven from it, because he 
was a " Union man ;" and through rain and mud, and incon- 
ceivable privation in a winter's journey over mountains, and 
gorges, and angry floods, with a wife and a large family of 
children, arrived at last in Cincinnati, with bare life left ; thence 
he came to this city, and went to painting in Broadway, but all 
the time indulging in and cherishing thoughts of 

Murder! Murder! 

Not of his old secesh friends and neighbors in East-Tennessee, 
but of all the vermin which infest the persons of humanity, such 
as lice, nits, and bed-bugs. We have not heard him expatiate 
on its vital properties as against fleas, because they are never 
there, but always somewhere else than you hoped or expected 
to find them ; so it would do no good to put a thing " there " 
to destroy one of the hopping fraternity, when it was sure to be 
at any other place rather than there. But as much as we liked 
this murdering artist, after an acquaintance, personal and Ulti- 
mate, for more than twenty years, we had not the faith in his 
invention which he had, and refused to put it in our journal, 
which he wanted us to do a month ago ; but we wanted the 
proof positive first. We refused all certificates from commis- 
sioners, generals, presidents, and all that, because we knew he 
was such a clever, good-hearted fellow, that any one who knew 
him as we did, and there were many such in New- York, would 
certify to any thing he wanted, and would even lend him money, 
which of course is the crucial test of human friendship. He 



MAKING MONEY. 181 

thought if Hall's Journal of Health would only speak a good 
word for him, that it would be the entering wedge of a fortune 
to him. But that was all to no purpose. We in effect spoke 
thus to him : a We are old friends ; I lil^e you, and believe any 
thing you say ; I believe in the Sanitary Commission ; I believe 

in General I , and all the other generals and colonels and 

captains, down to izzard, and even the other side of * &c ;' but 
I might ' believe a lie,' like that immense host which is said to 

be ' bound for the land of -a certain sable personage 

whom it is not necessary to name more specifically. I want 
ocular demonstration." I wanted more. I wanted not merely 
to know and see for myself that the little twenty-five cent vial 
of liquid which he handed me would kill every inhabitant, 
mother, father, and child, of any five heads of the newest comers 
to the Five Points Mission, in one minute after its thorough 
application ; but I wanted to know, also, whether, if it was so 
powerful to do all that, it might not be strong enough to kill 
the child too, after a few applications. So I asked to know its 
constituents, that I might prepare some myself, and examine 
into their nature, and the nature of their chemical products, be- 
cause two substances may be singly harmless, yet united be 
deadly. Air is simple and pure ; oxygen is the very life of all 
things that breathe, and yet add a portion more of oxygen to a 
given amount of air, and it becomes aqua-fortis, one of the most 
corrosive poisons in nature, for if swallowed, it destroj^s life in- 
stantly. But even if the chemical compound was as hurtlessas 
either of its constituents, and was as efficacious as it was claimed 
to be, yet I had before me some of the tricks of trade daily 
practiced by men who sell patent medicines, bitters, sarsaparil- 
las, etc , for they will come to a chemist with a genuine article, 
pay him five, fifty, or five hundred dollars for his analysis and 
certificate. All that seems plain sailing; but then, there was 
this drawback : that was the only " true blue " bottle ever man- 
ufactured, or intended to be ; all the others were to be made 
of molasses and water, or of alcohol and tanzy, indefinitely di- 
luted with cold water. But said he : " Doctor, you know rne, 
and I know you, but if I tell it to you, it will no longer be a 
secret ; it might leak out, and my fortune would be lost.'' That 
was very true, but I solved the knot by assuring him that I 
would not tell my wife about it. He was at once satisfied, made 



182 hall's jouknal of health. 

a clean breast of it, I obtained the materials, mixed them to- 
gether, and lo ! and behold, all was right. But it was not 
enough. ^ had neither time nor inclination to be fooling about 
in making f 

A Lousy Experiment. 

I said to him : " Gro down to the Five Points. Mr. Barlow has 
plenty of subjects new and fresh every day; then bring me a 
letter in the handwriting of that morally brave, that good, en- 
ergetic, heroic, and self-denying man, and then I will see about 
it;" and sure enough he brought me yesterday, July 10th, 1863, 
the following in black and white, dated Five Points House of 
Industry, New- York, July 10th, 1863: 

" Five Points House of Industry, New-York, July 10th, 1863. 
"J. W. Dodge: Dear Sir: I have this morning made a special test of 
your Infallible Vermin Exterminator upon some of the children in this In- 
stitution, in order to ascertain how quickly your specific will act in the 
destruction of the vermin, and find, by personal observation, that in one 
minute after the fluid is applied, the lice are all dead, and the relief com- 
plete. The life of the nits is always destroyed by a single application of 
the Exterminator. I place a high valfie upon your remedy, and recommend 
it as the best article I know of as a vermin destroyer. 

"Tours truly, B. R. Barlow, Superintendent." 

With this we dismiss the subject, with the remark that the 
liquid is most purely vegetable, contains not an atom of min- 
eral, mercury, oil, or opium ; an infant might be bathed in it 
without any injury whatever ; besides, it cleanses whatever it is 
applied to ; is the most \ universally used as a hair tonic and 
scalp-cleaner, as to its chief article, than any other hair-wash in 
existence. The strong presumption is that it is as good for de- 
stro} T ing the various vermin which infest beasts as well as men. 
It instantly kills and keeps away bed-bugs as well as the genus 
louse. It has been officially tried on the horses in the army ; 
with like effect as to the heads of children. 

Since writing the above, Mr. Dodge assures us that it is the 
greatest blessing in the world for 

Poodle dogs, 
Pet birds, and 
Tom-cats, 

as it rids them of fleas in an extraordinarily short space of time ; 
and that henceforward ladies may kiss and fondle them, and 



MAKING MONEY. 183 

carry them on their bosoms with impunity, haying the assur- 
ance that they will not be Head, since " Dodge's Infallible Ver- 
min Exterminator" is in the house. 

Doubtless time will prove that it is efficacious for the destruc- 
tion of all vermin and insects, whether they infest domestic ani- 
mals or In fact, there is evidence to believe that the 
Exterminator is 

A Univeesal Boon. 

It will doubtless be found in all the drug-stores in the nation, 
at twenty-five cents a bottle, which contains enough for five 
heads. In the language of Burns, will be efficacious in places 

where, heretofore, 

" Nor horn nor bane 
Ne'er dared unsettle 
Their thick plantations." 

j3F~ Sold, wholesale and retail, at 831 Broadway, New- 
York. 



The Patent Pocket Stereoscope 

is the novelty already referred to, which, although it is not 
pecuniarily valuable, is pleasurably so, because it is really a 

STEREOPTICON IN EVERY HOUSE. 

It gives you as much the real appearance of any place stereop- 
tically or photographically taken, as if it were the reality looked 
upon by the actual living eye. Such at least it appears to us to 
do ; with the incalculable advantage that the pictures can be 
looked dijust as fast as any one desires to pick them up from the 
table and hold them before the eye ; no other adjustment is 
needed ; hence it is a source of the most agreeable and pleasur- 
able amusement, and is as inexhaustible as the supply of stereo- 
scopic pictures ; and these already are for sale in our shops, 
having been taken in all parts of the world of note enough to 
be visited by travelers. In short, a man can see all the grand 
sights of the world at the expense of one dollar or over, accord- 
ing to quality and the price of the pictures, and yet remain in 
his own parlor ; he can look at them over and over again with 
unwearying satisfaction, the greater if he has ever seen them 
once, because he recognizes them as old friends, and they thus 
bring back delightful reminiscences of the 

"Days of auld lang syne." 



184 hall's journal of health. 

Friends of Soldiers. 

On a late march one thousand soldiers were sun-struck ; one 
hundred died. Green leaves in the hat would have prevented 
all. The son of a New-York capitalist generously gave his 
shelter to a sick comrade, and remained in the rain all night, 
with his feet in the water, sickened and died. " Soldier Health," 
twenty-five cents, by the editor of Hall's Journal of Health, 
shows how the soldier may avoid sickness ; how act in emer- 
gencies ; to staunch a wound with a stick,- if left alone ; to 
arrest a common army disease with a bit of cloth ; to heal a cut 
with a little powder ; and a hundred other expedients, which, if 
read over attentively, could be carried in the head, and applied 
from memory. No man ought to go into the army without 
reading and impressing its contents on the mind. 



Particular Notice. 

Subscribers will please understand that the size of the Journal 
from the first has been twenty-four pages of reading matter. We 
have not allowed advertisements to encroach on that space ; on 
the contrary, by setting up our Health Tracts in small type, we 
have given each year from ten to twenty more pages of reading 
matter than we engaged to do, and all this without increasing 
the price of our Journal as almost all publishers have done. 
In this way our subscribers can not lose by the advertisements 
we give, while they may be largely benefited pecuniarily. 



NOTICES. 

■ Arthur's Home Magazine, $2 a year, 323 Walnut street, Philadelphia, Pa., is 
the most unexceptionable periodical in this country for general family reading ; 
always on the side of purity, virtue, and a blameless life. JVo household can take it 
without being instructed and made more happy by its chaste and pure teachings. 

Blackwood's Magazine, $2 a year, reprinted by Leonard Scott & Co., Walker 
street, New-York. If taken with the four reviews, Edinburgh, Westminster, North 
British, and the London Quarterly, all are furnished for $10 a year. These publi- 
cations are written for by the best and most finished scholars in Great Britain, and 
merit a wide circulation, especially among gentlemen of wealth and education. 

Godey's Lady's Book, $3 a year, Philadelphia, Pa., has not only outlived, but 
has surpassed all the pictorial monthlies of its kind. Nothing short of a very wide 
circulation could sustain an issue got up with such a great expense, with such an 
elaboration of embellishments, fashion-plates, and colored engravings ; to say 



NOTICES. 185 

nothing of the practical utility of its reading matter in reference to domestic mat- 
ters, on cookery, crochet-work, chemistry, fashions, rural items, plans, illustra- 
tions, etc., witbrits health department by its permanent contributor, Dr. J. S. 
Wilson. 

Harper's Weekly, illustrated, $2 a year. Harper's Monthly, which alone is $3. 
Both are furnished for $4 a year. 

Portrait Monthly of the New- York Illustrated News of the "Men of the 
Times." Single numbers, 10 cents ; or $1 a year. Number one contains the like- 
ness of twenty -five men of eminence, North and South. We trust it will have a 
wide sale. There is not a likeness in the last issue which is not instantly recog- 
nized. 

We willingly call attention to the American Phrenological Journal, issued 
monthly, at $1.50 a year. We always open it with interest, as an important key to 
the understanding of human character, worth more than any other item of know- 
ledge toward securing in life pecuniary success or a great name. Published by 
Fowler & Wells, 308 Broadway, New-York. 

Braithwaite's Retrospect is published semi-annually for $2 a year, an 8vo of 
650 pages, semi-annual numbers, $1.25 each, by W. A. Townsend, No. 30 Walker 
street, New-York. Each issue contains all. that is new in medicine and surgery for 
the previous six months, an epitome of medical progress throughout the world, and 
is of great practical value to every physician. 

The American Tract Society, 28 Cornhill, Boston, and No. 9 Bible House, New- 
York, have issued in comely style the following books for children's reading : Les- 
sons from Insect Life, which adults can not peruse without being. edified in heart as 
well as in mind ; The Happy Home ; or, The Story of Annie -Lyon. A touching 
narration. Harry, containing "The Two Homes," "The Village Store and Sign," 
"The Minister," etc. The Babes in the Basket ; or, Daph and her Charge. A true 
narration connected with the massacres of St. Domingo. It will intensely interest 
every reader ; an impressive lesson of single-heartedness and fidelity, and its re- 
ward on a dying -bed. The Pilgrim Path, being interesting incidents in the experi- 
ence of Christians, with earnest words from many who love the Lord. This is just 
such a book as ought to be multiplied by the million, for humble growing Christians 
can feast and feed upon it every day. Folloioing after Jesus ; or, a Memorial of 
Susan Maria Underwood, by Mrs. Eliza H. Anderson. Christian biography, con- 
scientiously and truthfully written as this volume is, is one of the best educators to 
a Christian life next to the Bible, and books like these can be profitably read and 
practically used by all — rich and poor, young and old. 

Moses and the Pentateuch : A Reply to the Bishop of Colenso, by the Rev. 
W. A. Scott, D.D., late Moderator of the O. S. Presbyterian Church in the United 
States. Just published by William Freeman, 102 Fleet street, London, and Hugh 
Barclay, 26 Temple street, Birmingham. This new contribution to Christian litera- 
ture by the reverend author, formerly of New-Orleans and late the eminent and 
successful pastor of the Calvary Church of San Francisco, is an additional evidence 
of the industry and ability of an eminent clergyman. The London Christian 
World says of it, that it " is evidently composed by a man of superior intellectual 
attainments and historical knowledge ;" and the Glasgow Herald (Scotland) testifies : 
" It is bold and decided in its tone, and will speak for itself as no ordinary ortho 
dox exposition, and a valuable addition to theological literature." The many 
friends of Dr. Scott, and especially the large number of families and gentlemen in 



186 

New- York City who once sat delighted under his ministry in New-Orleans, (the 
editor being one,) will be greatly pleased to learn that their old pastor and friend, 
with his family, except a gallant son, an officer in the Union army, have reached 
New- York in health and safety. Of course, a man of such ability would be caught 
up in a week after his return to our shores, and he is supplying the pulpit of the 
Kev. Dr. Van Wyck, in Brooklyn, until September. Thrice fortunate will be that 
people who will haste to secure his permanent ministrations. 

Post-Office Notice, Official. — The fifth sub-division of the forty-second instruc- 
tion under the new Post-Office law is hereby amended by striking out the word twelve 
and inserting thirty-two before ounces, so that it shall read as follows : " The weight 
of packages, of seeds, cuttings, roots, and scions to be franked, is limited to thirty- 
two ounces." By order of the Postmaster- General, 

Alex. W. Randall, 

Washington, July 6th, 1863. First Asst. Postmaster-General. 

In order that our readers, who are not officially connected with the mail service, 
may have a full understanding of the changes in postal matters effected by the new 
law, which went into operation on the first of the present month, we give below a 
condensed summary of those of its provisions of which it is necessary for persons 
using the mails to "take due notice and govern themselves accordingly:" 

1. The rate of postage on all domestic mail letters to be carried any distance 
within the United States is now three cents per hjalf ounce or fraction thereof, to 
be prepaid by stamps. The former rate of ten cents to California, Oregon, and 
Washington Territories is abolished. 

2. All local or drop-letters must hereafter be prepaid by stamps, at the rate of 
two cents for every half ounce or fraction thereof, instead of one cent each, as 
heretofore. 

3. The postage on transient newspapers and periodicals, sent in one package to 
one address, is now two cents for each four ounces or each fraction thereof, to be 
prepaid by stamps ; on books, double that rate. The postage on single transient 
newspapers not weighing over four ounces is now two cents. 

4. The rate of postage on circulars is now as follows : Three or any less number 
may be sent, unsealed, to one address, at the single rate of two cents, and^ in that 
proportion for a greater number, adding one rate for every three circulars directed 
to one address. They can no longer be sent at the former rate of one cent each. 
No extra charge is now made for business cards stamped or printed on the envelopes 
of circulars. 

5. The former carriers' fee of one cent on each letter delivered is abolished. 
Hereafter, carriers collect nothing, except such unpaid postage as may be due on 
the letters delivered by them. 

6. The extra one-cent stamp formerly required on all letters deposited in lamp- 
post boxes and branch stations is no longer necessary. 

7. All communications to any officer or department of the Government, (includ- 
ing the President,) written by a private citizen, whether on " official business " or 
otherwise, must now be prepaid by stamps. 

8. A fee of twenty cents (instead of five, as heretofore) must hereafter be paid 
on each registered letter in addition to the postage. 

9. The letter can not be forwarded without a charge of extra postage when it has 
once been mailed according to its original address. 

There is now no use for one-cent postage stamps. 



187 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 157. 



ESCAPING FROM FIRE. 



Human life has been often thrown away from persons not taking the precaution 
to accustom their minds to dwell at times on the proper method of acting in emer- 
gencies ; from want of this, many rush into the very jaws of death, when a single 
moment's calm reflection would have pointed out a certain and easy means of 
escape. It is the more necessary to fix in the mind a general course of action in 
case of being in a house while it is on fire, since the most dangerous conflagrations 
occur at dead of night, and at the moment of being aroused from a sound sleep the 
brain is apt to become too confused to direct the bodily movements with any kind 
of appropriateness, without some previous preparation in the manner contained 
herein. The London Fire Department suggests, in case the premises are on fire, to, 

1. Be careful to acquaint yourself with the best means of exit from the house, 
both at the top and bottom. 

2. On the first alarm, reflect before you act. If in bed at the time, wrap your- 
self in a blanket or bedside carpet. Open no more doors than are absolutely 
necessary, and shut every door after you. 

3. There is always from eight to twelve inches of pure air close to the ground ; 
if you can not, therefore, walk upright through the smoke, drop on your hands and 
knees, and thus progress. A wetted silk handkerchief, a piece of flannel, or a 
worsted stocking, drawn over the face, permits breathing, and, to a great extent, 
excludes the smoke. 

4. If you can neither make your way upward nor downward, get into a front 
room ; if there is a family, see that they are all collected here, and keep the door 
closed as much as possible, for remember that smoke always follows a draught, and 
fire always rushes after smoke. 

5. On no account throw yourself, or allow others to throw themselves, from the 
window. If no assistance is at hand, and you are in extremity, tie the sheets to- 
gether, having fastened one side to some heavy piece of furniture, and let down the 
women and children one by one, by tying the end of the line of sheets around the 
waist, and lowering them through the window that is over the door, rather than one 
that is over the area. You can easily let yourself down after the helpless are saved. 

6. If a woman's clothes catch fire, let her instantly roll herself over and over on 
the ground. If a man be present, let him throw her down and do the like, and then 
wrap her up in a rug, coat, or the first woolen thing that is at hand. 

Of the preceding suggestions, there are two which can not be too deeply engraven 
on the mind, that the air is comparatively pure within a foot of the floor, and that 
any wetted silk or woolen texture thrown over the face excludes smoke to a great 
extent ; it is often the case that the sleeper is awakened by the suffocating effects 
of the smoke, and the very first effort should be to get rid of it, so as to give time 
to compose the mind, and make some muscular effort to escape. 

In case any portion of the body is burned it can not be too strongly impressed on 
the mind that putting the burned part under water, or milk, or other bland fluid, 
gives instantaneous and perfect relief from all pain whatever ; and there it should 
remain until the burn can be covered perfectly with half an inch or more of common 
wheaten flour, put on with a dredging-box, or in any other way, and allowed to re- 
main until a cure is effected, when the dry, caked flour will fall off, or can be soft- 
ened with water, disclosing a beautiful, new, and healthful skin, in all cases where 
the burns have been superficial. But in any case of burn, the first effort should be 
to compose the mind, by instantaneously removing bodily pain, which is done as 
above named ; the philosophy of it being, that the fluid, whether water, milk, oil, 
etc., excludes the air from the wound ; the flour does the same thing ; and it is rare 
indeed that water and flour are not instantaneously had in all habitable localities. 



188 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 158. 



SAVING MINISTERS. 



It has been lately proposed in the public papers, as a means of preserving clergy, 
men for a longer use, to a greater age, that while they are young, they should not 
be expected to do so much, as is now. required of them ; that for the first five years 
of their ministry, only one sermon on the Sabbath should be given. Not one 
minister in a million is ever disabled by hard study, or dies prematurely from that 
cause. A far better plan would be to require them to preach every day and Sunday 
too, for the first years of their ministry, and "as ye go, preach ;" take circuits, and 
preach in destitute places, five, or ten, or fifteen miles apart ; a sermon a day on an 
average, the year round ; and two or three on Sundays, the oftener the easier ; the 
advantages are, that they would become acquainted with the country ; would be 
brought into personal contact with a great variety of persons ; would see human 
nature in its multitudinous phases ; and thus in after-life would be able to read a 
book, more instructive to them than any other, except the Bible ; and reading it 
well, would put in their hands a key which would unlock the human heart, and give 
them so complete an access to it, that the people would say: "Never man spake like 
this man." " He told me all that ever I did." Patrick Henry owed his greatest 
power to what he learned of human nature by talking to all sorts of people in his 
little country store. Another advantage is, that this daily active out-door life, 
breathing the pure air for almost all of daylight, would enable them to work off that 
diseased bodily condition, which is generated in theological seminaries ; and would 
so knit and compact the constitution, so renovate it, not only by the exercise, but 
by the change of food and association, as to lay the foundation for many years of 
healthfulness in the future. It is impossible for an intelligent man to doubt for an 
instant, that four or five years spent, in riding every day on horseback, in the open 
air, with the accompanying and exhilarating mental exercise required in preaching, 
would be as certain to build up the constitution, as spending from morning until night 
in confined rooms, and eating heartily all the time, without any systematic exercise, 
would pull it down, and destroy it. There is nothing perplexing, or mystic, or mind- 
racking in ordinary ministerial duty ; it is more of calm contemplation, like that of 
the natural philosopher, the longest-lived of all other classes, as statistics say ; they 
study the works of God ; the clergy study his word ; which is a surer . " word of 
prophecy " and a plainer. The destroyers of our clergy are not hard study ; not the 
difficulties connected with their calling ; but reckless and unnecessary exposures ; 
irregular efforts ; wrong habits of eating ; unwise neglect of wholesome bodily exer- 
cises ; bad hours of study, and a criminal inattention to the securement of those 
bodily regularities, which are indispensable to health the world over. Preaching 
often, does not kill ; look at the Whitefields and the Wesleys and multitudes of others 
like them ; confinement even, does not kill : Baxter and Bunyan and many more 
lived in jails for years together, and that too without opportunities of exercise — 
for their living was plain, and that not over-abundant, nor tempting either ! 



189 
HEALTH TRACT, NO. 159. 



CIVIL AND MILITARY DEATH-RATE 

The only son of a New- York capitalist entered the army as a private, aged 
eighteen. In an outburst of youthful generosity he resigned his own shelter in 
behalf of a poor soldier and slept in the rain, with his feet resting in a little stream 
of water, and died in a few days. In a recent march of the Army of the Potomac 
one thousand soldiers were sun-struck, of which number about one hundred died 
within twenty-four hours. In both cases, the son and the soldiers died from ignor- 
ance. A few green leaves or a silk handkerchief in the hat would have prevented 
those sun-strokes ; had the young man known the necessity of sleeping with dry, 
warm feet, he would have lived. These two items, with more than a hundred 
others, are detailed in our twenty-five cent book on " Soldier Health ;" the object 
being to name in each rule, in as few and as plain words as possible, the means of 
guarding against sickness, of remedying disease, and treating various kinds of 
wounds with the means which any soldier is sure to have about him. The book 
does not presuppose the sick or wounded man is in a populous city or on the floor 
of a drug-store ; but takes it for granted that he is alone in the woods, or wounded 
and lost or forsaken on the battle-field, and shows him how, with his ramrod or a 
stick and a strip of his shirt, he can staunch the severest wound ; or how, with a 
little powder, he may avert instant death; or with a bit of cloth can arrest one of 
the most fearful of diseases. Short explanations of the reason of these things are 
given, so as to impress the idea on his mind, and thus carry the contents of the 
little work in his head ; for even a watch-fob volume is an incumbrance on a march 
ov in a fight. Intelligence is the best life-preserver. The largest city in the civil- 
ized world is healthier than its surrounding agricultural district. The aristocratic 
regiment of New-York was gone a month or two to the war, and returned with the 
loss of but one man in eight hundred, and he died of heart disease of long dura- 
tion. Of some ninety persons who went to the army in various capacities from 
one church, no more died of all causes than among an equal number at home. 
These things seem to show that intelligence, especially connected with social eleva- 
tion, are promotive of health ; and considering that an active, out-door soldier's 
life work3 disease out of the system, especially where there is no addiction to social 
vices, there is good ground for believing that even with the addition of the casual- 
ties of war there need not be any more deaths in a given time among a given 
' number of men than there would have been in the same men had they remained 
at home. With these views, every parent who sends a son or relative to the war, 
should first place in his hand some succinct, reliable little book ; not to be 
taken along so much, but to be read over, mastered, and remembered, so that he 
may know how to act in an emergency ; how to act in case of being wounded or 
taken sick in some desolate place. Attention to this suggestion might save many 
a life. The lowest death-rate reported from a civilized community is twelve out of 
a thousand in one year. It is twenty-two per thousand for all England ; twenty- 
four for the United States, and twenty-eight cases of sickness for each death. 



190 
HEALTH ■ TRACT, NO. 160. 



OISTE BY OlSTE. 

" One by one the leaves are falling, 
One by one the moments fly ; 
Thus to thoughtless mortals calling, 
They may soon be called to die." 

As our minister was ascending the pulpit on a beautiful and bright Sunday morn- 
ing of the mellow autumn, the thought occurred to us : " Will he ever die V He 
had been doing the same thing for many, many years ; and in all that time did not 
seem to have become any older ; yet we knew there was a fatal canker at the root ; 
the next summer he died ! And there was the mother of Isabella Graham. She 
sat in the same pew with us. Time passed on. Neither did she seem to be getting 
any older ; and when her minister would come down from the pulpit after service 
she would make her way through the crowd to shake hands with him, as if to say : 
" I have been fed to-day." One day she was seen to be at unusual pains to greet 
him ; but it was for the last time on earth, for they met soon thereafter in heaven ! 
And there was Elder G. He was in the prime of life ; we sat in the same aisle, 
met him many a time in the course of years ; never spoke to him, never knew his 
name; but there was holiness and meekness and a high intelligence in his face, 
which at the first glance or two caused us to put him down in the book of our re- 
membrance as a sainted man. And so it came that, having scattered for the sum- 
mer and coming back in the autumn, this and that familiar face was seen in the ac- 
customed pew ; but the weeks wore on toward winter, and still the gentle, unpre- 
tending, unpresuming elder was not there ; he had gone to heaven ! Just before 
us there used to come an old lady, only of a Sabbath morning ; so decrepit, so 
feeble, that each day we thought it would be her last in the earthly sanctuary ; but 
she came on. Winter and spring and summer and autumn came, and she did too ! 
as if years ceased to make any further impression on the frail and tottering frame. 
But we never saw her again. 

Not a* month ago a mother in Israel sat behind us ; no summer's sun, no winter's 
snow ever kept her away. The petted child of fashion and fortune from earliest 
infancy, she still knew no deeper joy, and considered it a duty and a privilege, as 
it was her delight, to mingle her songs and prayers with the Church on earth and 
in heaven, as a token of her being one of the children of the Great King. Who 
shall say that she has not met with us for the last time ? And there, too, are the 
refiner brothers. As for many years agone, they walk side by side to the Sabbath 
sanctuary with the same quick step, the same open, manly, fearless look ; their 
faces always mantled with a smile, as of peace within. Every Sabbath unfailingly 
have they made their Avay to the elder's splendid mansion on " the avenue," ap- 
parently as indivisible in their home affections as in their business and their princely 
charities, even to scores of thousands at a time, and that too for these many years 
past. But what a void there will be when one of the great and noble-hearted twain 
shall come to the church alone ; the " one" brother " taken, the other left," to be 
lamented as well as "missed" by a Church which numbers half a million of com- 
municants ! And not for long shall he who writes sing the last hymn, bow in the 
last benediction, and turn his back upon the earthly altar to come in again no 
more forever ; for like those before, we too are passing away — 

"One by one." 



"S 



191 
HEALTH TRACT, NO. 161 



VICES OF GENIUS. 



Coleridge was such a slave to liquor, that he had to be kept an unwitting prisoner 
by Christopher North on an occasion when some literary performance had to be 
completed by a certain time ; and on that very day, without even taking leave of 
any member of the family, "he ran off at full speed down the avenue at Elleray, 
and was soon hidden, not in the groves of the valley, but in some obscene den, 
where, drinking among low companions, his magnificent mind was soon brought to 
a level with the vilest of the vile." When his spree was over, he would return to 
the society of decent men. 

De Quincey was such a slave to the use of opium, that his daily allowance was of 
more importance than eating. "An ounce of laudanum a day prostrated animal 
life during the forenoon. It was no unfrequent sight to find him asleep on the rug 
before the fire in his own room, his head on a book, his arms crossed on his breast. 
When this torpor from the opium had passed away, he was ready for company 
about daylight. In order to show him off, his friends had to arrange their supper- 
parties so that, sitting until three or four in the morning, he might be brought to 
that point at which, in charm and power of conversation, he was so truly won- 
derful." 

Burns was not less a drunkard than Coleridge. It was the weakness of Charles 
Lamb. And who can remember the last day of Poe without an irrepressible re- 
gret? He was on his way to marry a confiding woman, stopped in Baltimore, and 
was found, by a gentleman who knew him, in a state of beastly intoxication, un- 
conscious as a log, and died that night in the ravings of delirium tremens. 

Douglas Jerrold was a devotee of gin. Byron was a tippler, and his vile Don 
Juan was the inspiration of rum, as might well be supposed, for its indecencies 
make it unfit for any woman to read. Steele, "the brilliant author of the Christian 
Hero y n was a beastly drunkard. Men wrote of him that "he would dress himself, 
kiss his wife and children, tell them a lie about his pressing engagements, heel it 
over to a groggery called 'The Store,' and have a revel with his bottle companions." 
Rollin says of Alexander the Great, that the true poison which brought him to his 
end was wine. The Empress Elizabeth of Russia was completely brutified by 
strong liquors. She was often in such a state of bacchic ecstasy during the day, 
that she could not be dressed in the morning ; and her attendants would loosely at- 
tach some robes, which a few clips of the scissors would disengage in the evening. 
Let every man, especially those in public life, who desires to avoid a drunkard's 
death, remember that he is on the crumbling verge of such an infamy when he be- 
gins to feel that in order to prepare himself, the doctor for a consultation, the 
lawyer for a cause, the clergyman for a sermon, the politician for a speech, he 
must take a pint of coffee, a cup of strong tea, a glass of brandy and water, or a 
plug of opium ; and the self-same moment of that discovery let him put his foot 
clown, raise his hand, and swear, that by the help of God he will never taste another 
grain or drop as long as life remains. This is the only safety. 



192 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 162. 



LEAVING HOME. 

When a child leaves home for the first time, after having had the parental eye to 
watch every footstep, and guard against every danger and harm ; when for the first 
time that ceaseless, sleepless, affectionate care has to be withdrawn, whether that 
absence is to be for a day, a week, a month, or longer, there is a painful anxiety to 
give such counsels as may meet the circumstances which are most likely to present 
themselves. A physician's mind, deeply impressed, as it must be, by the frail tenure 
of human life ; knowing, as he does, the trifling circumstances which frequently put 
an apparently healthful child in the'grave in a few days, labors, not to tell all that may 
be requisite to insure a safe return, for that would burden the memory, would con- 
fuse the mind, or be soon forgotten ; but aims to present a few important points, 
some wide-reaching general principles, or three or four practical facts, which may 
impress themselves upon the mind and fasten upon the memory of the youngest or 
most thoughtless. 

The thing which may quickest kill, is eating a hearty supper, especially the first 
one to be taken after reaching the place of destination ; for while the journey is sure 
to give an increased appetite, the bodily exercise and mental excitement connected 
with it, leave both in a debilitated or exhausted condition ; while the thought of 
being from home, away from father and mother, and more or less among strangers, 
causes an oppressive depression of spirits, which altogether leaves a person pre- 
cisely in that condition least capable of resisting very slight causes of disease. 
Hence, if the stomach is overloaded, and a cold room should be occupied, or an un- 
used bed, or damp sheets, an attack of bilious colic, or uncontrollable diarrhea, con- 
vulsions, or fatal pneumonia may very easily destroy life in twenty-four hours. 
Hence, give a short, clear, succinct injunction : 

1st. Never take any thing whatever for supper, while from home at least, but a 
single cup of weak tea or glass of water, and one piece of cold bread and butter. 

2d. Eat only at regular meal-times. 

3d. Cut up your food in very small pieces and eat slowly. 

4th. Give instant attention to nature's calls, (explaining whut these are.) 

5th. The moment you cease play or exercise, or come in from walk or ride, go 
close to the fire for five or ten minutes, if it is fire-time ; but if warm weather, 
spend the same time, or longer, in a closed room, until no perspiration is felt on the 
forehead. 

6th. Never stand a moment in a damp place or retain a damp garment, or sleep 
near an open door or window. 



193 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 163. 



FIFTH AVENUE SIGHTS. 



A streak of white petticoat is one of the most refreshing sights to be met with 
on the great thoroughfare of fashion, folly, and snobbery, because it is a pretty sure 
index that the wearer of the same possesses those characteristics of the sex, which 
make of a true woman the priceless being that she is ; and first of all, that per- 
sonal purity, which emanates from a pure heart and an exalted nature. When, in 
the fashion of the times, a woman shows her petticoat on the street, it indicates the 
possession of force of character, of independence of thought, and a consciousness 
of tidiness, which of itself extorts our admiration and commands respect. 

In our morning walk down-town the other day, we noticed that some careless 
footman had trod on an immense green worm and smashed it all abroad into a jelly ; 
then there was a demonstration that some hound or whelp or cur of low degree, had 
taken an emetic ; and a little farther on, that same or other, with the beef 
cattle which are every morning driven along the avenue, and for some reason best 
known to themselves, prefer the sidewalk, had made .other unseemly exhibitions; 
while almost everywhere was seen the foul tobacco-spit of some human beast ; or the 
product of a consumptive cough ; or a blow from a nose, not emptied before within 
twelve hours. In the course of an hour or two, the " prime part " of all these 
abominations is deposited on the velvet carpets which spread the parlors of the 
regal mansions lining the magnificent thoroughfare, by means of the trailing 
dresses, which senseless and inexorable fashion demands of her idiotic votaries. 
A part of the above filth is flapped by the dress against the stockings, gaiters, and 
petticoat of the wearer, the fumes of the detestable compounds rising upward 
about the person, saturating the clothing, and making the individual, however mag- 
nificently dressed, really unfit to be approached with a forty-foot pole. 

Our ladies will take a bran new dress of the most faultless figure and most costly 
material, and walk the streets with its first wearing ; the inner edge of the lower 
portion of the dress trails on the pavement, and in an hour is irretrievably stained 
and soiled, and begrimed ; it may be only the lining ; but it dries on it, and there 
remains, unless the ladies renew the lining at every wearing; but whose cheek would 
not mantle with shame, if this same portion of the dress was stretched out for ex- 
hibition? A true woman abhors dry dirt as much as dirt that is wet; and would 
feel a conscious degradation if she knew the inside of an otherwise faultlessly clean 
dress was soiled, while she makes it of more account to have her inner garments, 
and the most undermost clothing the sweeter and the cleaner the nearer they approach 
her person. Holding up the dress, and displaying a snow-white petticoat, prevents 
all this ; and tells plainly that the wearer is a true woman ; tidy, pure, and independ- 
ent in thought. But not one in a hundred has force of character, or thoroughness 
enough to raise the dress, even in the few cases where it is attempted ; proving 
clearly that most of the women who promenade the Avenue are slovens, or are 
among the new rich, and are conscious that the proper holding up of the dress would 
demonstrate their plebeian origin, in the thick ankle and the immense flat foot. 



194 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 164. 



SICKNESS NOT CAUSELESS. 

There never can be disease without a cause ; and almost always the cause is in 
the person who is ill ; he has either done something which he ought not to have 
done, or he has omitted something which he should have attended to. 

Another important item is, that sickness does not, as a general thing, come on 
suddenly ; as seldom does it thus come, as a house becomes enveloped in flames, 
on the instant of the fire first breaking out. There is generally a spark, a tiny 
flame, a trifling blaze. It is so with disease, and promptitude is always an import- 
ant element of safety and deliverance. A little child wakes up in the night with a 
disturbing cough, but which, after a while passes off, and the parents feel relieved ; 
the second night the cough is more decided ; the third, it is croup, and in a few 
hours more, the darling is dead ! 

Had that child been kept warm in bed the whole of the day after the first cough- 
ing was noticed, had fed lightly, and got abundant, warm sleep, it would have had 
no cough the second night, and the day after would have been well. 

An incalculable amount of human suffering, and many lives would be saved every 
year, if two things were done uniformly. First, when any uncomfortable feeling 
is noticed, begin at once, trace the cause of it and avoid that cause ever after. 
Second, use means at once to remove the symptom ; and among these, the best^ 
those which are most universally available and applicable, are rest, warmth, absti- 
nence, a clean person, and a pure air. When animals are ill, they follow nature's 
initinct, and lie down to rest. Many a valuable life has been lost by the unwise 
efforts of the patient to "keep up," when the most fitting place was a warm bed 
and a quiet apartment. 

Some persons attempt to " harden their constitutions," by exposing themselves 
to the causes which induced their sufferings, as if they could by so doing, get ac- 
customed to the exposure, and ever thereafter endure it with impunity. A good 
constitution, like a good garment, lasts the longer by its being taken care of. If 
a finger has been burned by putting it in the fire, and is cured never so well, it will 
be burned again as often as it is put in the fire ; such a result is inevitable. There 
is no such thing as hardening one's self against the causes of disease. "What gives 
a man a cold to-day, will give him a cold to-morrow, and the next day, and the next. 
What lies in the stomach like a heavy weight to-day, will do the same to-morrow ; 
not in a less degree, but a greater ; and as we get older, or get more under the in- 
fluence of disease, lesser causes have greater ill effects ; so that the older we get, 
the greater need is there for increased efforts to favor ourselves, to avoid hardships 
and exposures, and be more prompt in rectifying any "symptom," by rest, warmth, 
and abstinence. 



195 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 165. 



OBSCURE DISEASES. 

Sometimes a physician is called to see a member of a family, who does not seem 
to be very sick, nor has become suddenly ill ; the ailment appears to have mani- 
fested itself very gradually, and with all the powers of observation and comparison 
no adequate cause can be discovered. No one symptom is predominant in some 
cases ; in others, the combination of symptoms and their character and quality are 
not like those usually observed. In cases like these, the physician is thrown upon 
his own resources, and employs remedial means on certain well-established general 
principles ; but without any favorable result ; the patient lingers still ; then other prin- 
ciples and other remedies are applied, with no more encouraging results. Finally a 
change of air is advised in the shape of a visit to the country, to the sea-shore, or 
to the mountains, when the symptoms begin to abate ; the patient regains accus- 
tomed health and vigor, and returns home reinvigorated to a surprising degree ; 
but, in a short time the old symptoms begin to return, and eventually acquire all 
their old power over the system. 

Sometimes several members of a family are affected in the same way in the 
main ; at others, only a single individual suffers. The reason for this is simply, 
that some persons are much more sensitive to the causes of disease than others ; 
their constitutions are more susceptible of hurtful impressions. A practical infer- 
ence may be very legitimately drawn from these statements, which, if heeded, would 
save many a valuable life in the course of any single year. The rule should be, 
when a person does not get better under the treatment of a skillful physician, in 
stead of wasting time, and endangering the permanent loss of health, and even 
life itself, to remove some distance from the locality. Or if a family seems to 
enjoy good health, and yet a servant or guest comes to remain several days or 
weeks, but is sure to get sick, the inference is the same, that there is some perni- 
cious agency at work ; so long -so in the latter case, that the family have become 
habituated to it, while the stranger falls under its baleful influence. The wife may 
suffer and not the husband, because he may spend the larger part of his time from 
home ; or being of a more delicate constitution, she is more impressible by deli- 
cate causes. There may be an unknown covered well or sink, or " fill up," under 
the house ; some house-drain may be clogged up, or be broken in ; some altera 
tions may have been made in improving or repairing the premises, or new slop- 
holes formed. A new kind of wall-paper may have been used in a particular room ; 
lead water pipes may have been recently introduced into the house, or may have 
been injured so as to detain water long enough to cause decomposition. For these 
reasons, some persons have better health in moving into other houses, on leaving 
their old ones, and vice versa. 



196 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 166. 

SAYRE, THE BANKER, 

Is the happiest-hearted man we ever saw ! We met him yesterday in Broadway, 
the first time in thirty years, when we used to dine with him in the rear of his 
counting-room ; and he didn't look a speck older than when we parted. There was 
the same cordial, joyous greeting ; the same unbosoming of soul and self in a 
minute ; and before we knew it, we thought it was only yesterday. Now, the main 
well-spring of the big Kentuckian's joyous, genial nature, and apparent defiance of 
years — for he weighs near two hundred, and is approaching four-score — is his most 
extraordinary and implicit and childlike confidence in the truth of the Christian 
religion, and its existence in his own heart. He never had a doubt in his life ; and 
the faith that lives and springs perennially within him, throws sunshine, bright and 
beautiful, over all he casts his eye upon. 

Sayre was an industrious man ; he had no clerk, he clerked himself; he had no 
carriage, he locomoted himself, when locomotion was necessary. This was another 
element of his gladsome, gleesome nature, to be always fully busy in doing some- 
thing that was to purpose, or that was pressing enough to give the feeling that it 
must be done, and that an advantage would come of it when completed. Take a 
lesson from this, ye lazy, lounging, yawning, stretching, idle folk, whose whole life 
is without end or aim ; be busy about something useful or profitable ; get out of 
that miserable, " ennuied" existence of yours, and human life and human kind will 
wear a different and a happier phase to the end of the chapter. Another reason 
for " Davy's " (as all his townsmen friendlily called him) happy temperament was, 
that he was always making money ; whatever might be the sudden " stringency of 
the money-market," whatever the breakdowns and reverses and failures and blow- 
ups, he was always like a cat, sure to come down right side up, because he never 
went in debt, never ran any risk. What a' glorious motto for our young men to 
begin life with ; what millions of losses would it prevent ; what millions of lives, 
worse than wasted, would it save, and crushed and ruined hearts, too ! Sayre is 
happy and young in his old age, because he has a heart as big as all out-doors. For 
nearly half a century his house has been a clergyman's hotel ; he has fed and 
lodged more ministers than any dozen men in the nation ; for he and his grand, 
good wife were always so glad to see them, that they could not only not help going 
there, but they would pass the word to every " brother " who was going that way : 
" Put up at old Davy's." He came round to the Sunday-school one day ; it was 
so crowded as to make it inconvenient and uncomfortable. He saw it in a moment, 
said not a word, but soon after took us round to a splendid new building, costing 
many thousand dollars, and said to us:- "You haven't room enough; this is for 
your Sunday-school." He visited the theological seminary of his Church. Its 
library was in a small, cramped-up room. "Now, Humphreys," said he to the 
President, " we must have a separate building for this library ; have it done right 
away ; if you see that it is well done, I will pay the bills." He is happy, because, 
next to his religion, he loves the glorious Union. His house is the general rendez- 
vous of all the army officers. He raised a regiment himself, and gave every man 
a sum of money in addition. In the course of his life, he has given five hundred 
thousand dollars in money, to help along various poor relations, one of whom is 
now at the very head of one of the learned professions. A Christian, a philanthro- 
pist, and a patriot, always temperate, always making money, we can't exactly see why 
he shouldn't be as happy as the day is long, and always as lively as a young kitten. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 



WE AIM TO SHOW HOW DISEASE MAT BE AVOIDED, AND THAT IT IS BEST, WHEN SICKNESS COMES, 
TAKE NO MEDICINE WITHOUT CONSULTING A PHYSICIAN. 



Vol. X.] SEPTEMBER, 1863. [No. 9. 

PARENTAL CORRECTIONS. 

That man commits a crime, and so does the woman who 
will send a child to bed with a wounded spirit, or who shall 
allow any vindictiveness of feeling to exist in consequence of 
any thing the child may have done. Sharp-pointed memories 
have often driven men mad ; multitudes are there who are 
more dead than alive, from the ailings of the mind, which is 
wasting itself away in vain remorses for the irrevocable past. 
The fault of most parents is over-harsh reproofs of their child- 
ren ; reproofs that are hasty, unproportioned to the offense, 
and hence as to one's own child, helpless and unresisting, are a 
cruelty as well as an injustice. Thrice happy is that parent 
who has no child in the grave Which can be wished back, only 
if for a brief space, so as to afford some opportunity for repair- 
ing some unmerited unkindness toward the dead darling. Pa- 
rents have been many times urged in these pages to make 
persistent efforts to arrange two things in domestic intercourse, 
and to spare no pains and no amount of moral courage and 
determination, in order that they should be brought about. 
It may require a thousand efforts, and there may be a thousand 
failures, as discouraging as they are sad ; still let the high re- 
solve go out, " it shall be done !" and the prickling of many a 
thorn will be spared in after years and in old age. The two 
points to be daily aimed at are : 

First. Let the family table be always a meeting-place of 
pleasantness and affection and peace, and for the exhibition of 
all the sweeter feelings of domestic life. 



198 

Second. Let every child be sent to bed with kisses of affec- 
tion, especially those under ten years of age. 

All that is on this globe could not hire me to be put in the 
place of either the father or the mother in the following narra- 
tion of the former editor of a monthly of deserved repute in 
its time. The occurrence took place in Boston, about the 
year 1850, and every detail is minutely and literally true : 

"A few weeks before, L. B. H wrote to me that he had 

buried his eldest son, a fine, manly little fellow of eight years 
of age, who had never known a day's illness until that which 
finally removed him hence, to be here no more. His death 
occurred under circumstances which were peculiarly painful to 
his parents. A younger brother, a delicate, sickly child from 
its birth, the next in age to him, had been down for nearly a 
fortnight with an epidemic fever. In consequence of the na- 
ture of the disease, every precaution had been adopted that 
prudence suggested to guard the other members of the family 
against it. But of this one, the father's eldest, he said he had 
little to fear, so rugged was he and so generally healthy. Still, 
however, he kept a vigilant eye upon him, and especially for- 
bade his going into the pools and docks near his school, which 
it was his custom sometimes to visit ; for he was but a boy, 
and ' boys will be boys,' and we ought more frequently to think 
that it is their nature to be. Of all unnatural things, a reproach 
almost to childish frankness and innocence, save me from a 
' boy- man !' But to the story. 

u One evening this unhappy father came home, wearied with 
a long day's hard labor, and vexed at some little disappoint- 
ments which had soured his naturally kind disposition, and 
rendered, him peculiarly susceptible to the smallest annoyance. 
While he was sitting by the fire, in this unhappy mood of mind, 
his wife entered the apartment, and said : 

" ' Henry has just come in, and he is a perfect fright ! He 
is covered from head to foot with dock-mud, and is as wet as a 
drowned rat !' 

" ' Where is he?' asked the father sternly. 

" f He is shivering over the kitchen-fire. He was afraid to 
come up here when the girl told him you had come home.' 

" 'Tell Jane to tell him to come here this instant !' was the 
brief reply to this information. 



PAEENTAL COEKECTIONS. 199 

"Presently the poor boy entered, half perished with affright 
and cold/ His father glanced at his sad plight, reproached him 
bitterly with his disobedience, spoke of the punishment which 
awaited him in the morning, as the penalty for his offense, and 
in a harsh voice concluded with : 

" ' Now, sir, go to your bed !' 

" 1 But, father,' said the little fellow, i I want to tell you I 

" 'Not a word, sir ; go to bed! 1 

* 1 1 only wanted to say, father, that ' 

" With a peremptory stamp, an imperative wave of his hand 
toward the door, and a frown upon his brow, did that father 
without other speech, again close the door of explanation and 
expostulation. 

" When the boy had gone supperless and sad to his bed, the 
father saWestless and uneasy while supper was being prepared, 
and at tea-table ate but little. His wife saw the r^al cause, 
or the additional cause of his emotion, and interposed the 
remark : 

" * I think, my dear, you ought at least to have heard what 
Henry had to say. My heart ached for him when he turned 
away with his eyes full of tears. Henry is a good boy, after 
all, if he does sometimes do wrong. He is a tender-hearted, 
affectionate boy. He always was.' 

" And therewithal the water stood in the eyes of that forgiving 
mother, even as it stood in the eyes of Mercy, in ' the house of 
the Interpreter,' as recorded by Bunyan. 

" After tea the evening paper was taken up ; but there was no 
news and nothing of interest for that father in the journal of 
that evening. He sat for some time in an evidently painful 
reverie, and then rose and repaired to his bed-chamber. As he 
passed the bedroom where his little boy slept, he thought he 
would look in upon him before retiring to rest. He crept to 
his low cot and bent over him. A big tear had stolen down 
the boy's cheek and rested upon it, but he was sleeping calmly 
and sweetly. The father deeply regretted his harshness as he 
gazed upon his son, but he felt also the \ sense of duty ;' yet in 
the night, talking the matter over with the lad's mother, he 
resolved and promised, instead of punishing, as he had threat- 
ened, to make amends to the boy's aggrieved spirit in the morn- 



200 

ing for the manner in which lie had repelled all explanation of 
his offense. 

ff But that morning never came to the poor child in health. 
He awoke the next morning with a raging fever on his brain, 
and wild with delirium. In forty-eight hours he was in his 
shroud. He knew neither his . father nor his mother, when 
the j were first called to his bedside, nor at any moment 
afterward. "Waiting, watching for one token of recognition, 
hour after hour, in speechless agony, did that unhappy father 
bend over the couch of his dying son. Once, indeed, he 
thought he saw a smile of recognition light up his dying eye, 
and he leaned eagerly forward, for he would have given worlds 
to have whispered one kind word in his ear and have been 
answered; but that gleam of apparent intelligence passed 
quickly away, and was succeeded by the cold, unmeaning glare 
and the wild tossing of the fevered limbs, which lasted until 
death came to his relief. 

" Two days afterward the undertaker came with the little cof- 
fin, and his son, a playmate of the deceased boy, bringing the 
low stools on which it was to stand in the entry- hall. 

'"I was with Henry,' said the lad, ' when he got into the 
water. We were playing down at the Long Wharf, Henry and 
Frank Mumford and I ; and the tide was out very low, and 
there was a beam run out from the wharf, and Charles got out 
on it to get a fish-line and hook that hung over where the 
water was deep, and the first thing we saw he had slipped off 
and was struggling in the water ! Henry threw off his cap and 
jumped clear from the wharf into the water, and after a great 
deal of hard work, got Charles out ; and they waded up through 
the mud to where the wharf was not so wet and slippery, and 
then I helped them to climb up the side. Charles told Henry 
not to say any thing about it, for if he did his father would 
never let him go near the water again. Henry was very sorry, 
and all the way going home he kept saying : 

" ' What will father say when he sees me to-night ? I wish 
we had not gone to the wharf!' 

'"Dear, brave boy!' exclaimed the bereaved father; 'and 
this was the explanation which I so cruelly refused to hear !' 
And hot and bitter tears rolled down his cheeks. 



PARENTAL CORRECTIONS. 201 

" Yes, that stern father now learned, and for the first time, 
that what he had treated with unwonted severity as a fault, 
was but the impulse of a generous nature, which, forgetful of 
self, had hazarded life for another. It was but the quick 
prompting of that manly spirit which he himself had always 
endeavored to graft upon his susceptible mind, and which, 
young as he was, had already manifested itself on more than 
one occasion. 

" Let me close this story in the very words of that father, 
and let the lesson sink deep into the heart of every parent who 
shall peruse this sketch : 

" ' Every thing that I now see that ever belonged to him 
reminds me of my lost boy. Yesterday I found some rude 
pencil-sketches, which it was his delight to make for the amuse- 
ment of his younger brother. To-day, in rummaging an old 
closet, I came across his boots, still covered with dock-mud, as 
when he last wore them. (You may think it strange, but that 
which is usually so unsightly an object is now "most precious 
to me.") And every morning and evening I pass the ground 
where my son's voice rang the merriest among his playmates. 

" • All these things speak to me vividly of his active life, 
but I can not — though I have often tried — I can not recall any 
other expression on the dear boy's face than that mute, mourn- 
ful one with which he turned from me on the night I so harshly 
repulsed him. . . . Then my heart bleeds afresh ! 

" ' Oh ! how careful should we all be that in our daily con- 
duct toward those little beings sent us by a kind Providence, 
we are not laying up for ourselves the sources of many a future 
bitter tear ! How cautious that, neither by inconsiderate nor 
cruel word or look, we unjustly grieve their generous feeling! 
And how guardedly ought we to weigh every action against 
its motive, lest, in a moment of excitement, we be led to mete 
out to the venial errors of the heart the punishment due only 
to willful crime ! 

" [ Alas ! perhaps few parents suspect how often the fierce 
rebuke, the sudden blow, is answered in their children by the 
tears, not of passion, not of physical or mental pain, but of a 
loving yet grieved or outraged nature!' " 

But why in this sad case should the mother be called to weep 



202 hall's journal of health. 

tears of blood, and be considered a partaker of the father's 
fault? It was for the criminal want of judgment and consider- 
ation on her part. The father had come home wearied and 
discouraged in connection with the business of the day, was 
sitting by the fire in a moody state of mind, and the mother 
bursts in upon him with the announcement of the boy's condi- 
tion, without acquainting herself with the circumstances, and 
without uttering one word of extenuation, but presenting the 
case to the father's mind in the strongest terms of aggravation. 
No wonder, under all the circumstances, the husband should 
have fired up, and that he should have been driven on like one 
unpossessed of himself. Had the mother possessed but a small 
share of observation, and even a less amount of common-sense, 
she would herself have inquired into all the circumstances of 
the case, and began the history by extolling the nobleness of 
their son ; then it would have had a calming, compensating 
effect on the father's mind ; it would have been drawn away 
from business, and would have nestled itself lovingly amid the 
darling ones around him. 

Even if there had been no extenuating circumstances, she 
ought to have had wit enough to have respected the humor of 
her husband ; she ought to have seen in a moment that some- 
thing had gone wrong with him, and should have studiously 
kept from saying or doing any thing which could by any pos- 
sibility have roused him into a tempest of uncontrollable pas- 
sion. There are many other just such thoughtless, hare-brained 
women, who deserve neither the name of mother nor wife, who 
seem to glory in dashing at their husbands the instant they 
open the door, on their return from a hard day's toil, of body 
or of mind, and with amazing volubility, pour out the mishaps, 
vexations, and misfortunes of the day, and in a way, too, as if 
the husband was wholly to blame, although he may not have 
had the slightest connection with them, in the most remote 
manner possible. 

Another inexcusable folly was in the father threatening to 
punish the child next day ; leaving the little fellow's mind to 
exaggerate it in his fears, and be a living torture until the end 
came. Not long ago, we read an account of an editor who 
sent his little son to an up-stairs room, and had the door locked, 
with the threat that he would be flogged at the end of a certain 



PARENTAL CORRECTIONS. 203 

number of "hours. True to his word, he went to the door at 
the appointed time, and in the unlocking of it the child was so 
alarmed, that he ran to the window, jumped out, and broke his 
neck. It is the limit of folly and the refinement of cruelty to 
threaten punishment to a child for a thing done. If punish- 
ment is merited, it should be inflicted and then dismissed; yet 
there are parents not a few who seem to have a malignant 
pleasure, after children have been reproved or otherwise pun- 
ished for a specific fault, in reminding them of it on every pos- 
sible occasion for months afterward ; the certain effect of which 
is to induce a kind of desperation in the mind of the child and 
a " don't care " feeling, which can not fail to have a most un- 
fortunate" influence on that child's character for all its life there- 
after. 

Let parents, then, who would avoid an old age of agony, in 
connection with harshness, injustice, and even cruelty to their 
children, remember never to punish or even threaten a child 
under the influence of a passionate state of the mind, because 
the morrow may bring death, and no compensation can be ever 
made. 

There is a physiological view to be taken of this case, which 
may be communicated with profit. Even if the child had been 
ever so much to blame, he should have been tenderly dealt 
with as to the present. His mind and body had been most 
intensely exercised, and the reaction had left the whole system 
in a state of complete exhaustion. In addition, the body was 
chilled. He should have been cleansed and re-dressed with all 
a mother's affection ; a warm supper and some hot drink should 
have been given him, and he should have been put to sleep 
tenderly, in a warm bed. But instead of all this, he was cold, 
wet, hungry, " shivering," sent to bed, his feelings " hurt " to 
an extent which words can not express. We almost feel as if 
the father of the unfortunate boy was entitled to the designa- 
tion of " savage," and his wife, a poor, hasty, weak-minded non- 
entity — worse than no wife at all. 



204 



UMMER HEGIRA. 



A most advantageous custom, and one which promotes 
health of body and brain, is that of citizens spending the hot- 
test weeks of the year in the country ; there can not be a 
doubt of its revivifying and regenerating effects, when the time 
is occupied in a proper manner, and the habits of eating, drink- 
ing, and exercise are dictated by a judicious reference to the 
ascertained laws of our being. A summering in the coun- 
try will be beneficial to the body, in proportion as the whole 
time of daylight, from early breakfast until sundown, is spent 
in active pleasurable exercise in the open air ; exercise which, 
as often as taken, should be to the extent of some little fatigue. 
As to young men and old, the best plan is to be afoot from 
morning until night, in fishing, hunting wild animals, religious- 
ly sparing the sweet birds of the wood, whose gleeful songs, as 
if in welcome of our arrival, ought to smite any generous 
heart with reproaches, for even the thought of murdering them 
in cold blood. To carry out this plan of health-seeking to the 
fullest extent, it should be arranged to go far from human hab- 
itations, and " rough it," camping out every night for weeks to- 
gether, all the while dismissing business from the mind, and 
allowing it to feast on the beauties of nature and the goodness 
of our great Father, as exhibited in all that meets the eye. 

As to girls and women, especially those who are burdened 
with family cares at home, or are weighed down with that 
greater load, fashionable life, the better plan is to avoid all 
watering-places, and away from all steamboat and railroad com- 
munication, seek in some quiet nook, in a plain, tidy farm- 
house, that repose for mind and body which is so imperatively 
needed. A place should be sought where there are literally 
" no other boarders," except the members of ypur own family, 
and where there is no pretension in the household to dress and 
form and ceremony; where the only law is that of an honest 
kindness. Seek a place where there are no near neighbors ; 
which is not immediately on any main public road ; the object of 
all this being to enable the ladies, without wounding their self- 
respect, to wear the plainest, loosest clothing they possess, and 
to relieve them of any necessity for dressing but once in twen- 
ty-four hours, and that when they first get up in the morning, 



EAISING CHILDEEN. 205 

so that any moment they may wish to go out of doors, the 
only extra articles needed may be an old-fashioned "sun-bon- 
net " and a loose, light shawl ; the shoes that are worn about the 
house should have soles nearly half an inch thick, with cork 
lining inside. When a lady can go out thus easily, without 
the necessity of changing a single garment, she will be far 
more apt to take a turn round the farm, to go to the spring- 
house, to gather eggs in the barn, to feed the chickens, to go a 
berrying, to visit the orchard, to pick berries for desserts, to 
watch the dairy-maid, to go out to the harvest-field and smell 
the new-mown hay, to scale fences, climb trees in the orchard, 
gather wild flowers, build mill-dams in the brooks, and con- 
struct artificial canals and miniature water-wheels for turning 
imaginary mills ; to take basket on arm and botanize ; or a 
tiny hammer, and wandering over brook and branch and hill- 
side and mountain-top, by the public road or the sea-side, read 
in every stone the geology of each locality, and much of their 
history through the long ages past ; to row a boat, or ride a horse ; 
to walk by the earliest dawn, or frolic by the clear moonlight 
of summer; all the while eating not an atom except at the 
three regular meals of the day ; getting all the sleep possible, 
but only during the hours of darkness. Acting thus, few will 
fail of real and lasting renovation, by spending a summer in 
the country. 



RAISING CHILDREN. 

I have never lost a child, and it seems to me, if one of my 
four were to die, the sun would never shine to me again ; at 
least, never as brightly as before ; and that a pall would hang 
over all that made life desirable. I know that time soothes 
every sorrow, and takes off the sharp edge of the most heart- 
crushing afflictions ; but still, sad thoughts would hover mourn- 
fully over the departed ; coming unbidden even in the press of 
business ; on the crowded street ; in the gay assembly. 

Next to the great calamity of a lost child, is the torture of 
having one before your eyes every day of your existence the 
victim of some slow disease, of some incurable malady, of 
some eating, painful, fatal ailment, or some distressing or 



206 hall's joukstal of health. 

humiliating deformity. All my children were born apparently 
delicate, except the last; they seemed to me like waxwork; 
almost too frail to be handled ; but all were free from blemish 
or deformity. Two things were in their favor, they were born 
of healthy parents, and hadn't much sense ; of which latter I 
have always felt particularly glad, in view of the fact that 
the "smarter" a child is, the brighter its intellect, the more 
certain it is to die early of brain disease; if not, the chances 
are that the intellect will wane early ; will not answer the ex- 
pectations formed of it ; or if it does, and practical life is reach- 
ed, genius and magnificent abilities do not add to the probabili- 
ties of domestic happiness of success in life, or a very enjoyable 
existence. 

Genius is erratic, whether in man or woman ; and is always 
precipitating its possessor into all sorts of " fixes," of the. un- 
pleasurable kind ; geniuses, magnificent minds, generally die 
drunk or mad ; die early, from the effects of opium, liquor or 
tobacco. My own personal observation bears me out in the say- 
ing, that persons of moderate mental caliber, of medium capaci- 
ties, are most likely to live long, live healthfully, live happily, 
and live successfully, whether as to making a comfortable liv- 
ing, or having a solid influence in society. 

It may be suggestive to remark, in passing, how singularly 
children " take after," and don't take after their parents, one or 
both. Of my four, who are between the ages of nine and six- 
teen, none take after their parents, in what is called smartness ; 
that quality having been monopolized by their father and 
mother ; while all of them are good-looking, and are growing 
up to be comely, a quality which neither parent ever pretended 
to, unless in a fit of insanity. But the good health of the 
parents has descended to all the children ; the measure of it 
may be expressed by the fact, that from the first day of Sep- 
tember last, until this present first day of August, neither of 
the four has lost a meal from sickness ; and all four have not 
lost half a dozen days from school, during the ten months' 
session. No kind of wind or weather, rain, hail, sleet, or snow, 
has been allowed as an excuse for not going to school, which 
is just one mile and three quarters from their home ; this may 
be more fully appreciated when it is remembered that to reach 
school by nine, requires to breakfast at seven of a winter's 



RAISING CHILDREN. 207 

morning, which must be done' by gas-light. " Father," said our 
little Alice, the other day, as we were taking our morning 
walk toward school, "I have been going to school three 
years, and have never been late once" — the word "late" mean- 
ing not being there in time to go into the recitation-room pre- 
cisely at nine. All are required to be at the breakfast- table 
not later than seven in mid- winter, without being called, or 
"rungup" — this throws them on their own resources, makes them 
self-reliant, and is not a hardship, for there is a clock, as well as 
a thermometer, in every occupied room in the house ; and when 
a routine is once fallen into, which is shown to be convenient 
and advantageous to all the household, it becomes almost as 
easy to do right as wrong ; besides, when a thing is looked 
upon as having to be done as a matter of course, it is no longer 
the burden or hardship that it might at one time have been con- 
sidered to be. And it is greatly to be regretted that this idea 
is not better understood in families. 

These details, and others to be mentioned, are not given as 
proof positive, that the healthfulness of my children is the 
result of my management ; for there may have been quite as 
much health in other families of the same size ; age, and general 
circumstances; still,, some of the observances must have con- 
tributed more or less to such a gratifying result ; and it is cer- 
tainly a great happiness to have not an hour's sickness in a 
growing family, for months and years together. As to eating, 
breakfast is taken at seven o'clock the year round, a plain lun- 
cheon is carried to school, to be eaten at twelve w: ; they 
are dismissed at three, and by four o'clock, sit down to dinner, 
and nothing more is allowed until breakfast next morning; 
this arrangement for eating was adopted as the best under the 
circumstances, in connection with the school; otherwise, the 
old-fashioned plan of early breakfast, dinner at noon, and sup- 
per in the evening, seems to be the most rational and conveni- 
ent. All eating, except at breakfast, school-lunch at noon, and 
dinner at four o'clock, is discouraged, because it occasions un- 
necessary trouble in the house ; but more than all, to prevent 
that irregularity of eating at regular meals, which is an inevita- 
ble result of a permission to eat between times. Besides, if a 
child is allowed to eat between meals, he is very sure some 
times to eat so heartily as not to be much hungry at the follow- 



208 * 

ing regular meal, the result soon being that he is hungry only 
between meals, while at the regular hours for eating with the 
family, he is merely a nibbler, and soon gets to eating half a 
dozen times a day, and at no one time much; the result is, 
there is no real vigorous appetite for solid substantial food, con- 
sequently the strength is not sustained; instead of running 
about the house cheerily, he sits, and lolls, and mopes, and 
lounges about in listless indifference and fretfulness, which in 
turn grows to a settled unloveliness, throwing a cloud over the 
whole family. But this is not all; it is known to be a fact, that 
three fourths of all who die of consumption, trace the begin- 
nings of their troubles to their " teens." And it is Yerj na- 
turally brought on thus: irregular eating induces irregular 
bodily functions ; takes away the vigorous appetite, and, as 
above stated, ends in an indisposition to exercise ; this, in turn, 
induces debility of body and lassitude of mind. Such persons 
always take cold easily ; easily fall into any kind of sickness 
which may happen to prevail, simply from a want of vigor to 
repel the most ordinary causes of diseases; hence, as it requires 
but a little to make them sick, they are almost all the time ail. 
ing in some way or other, and eventually become confirmed in- 
valids; the sons thereby to become discouraged; and the 
daughters, if they live to marry, need nursing from the begin- 
ning ; are unfit to keep house ; are a constant drag to the hus- 
band, instead of an aid in becoming thrifty and prosperous; 
and all ending too often in domestic indifference, or a feeling 
of discouragement, venting itself in the expression, "It isn't 
worth while for me to try and lay up any thing;" and when a 
man arrives at such a conclusion, he is practically lost to society 
as far as becoming a prosperous and influential business man is 
concerned. 

But if a child by frequent eating comes to the table with but 
an indifferent appetite, an inevitable result is, that it has no 
relish for plain, substantial, nourishing food ; it don't like this, 
and don't want that, and objects to the other usual stand-bys 
on the table ; then comes the complaint, that this " isn't good," 
and that "an't nice;" and the foundation is laid for that hate- 
fully fretful, complaining, repining habit, which in a man is 
contemptible, and in woman a degradation. 

Nor is this the only evil of so arranging the eating that 



RAISING CHILDREN. 209 

children shall very often come to the table without a vigor- 
ous appetite, for as soon as the mother observes it, she becomes 
apprehensive that the child is about to be sick, and that if 
it does not eat, it will become weak and soon be confined 
to bed ; and her imagination running riot, lays the child in 
the grave in a few days ; in order to prevent this, she reasons 
thus : when the child was well it ate heartily, and if it can be 
got to eat heartily it will be well again; therefore she sets her 
wits to work to get up various delieacies to tempt the child to 
eat heartily, and as a matter of course precipitates an unfavor- 
able result, by forcing food on the system in a measure, when 
it is not called for, thus oppressing the vital powers more and 
more, and prematurely exhausting the recuperative energy; 
making it absolutely more certain that the child will get really 
sick, and if it does, proportionably diminishes the chances of 
recovery. The true plan, most especially with children, and 
one which would avert, at the very least, one half of their 
sickness is, the very moment the appetite is noticed to be not 
so good as it was, compel the child to take one half less than it 
really is inclined to ; thus, by diminishing the labor of the 
stomach, it has a chance to rest, to recover its energy, when the 
appetite begins at once to return, and the child is well. A 
grand rule would this be for persons of all ages, but it takes a 
man of force of character to do this ; the pampered, the self- 
indulgent, the undecided, feeble-minded folk are altogether 
inadequate to such a feat of moral courage. Many an attack 
of illness might be warded off from children by the exercise 
of a very little attention and firmness. If a child wakes up in 
the morning and calls for a drink of water the first thing, such 
child is perfectly certain to be sick before noon. The course to 
be pursued, is to keep him in bed, and by warm drinks pro- 
mote perspiration, eating nothing whatever until the afternoon, 
when he may amuse himself by nibbling at some cold, dry 
bread, and the next day he will be about again ; otherwise, a 
breakfast will be eaten, fever comes on, vomiting, and several 
days' illness. 

If a child is allowed to eat what he wants at supper, he will 
in less than a week have very little appetite for breakfast ; the 
next step is to feel hungry two or three hours later ; this again 
interferes with the appetite for dinner, and in a short time all 



210 

system and regularity in eating is destroyed, inducing inevitably 
and always general ill-health. Mothers generally are incapable 
of exercising the requisite degree of firmness, in compelling 
their children to take light suppers — that is, a cup of warm 
drink and a piece of cold bread and butter. The easiest way 
to bring this about, is to never have any thing else on the table, 
and whenever children, as they certainly will, until better trained, 
exhibit any dissatisfaction, by word or sign, or expression of 
countenance, on entering the supper-room, let it be met with a 
simple and quiet requisition to go at once to bed, without any 
supper at all. 

With the ordinary routine of provision on the table, it is 
well to let children eat as much as they want ; they will seldom 
take too much for breakfast or dinner, but when a new dish 
comes on the table, whether one just learned from a neighbor, 
or the first of the season, any child that seems to be particu- 
larly fond of it, should be restricted to a small amount, which 
may be gradually increased from day to day ; otherwise, the 
child is very certain to gorge himself, be sick, and then never 
like that dish afterward. It is an inexcusable tyranny to require 
children to eat or drink what they have no relish for ; better 
let them consult their instincts. We have only to appreciate 
the unreasonableness of this forcing process, and its hardship, 
by trying to compel ourselves to swallow what we have no rel- 
ish for. 

Most parents find a constantly recurring difficulty in getting 
their children off to bed in season at night ; all of them have a 
disinclination to retiring early. But it is of the utmost import- 
ance to make an iron rule in the household in that respect, at 
least as to every child going to school. There can be no health 
without it, for two reasons : the eyes will soon become inflamed 
and sore, and by not getting sleep enough, the brain does not 
work with activity ; it takes hold of the lessons with reluctance, 
as it were, all study becomes a bore, the child falls behind, or, 
in his efforts to keep up with the class, especially if a girl, brain- 
fever or some other malady supervenes, and days and weeks 
are lost at school, and sometimes even life itself. Children 
should be required to go to bed at such an early hour that 
they may wake up of themselves in the morning ; this is an 
indication that they have had all the sleep that nature can take ; 



RAISING CHILDREN. 211 

then they are lively, cheerful, and hilarious all day ; but if, from 
having company, or being out at " meeting," parties, or amuse- 
ments, they are kept out of bed an hour or two later than 
usual, they will wake up about the accustomed time, but they 
are pretty sure to come to the breakfast-table with unbuoyant 
countenances ; there are frowns instead of fun and smiles, and 
they are very apt to be fretful, captious, or complaining for the 
whole day afterward. Let it be arranged the year round, that 
school-children shall wake up at daylight ; this will not only 
prevent the necessity of ruining the eyes by night-study, but 
also the more injurious practice of studying by artificial light 
in the morning. Several of the associates of our daughters 
have permanently weak eyes, yellow matter constantly about 
the eye-lashes, in consequence of their sitting up to ten and 
eleven o'clock at night at their books, and every once in a while 
they are " absent," on the ground of having " sore eyes." We 
have known two cases of late, where children of thirteen were 
allowed to sit up until eleven o'clock at night, with the full 
glare of gaslight falling on the bright white page ; in a very 
short time they had to lose from one to three weeks. In one case, 
a girl was required to go to school, day after day, when her eyes 
were in such a state from night-study, that she could not use 
them at all, but was merely a listener to the recitations ; a bar- 
barity on the part of teacher and parents of which a savage 
heart should be ashamed. If parents would systematically at- 
tend to one point in reference to their children who are attend- 
ing school, in addition to regularity in eating, and sleeping to 
the utmost that nature will take, it would avert an infinite 
amount of ill from their children in the course of a lifetime ; it 
is simply this, let breakfast be taken sufficiently early to allow 
them perfect leisure to attend to all the calls of nature before 
they leave for school. It is perfectly certain that multitudes 
of children, and even grown persons, lay the foundation for 
Life-long diseases and sufferings, in consequence of neglecting 
to attend systematically to this suggestion. 



212 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 167. 



WORTH REMEMBERING. 

1. It is unwise to change to cooler clothing, except when you first get up in the 
morning. 

2. Never ride with your arm or elbow outside any vehicle. 

3. The man who attempts to alight from a steam-car while in motion is a fool. 

4. In stepping from any wheeled vehicle while in motion, let it be from the rear, 
and not in front of the wheels ; for then, if you fall, the wheels can not run over you. 

5. Never attempt to cross a road or street in a hurry in front of a passing vehicle ; 
for if you should stumble or slip, you will be run over. Make up the half-minute 
lost by waiting until the vehicle has passed, by increased diligence in some other 
direction. 

6. If you want to sleep well at night, avoid sleeping a moment during daylight. 

7. It is a miserable economy to save time by robbing yourself of necessary sleep. 

8. If you find yourself inclined to wake up at a regular hour in the night and 
remain awake, you can break up the habit in three days, by getting up as soon as 
you wake, and not going to sleep again until your usual hour for retiring ; or retire 
two hours later and rise two hours earlier for three days in succession ; not sleeping 
a moment in the day-time. 

9. If infants and young children are inclined to be wakeful during the night, or 
very early in the morning, put them to bed later ; and besides, arrange that their 
day-nap shall be in the forenoon. 

10. " Order is heaven's first law," regularity is nature's great rule ; hence regu- 
larity in eating, sleeping, and exercise, has a very large share in securing a long 
and healthful life. 

11. If you are caught in a drenching rain, or fall in the water, by all means keep 
in motion sufficiently vigorous to prevent the slightest chilly sensation until you 
reach the house ; then change your clothing Avith great rapidity before a blazing fire 
and drink instantly a pint of some hot liquid. 

12. To allow the clothing to dry upon you, unless by keeping up vigorous exercise 
until thoroughly dried, is suicidal. 

13. Drop yourself to the ground from the rear of any vehicle when the horses 
are running away, if you must get out at all. 

14. If you are conscious of being in a passion, keep your mouth shut, for words 
increase it. Many a person has dropped dead in a rage. 

15. It does not require a word to make a villainous lie ; whatever is intended to 
deceive or mislead, that is the falsehood. So it does not require a dagger or a 
bullet to kill a man ; the mean slander, a contemptuous shrug, may blast the repu- 
tation, and wilt the heart and life away. 

16. If a person "faints," place him on his back and let him alone; he wants 
arterial blood to the head ; and it is easier for the heart to throw it there in a hori- 
zontal line, than perpendicularly. 

17. If you want to get instantly rid of a beastly surfeit, put your finger down 
your throat until free vomiting, and eat nothing for ten hours. 

18. Feel a noble pride in living within your means, then you will not be hustled 
off to a cheerless hospital in your last sickness. 

19. If you would live to purpose, and live long, live industriously, temperately 
regularly, all the while maintaining " a conscience void of offense toward God 
and toward man." 



213 
HEALTH TRACT, NO. 168. 



PHYSIOLOGY OF WORSHIP. 

I hate come across men and women in my time, treading on the very verge of 
the grave in their old age, who were so eager after the making and saving of money ; 
had become so close and stingy and mean -hearted in every thing pertaining to dol- 
lars and cents, that their whole character was overshadowed. Whatever of good 
there used to be in them had died out ; they had but one god, and that was gold ; 
and in thoughts of it they reveled ; in talks of it they waked up into a newness of 
life, to a keenness of perception in every thing pertaining to number one, that at 
once astonished and surprised. All this was the result of the mind feeding itself, 
day by day and hour by hour, on thoughts of filthy lucre ; and the propensity 
grew as any other would have done, had it been equally indulged in, until it be- 
came to be out of all proportion, gave a hue to the whole character, and the soul 
was lost in the love of gold, 

"That vile idolatry." , 

In our physical nature, if any one set of muscles is exercised exclusively, they 
have an unnatural growth, approaching the monstrous, while others dwindle, and 
the whole physical nature is out of shape, uncomely, deformed. Hence those ex- 
ercises most promote health of body which bring into play alternately every sys- 
tem of muscles. Thus it is also that if we exercise one set of muscles for a long 
time, we become weary, and yet may become rested without resting, and can return 
to the exercise with a feeling of freshness and new vigor, if for a while another set 
of muscles, or new combinations of them, are exercised. This principle pervades 
our moral nature as well ; hence, for its proper nourishment, healthfullness, growth, 
and elevation, Divinity, for our best and highest good, has appointed one day in the 
week, and recommended in the Book of his revealed will a portion of the time of 
the other days in the week to be devoted to the contemplation of religious, of 
spiritual things ; a proper attention to which breaks in upon the thoughts of world- 
liness, and effectually prevents that entire absorption of the mind as to money 
which makes old age so unlovely that we instinctively despise rather than revere. 
The whole subject merits the serious and solemn consideration of every reader, as 
there is not one who is not in danger of the great calamity of wrecking the very 
soul in its greed of gold, of becoming a monomaniac, and an object of pity and 
contempt to all. The value of this habit of daily contemplation and of stated 
weekly meditation on things which pertain to our spiritual nature and its relations 
to God and eternity, is seen in the old age of individuals who are evidently ripe for 
heaven ; and in whole communities, as the Society of Friends, one of the cardinal 
points in whose religious faith is, the duty of self-communion, of inward spiritual 
contemplation ; and that this is profitable to soul and body ; for " the life that now 
is, and that which is to come," witness their placid nature, their thriving condition, 
and the statistical fact that their lives average ten or fifteen years longer than any 
other clas3 of persons. 



214 



HEALTH TRACT, NO. 169. 



MEDICAL ITEMS. 

To produce sufficient light in internal cavities, to guide the surgeon in his opera- 
tions, introduce a helix-formed glass tube of a very small bore, and burn by elec- 
tricity any white light-producing compound, as carburetted hydrogen, carbonic 
acid, hydrochloric acid, etc. 

Bread. — Chemistry tells us that the best and most healthful bread is made by 
mixing flour, water, and yeast, by kneading it so effectually that the yeast and 
water shall come in contact with every grain of the flour, otherwise the bread will 
be bad ; holes will be in it, and the crust will be easily detached from the soft part. 
Bad bread will be made out of the very best materials unless the kneading has been 
most thoroughly performed. 

A Carrot-Head cut off a little below the top, and put in a basin of water, puts 
forth leaves, and makes a handsome ornament. 

Smoked Ham. — To give any ham the u smoky" taste, mix equal parts of vinegar 
and tar ; dip the ham into it for a few minutes, then pour off and broil. 

Work. — In past times the world was worked too hard, and the masses did not 
live thirty years. Now human ingenuity has devised labor-saving machinery, so as 
to allow more time for rest, for recreation, and the cultivation of the social qualities 
of our nature ; as witness the statement of that most ably conducted paper, the 
Scientific American, of New-York, to wit: 

Cotton. — One man can spin more cotton-yarn now than four hundred men could 
have done in the same time in 1769, when Arkwright, the best cotton-spinner, took 
out his first patent. 

Flour. — One man can make as much flour in a day now as a hundred and 
fifty could a century ago. 

Lace. — One woman can make now as much lace in a day as a hundred women 
could a hundred years ago. 

Sugar. — It now requires only as many days to refine sugar as it did months 
thirty years ago. 

Looking-Glasses. — It once required six months to put quicksilver on a glass ; 
now it needs only forty minutes. 

Engines. — The engine of a first-rate iron-clad frigate will perform as much work 
in a day as forty- two thousand horses. 

Butter may be kept sweet for many months thus : When first churned, wash 
it well in three waters ; work it well again before packing ; put it in large stone 
jars ; dig a hole under any floor or in a cellar, leaving the top of the jar just above 
the ground ; cover the butter two or three inches deep with strong brine, adding 
more butter until the jar is nearly full. 

Greasy People, fat and rubicund, are generally good-natured. Whether their 
greasiness is alike promotive of health and genial humor, is not here discussed. 
But grease is a " prophylactic," as doctors say ; that is, it promotes health. It has 
passed into history that as often as the plague has decimated Smyrna, Constantino- 
ple, and other parts of the Levant, not a single case has ever been recorded of a 
person employed in loading and unloading oil being attacked even, let alone dying. 
The men know this so well that they freely offer to carry the sick of the plague to 
the hospitals. Wool-carders, who work in greased wool from morning until night 
(the trade of President Fillmore and the writer) are proverbially free from con- 
sumptive disease. Some of the African tribes expose themselves with impunity 
to the fervent heat of the desert when they have oiled themselves all over. Grease 
is great ! 



215 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 170. 



THE MONTH MALIGN. 



September gives rise to more disease in town and country together than any 
other month of the year. It is fruitful in diarrhea, dysentery, and fevers of every 
grade, from common fever and ague to the most malignant form of bilious, con- 
gestive, and yellow fever. The immediate causes of these maladies are the hot 
days and cool nights, in conjunction with the habits of the people. Few persons 
have hearty appetites in hot weather — our instincts are too wide awake for that ; 
but we too often drown their wise, and steady, and gentle monitions in the clamor of 
the animal nature for stimulants, to whet up the appetite to hurtful and destructive 
activities. The proprietors of the most fashionable hotels in New-York have 
asserted that if it were not for the " profits of the bar " they would have to close 
their doors. Doubtless, in almost all cases, these "profits of the bar" are a very 
important source of income to all taverns. We have certainly noticed that a num- 
ber of temperance hotels succeed in collapsing in a very short time. When the 
stomach is taxed beyond its ability of work, by eating to the fill of a stimulated 
appetite, one pernicious result always follows, and a different one is impossible in 
any single case in a century of centuries ; that food is not perfectly assimilated ; 
can not be made into good blood, and that, being mixed with what was already in 
the system, makes " bad blood" of the whole. The entire mass is a vitiated article, 
and becomes more so by each act of over-eating, by every mouthful swallowed to 
" get up an appetite." The whole mass of blood being thus corrupted, it is no won- 
der that persons living thus are liable to complaints in all parts of the body, for 
this vitiated blood goes everywhere ; and never feeling well, they are always " tak- 
ing something." In this way the body soon loses its vigor, its capability of resist- 
ing causes of disease, and warding off sickness ; a state of things plainly proven 
and unwittingly acknowledged in the now very common expression : "The slightest 
thing in the world gives me a cold." When such is the case, it is always because 
the person so speaking has not much stamina ; in other words, is full of " bad 
blood," whatever may have been the cause, whether from taking tonics, stimulants, 
or bitters, to wake up an unnatural appetite, or whether from ." forcing " food ; 
eating without an appetite ; or merely from a vicious indulgence of the animal na- 
ture. When persons have for some time eaten more than the system requires, they 
lose their appetite ; have a bad taste in the mouth on waking up in the morning i 
are more or less uncomfortably chilly, and are fit subjects for any cause of disease 
which may exist in the atmosphere ; and they are the very first victims to any 
epidemic malady ; if any body is sick, they are sure to be among the number. This 
general cause of disease existing in the atmosphere is always generated in the latter 
part of August and during September ; it is called miasm — an emanation from de- 
caying vegetable matter, mud, leaves, plants, roots, etc. ; it is distilled death, liter- 
ally, because the heat of the noonday sun acting upon matters like these, causes the 
deleterious agency to rise up, like alcohol or whisky from a still ; when the cool of 
the evening comes, this air is condensed, becomes heavy, falls to the surface and is 
breathed by whole communities, sometimes breaking out in a night and destroying 
hundreds before the morning. In such cases the temperate, plain living, and in- 
dustrious are the very last to suffer, if at all, because they have good blood, which 
has a "power" to resist disease. The lesson is, never attempt to "whet up" the 
appetite, except by creditable labor, or moderate, steady, continuous out-door activi- 
ties. 



216 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 171 



GREAT EATERS 



Never live long. A voracious appetite, so far from being a sign of health, is a cer- 
tain indication of disease. Some dyspeptics are always hungry ; feel best when they 
are eating, but as soon as they have eaten they enter torments, so distressing in 
their nature, as to make the unhappy victim wish for death. The appetite of health 
is that which inclines moderately to eat, when eating time comes, and which, when 
satisfied, leaves no unpleasant reminders. Multitudes measure their health by 
the amount they can eat ; and of any ten persons, nine are gratified at an increase of 
weight, as if mere bulk were an index of health ; when, in reality, any excess of fat- 
ness is, in proportion, decisive proof of existing disease ; showing that the absorb- 
ents of the system are too weak to discharge their duty ; and the tendency to fatness, 
to obesity, increases, until existence is a burden, and sudden death closes the history. 
Particular inquiry will almost unvaryingly elicit the fact, that a fat person, however 
rubicund and jolly, is never well, and yet they are envied. 

While great eaters never live to an old age, and are never for a single day without 
some " symptom," some feeling sufficiently disagreeable to attract the mind's atten- 
tion unpleasantly, small eaters, those who eat regularly of plain food, usually have 
no " spare flesh," are wiry and enduring, and live to an active old age. Remark- 
able exemplifications of these statements are found in the lives of centenarians of a 
past age. Galen, one of the most distinguished physicians among the ancients, lived 
very sparingly after the age of twenty-eight, and died in his hundred and fortieth 
year. Ketigern, who never tasted spirit or wine, and worked hard all his life, reached 
a hundred and eighty-five years. Jenkins, a poor Yorkshire fisherman, who lived 
on the coarsest diet, was one hundred and sixty-nine years old when he died. Old 
Parr lived to a hundred and fifty-three ; his diet being milk, cheese, whey, small 
beer, and coarse bread. The favorite diet of Henry Francisco, who lived to one hun- 
dred and forty, was tea, bread and butter, and baked apples. Ephraim Pratt, of 
Shutesbury, Massachusetts, who died aged one hundred and seventeen, lived chiefly 
on milk, and even that in small quantity ; his son Michael, by similar means, lived 
to be a hundred and three years old. Father Cull, a Methodist clergyman, died last 
year at the age of a hundred and five, the main diet of his life having been salted 
swine's flesh (bacon) and bread made of Indian meal. From these statements, nine 
general readers out often will jump to the conclusion that milk is " healthy," as are 
baked apples and bacon. These conclusions do not legitimately follow. The only 
inference that can be safely drawn is from the only fact running through all these 
cases — that plain food and a life of steady labor tend to a great age. As to the 
healthfulness and life-protracting qualities of any article of diet named, nothing can 
be inferred, for no two of the men lived on the same kind of food ; all that can be 
ratioually and safely said is, either that they lived so long in spite of the quality of 
the food they ate, or that their instinct called for a particular kind of food ; and the 
gratification of that instinct instead of its perversion, with a life of steady labor, di- 
rectly caused healthfulness and great length of days. We must not expect to live 
long by doing any one thing which an old man did, and omit all others, but by 
doing all ho did, that is, work steadily, as well as eat mainly a particular dish. 



• 



217 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 172. 



LOGIC RUN MAD 



" What is good for the goose is good for the gander," may have a certain 
amount of truth in it ; hut what is good for a goose is not necessarily, and there- 
fore, good for a jackass. Yet this is the line of argument used hy many, and is 
sometimes found in books, and magazines, and newspapers, in reference to health 
and disease. A man, for example, is sick of any thing or nothing ; takes something 
and soon gets well ; he has great faith in that medicine, and thereafter takes it for 
every ailment in his own person, and recommends it freely and confidently to any 
one who maybe sick, without any special regard to the nature of the malady. 

Another man makes brandy and water, especially the brandy, a panacea for all 
his ails, and recommends it as a useful and efficient medicine to any friend who 
may happen to complain, whether it be of belly-ache, bilious colic, or cancer. 

It has been stated many times in print, that the Eussians give their infants a 
warm bath, and, even when newly born, roll them out in the snow, and therefore it 
must be a good practice for all children. But are Eussian children, as to the masses, 
unusually thrifty ? According to one of their late publications, the Rousky Dnevnih, 
the mortality is such as to force public inquiry as to its cause ; whether by or in 
spite of snow-baths, we say nothing. 

The working-out mothers in Dresden bandage their children in the morning so 
completely that they can do nothing but roll over and over, and thus they remain 
all day, with a feeding at noon, thereby saving the expense of a nurse, and keeping 
them out of mischief. But shall we therefore follow the example of Dresden 
mothers, and keep our children helplessly bandaged the whole day, they mean- 
while sweltering in all their excrements ? Is it any wonder that one child out of ten 
born in Dresden is deformed ? The greater wonder is, that nine out of ten children 
thus treated do not die outright. 

"We hear a great deal, in water-cure journals and others, of the thoroughness and 
efficiency of Turkish baths. If this is among the lower orders, then there is not a 
dirtier race in existence ; if among the higher classes, we know they are not excelled 
for their effeminacy and early mortality. Because the masses of Chinese live mainly 
on rice, and the Irish on potatoes, vegetarians would persuade us that mankind 
would live longer if no meat were eaten. The Chinese are vegetarians perforce, and 
as a nation are the most filthy, beastly, effeminate people on the globe ; and as for 
the race which lives almost exclusively on potatoes, are they exceeded by any peo- 
ple on this planet in diminished mental calibre, ignorance, low cunning, black- 
hearted revenge, and bestiality in strong drink ? Where is the housekeeper who is 
not conscious that at least as to the menial race there is no truthfulness, no honesty, 
but in their*place a fawning deceitfulness, unendurable by generous minds? And 
gymnasts run mad in their laudations of the games and sports described in all Greek 
and Soman story, and yet when these nations were at the very height of their civil- 
ization, they were most vilely corrupt, degenerate, and debased. The only efficient 
system of gymnastics is steady, useful, and remunerative labor. In short, before we 
adopt any means of health aside from temperance and industry, let us first ascertain 
certainly that others have been wholly benefited, and not all injured thereby ; 
otherwise we are but putting in practice a " mad logic." 



218 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 173. 



INSANITY. 

Insanity, lunacy, and madness are the same in nature, but different in degree ; all 
mean excessive mental action. Imbecility and idiocy imply a want of mental energy. 
The latter is a deficiency of brain power ; the former an excess. " Insanity" is a 
Latin word, and may include all the above, for it means simply " without health," as 
to the brain. The most common cause of insanity, in its usual acceptation, is the 
mind's dwelling too much on one or a few things, as witness inventors, great geniuses, 
and others. Very many in lunatic asylums are classed among those who have had 
some great trouble ; disappointed affection ; loss of a dear relative or bosom friend. 
Had anyone of these been called to endure half a dozen other troubles, each of which 
was equal to the first, there would have been no derangement at all ; simply because 
the nervous power would have been diverted into different channels, would have 
been apportioned off to different parts of the brain, and thus have divided the inten- 
sity of the action to several, instead of one. Any muscle of the body unused, shrivels 
in size and loses its power ; that same muscle is increased in size and power, in pro- 
portion as it is largely used. It is a common observation that he who thinks and 
talks incessantly of one thing, is soon set down by his neighbors as " crazy on that 
subject,'' although sensible and clever on others. The practical inference is, divert 
the mind in all troubles; do not brood over misfortunes ; don't cherish sad or mel- 
ancholy meditations ; don't gloat over gold ; never allow your reflections to become 
inseparable from any one idea. When you begin to complain that you "can't sleep," 
from the mind's running on one particular subject, you are rapidly preparing your- 
self for the mad-house ! The fear of poverty has made many a rich man go crazy ; 
but mind, it was the man who had felt its pinchings in younger years. The hardest 
worked slave rarely goes crazy, because he has no abiding sorrow ; no concern 
about to-morrow's bread ; his labor in the day is mechanical, and the moment it is 
over he feels free ; his mind dismisses all thoughts of work, runs home and revels in 
his supper and other animal instincts ; infinitely freer from any corroding care than 
his master. In educated and elevated New-England, there are nearly ten times as 
many crazy people as in an equal number of South-Carolina slaves. Taking planters 
and slaves together, there are three times fewer insane persons in the South than in 
an equal number of New-Englanders. More crazy people come from the farm than 
from the city. There are not half as many deranged persons in five thousand in- 
habitants of the Western States, as in as many from glorious New-England. One 
general principle explains these apparent contradictions. New-England is thickly 
settled ; its soil is sterile, and the competition for bread is ceaseless and terrific. 
During its long and comparatively inactive winters, the mind frets at doing nothing; 
it is like a caged lion ; it beats unavailingly against its prison-bars, and wastes itself 
in castle-building; in "vain thoughts!" To be without money is to be without 
bread in New-England ; in the sunny South, and fruitful, blooming West, people 
" take trust for pay" literally ; and can live for years on confidence and credit, and 
so in the South ; in both sections pay-day is indefinitely postponed. Ohio is a fer- 
tile State, but thickly settled ; these two things antagonize each other ; hence the 
number of insane is half way between New-England and the South and West. In 
proportion as one idea, good or bad, absorbs the mind, in the same proportion is 
insanity courted. 



219 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 174. 



PHILOSOPHY OF EXERCISE. 



Axl know that the less we exercise the less health we have, and the more certain 
are we to die before our time. But comparatively few persons are able to explain 
how does exercise promote health. Both beast and bird, in a state of nature, are 
exempt from disease, except in rare eases ; it is because the unappeasable instinct of 
searching for their necessary food, impels them to ceaseless activities. Children, 
when left to themselves, eat a great deal and have excellent health, because they 
will be doing something all the time, until they become so tired they fall asleep ; 
and as soon as they wake, they begin right away to run about again ; thus their 
whole existence is spent in alternate eating, and sleeping, and exercise, which is in- 
teresting and pleasurable. The health of childhood would be enjoyed by those of 
maturer years, if, like children, they would eat only when they are hungry ; stop 
when they have done; take rest in sleep as soon as they are tired ; and when not 
eating or resting, would spend the time diligently in such muscular activities as 
would be interesting, agreeable, and profitable. Exercise without mental elasticity, 
without an enlivenment of the feelings and the mind, is of comparatively little 
value. 

1. Exercise is health-producing, because it works off and out of the system its 
waste, dead, and effete matters ; these are all converted into a liquid form, called by 
some "humors," which have exit from the body through the " pores" of the skin 
in the shape of perspiration, which all have seen, and which all know is the result 
of exercise, when the body is in a state of health. Thus it is, that persons who do 
not perspire, who have a dry skin, are always either feverish or chilly, and are never 
well, and never can be as long as that condition exists. So exercise, by working 
out of the system its waste, decayed, and useless matters, keeps the human machine 
" free ;" otherwise it would soon clog up, and the wheels of life would stop for- 
ever ! 

2. Exercise improves the health, because every step a man takes tends to impart 
motion to the bowels ; a proper amount of exercise keeps them acting once in every 
twenty-four hours ; if they have not motion enough, there is constipation, which 
brings on very many fatal diseases ; hence exercise, especially that of walking, wards 
off innumerable diseases, when it is kept up to an extent equal to inducing one action 
of the bowels daily. 

3. Exercise is healthful, because the more we exercise the faster we breathe. If 
we breathe faster, we take that much more air into the lungs ; but it is the air we 
breathe which purifies the blood, and the more air we take in, the more perfectly is 
that process performed ; the purer the blood is, and as every body knows, the better ' 
the health must be. Hence, when a person's lungs are impaired, he does not take 
in enough air for the wants of the system ; that being the case, the air he does 
breathe should be the purest possible, which is out-door air. Hence, the more a 
consumptive stays in the house, the more certain and more speedy is his death. 



220 
HEALTH TRACT, No. 175. 



SUMMER MORTALITY. 

July and August are the most fatal months of the year in New-York, and other 
large cities. The deaths of August are nearly double those of November. This in- 
dicates that causes of disease are present in midsummer which are not found to the 
same extent in colder weather. Many attribute the increased mortality to unripe, 
imperfect, and decayed fruits ; especially, as the deaths in charitable institutions, 
where fruits perfect or imperfect can not be indulged in, there are but half the num- 
ber of deaths that occur in January and February ; but in 1855, according to Com- 
missioner Moreton's official report, one half of all who died were children under two 
years of age ; such children are not those that use any kind of fruits much, hence 
the use of fruits has no appreciable influence on the greater mortality of summer. 
This, with the fact so reported, that there are more suicides in summer than in win- 
ter, the result of a diseased mind, induced by a diseased body, and that other fact, 
that the most incurable forms of consumption originate in summer, all combine to 
show that circumstances connected with warm weather are the direct causes of in- 
creased sickness and death in summer. 

The most all-pervading cause of the increased sickness and death in cities in 
warm weather, is the breathing of an impure, a vitiated atmosphere. The most un- 
cultivated know that there are "smells" connected with places in summer, which 
are not noticeable in winter. Many persons aim to have the rats about the house 
killed with poison, before the warm weather comes on, so as to avoid noisomeness 
about the premises. Hence, it must be set down as a practical fact, that warm 
weather generates odors which make the air impure ; the breathing of which will 
always induce disease sooner or later, and more or less fatal, according to the degree 
of impurity and the duration of exposure to it. As double the number of persons 
die in the crowded parts of the city compared with less condensed districts ; and as 
the poorer people are, the more crowded are their habitations, and poverty, and filth, 
and squalor, and uncleanness go together always and everywhere, it is proof posi- 
tive that hot weather acting upon unclean habitations and surroundings, and thus 
vitiating the atmosphere, is the great overshadowing cause of the premature death 
and wasting sickness which pervades cities in summer-time. The practical inference 
is, that to prevent much of these calamities, all that is necessary is to secure a greater 
degree of cleanliness in person, in the houses, cellars, kitchens, back-yards, streets, 
and gutters. 

Another cause of the greater mortality of summer is irregular, unseasonable, and 
over-hearty eating. If children especially are allowed to be nibbling at something 
all the time, the stomach is kept incessantly at work, until its strength is exhausted, 
as would be the case with any other muscle or set of muscles which were allowed no 
rest ; when the stomach is thus weakened, or by taking more food into it than it can 
digest, or by eating heartily when very tired, the food sours ; wind is formed, and 
the whole mass eaten is thrown up, or is passed out of the system, inducing diar- 
rhea, cholera, or dysentery. While half of all who die in summer in the city are 
children under two years of age, over half of these children are under one year; and 
as the main food of such is mothers' or cows' milk, it is reasonable to infer, either 
that the children are fed too much on milk, or that it is not fresh and pure, is not 
perfect milk. The undoubted cause of the remarkable diminution of sickness and 
death among children in charitable institutions in New-York, can be from nothing 
else than the perfect cleanliness of these establishments, plainness of food, and regu- 
larity in eating and sleeping — a most suggestive statement to every parent. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



OUR LEGITIMATE SCOPE 13 ALMOST BOUNDLESS.* FOR WHATEVER BEGETS PLEASURABLE 

AND HARMLESS FEELINGS, PROMOTES HEALTH ; AND "WHATEVER INDUCES 

DISAGREEABLE SENSATIONS, ENGENDERS DISEASE. 

VOL. X.] OCTOBER, 1863. [NO. X. 

SPI-ROM-E-TKY, 
Pronounced with the accent on the ante-penult, or second 
syllable, teaches the measurement of the breath, and, by a little 
license, the lungs themselves, as the breath is contained in the 
lungs. If a man has all his lungs within him, in full operation, 
it is impossible for him to have consumption, whatever may be 
his symptoms, because consumption is a destruction of a portion 
of the lungs, and when that is the case they can no more have 
the full amount of breath or air than a gallon measure can hold 
a gallon after its size has been diminished by having a portion 
of the top off or removed. 

It becomes, then, of great importance to accomplish two 
things : — 

First, to measure accurately, and with as much certainty as 
you would measure wheat by a standard and authentic bushel 
measure, the amount of air contained in the lungs. 

Second, to ascertain what amount of air the lungs ought to 
contain in full and perfect health. 

The chemist has no difficulty in measuring out to you a cubic 
foot of gas. The gas which lights our dwellings and which 
burns in the streets of cities, when the moon don't shine, is 
capable of being accurately measured, and so is the air we breathe, 
with equal simplicity and certainty, even to the fraction of a 
cubic inch. 

Take a common tub or barrel, of any height^ say two- feet> 
and fill it with water; get a tin cup of equal length,, and of sueh 
a circumference that each inch in length should contain ten 
cubic inches of air or water, turn this tin cup bottom upward 
in the barrel of water, make a hole in. the bottom of the tin 
cup, insert a quill or other tube into this hole, take a full 
breath, and then blow out all the breath you. can at a single 



222 Hall's Journal of Health. 

expiration through this quill ; the air thus expired gets be* 
tween the surface of the water and the bottom of the tin cup, 
and causes the tin cup to rise ; if it rises an inch then you 
have emptied from your lungs into the cup ten cubic inches 
of air; if you cause the cup to rise twenty inches, then your 
lungs have measured out two hundred cubic inches of air, and 
by dividing the cup into tenths of inches, you will be able to 
ascertain the contents of the lungs to a single cubic inch. 

This is a lung measure of the simplest form ; it must be so 
arranged with a pulley on each side of the cup, each pulley hav 
ing a weight of half the weight of the cup, so as to steady the 
cup when it rises, and keep it at any point, as lamps are some- 
times suspended in public buildings. 

Being able then to measure the amount of air the lungs do 
hold, down to an inch or even a fraction of an inch if desired, 
the next point to know is how much air ought a man's lungs 
contain when he is in perfect health ; for if a man in sound health 
can expire or measure out two hundred cubic inches of air, it is 
easy to see that if his lungs are half gone he can give out but 
one hundred cubic inches, and so of any other proportion large 
or small, and the grand practical conclusion is that when a man 
can breathe out the full quantity, all his lungs must be within 
him, and the presence of consumption is an utter impossibility 
in that man ; and even if this was the only point to be learned, 
what a glorious truth it must be to the man who was apprehen j 
sive of his being consumptive, that such a thing is simply an 
impossibility, demonstrably so by figures and by sight. He can 
see it for himself without the necessity of leaning doubtfully, so 
doubtfully, sometimes, on the judgment, or expressed opinion of 
his physician. 

To find out how much air a healthy man's lungs should hold, 
we must act precisely as we would in determining the quantity 
of anything else; we must experiment, observe, and judge. 
We have decided long ago on the average weight of men, their 
average amount of blood, the average weight of the brain ; and 
surely there ought to be some method of determining the aver- 
age amount of a man's lungs. But this last would not be suf- 
ficiently accurate, to make it safely practical, we must be able 
to say to this man, your lungs, if sound and well, will hold so 
much ; and to another, so much, for the amount of breath is as 



Spirometry. 228 

various as the amount of brain. A large head has a large 
amount of brain of some kind or other, and so a large chest 
must have a large quantity of lungs to fill it ; these are general 
truths only. If a man six foot high, and known to be in per- 
fect health, will give out from his lungs at one expiration two 
hundred and sixty-two cubic inches of air, that is a fact to 
begin with. 

If a thousand healthy six-footers, or ten thousand, do not fail 
in one single instance to give out as much, then we may con- 
clude that any other man as tall, who gives out as much, is also 
healthy as to his lungs^ and at length the facts become so cumu- 
lative that we feel safe in saying that any man, six feet high, 
who can breathe out at one single effort two hundred and 
sixty-two cubic inches of air, that man must have all his lungs 
within him, and that they are working fully and well. 

But if in pursuing these investigations, in the same manner, 
as to healthful men five feet high, we observe that in any num- 
ber of thousands, not one single one ever fails to give one less 
that one hundred and sixty-six inches, and that any other 
number of thousands, five feet seven inches high, and in ac- 
knowledged perfect health, never fail in one solitary instance 
to give out two hundred and twenty- two cubic inches of air, 
then a thinking man begins to surmise that the amount of lungs 
a man in health has, bears some proportion to his height ; this 
is found to be the actual fact of the case. And without being 
tedious I will give the result, that for every inch that a man 
is taller, above a certain height, he gives out eight more cubic 
inches of air, if he is in sound health, as to his lungs. 

Let the reader bear in mind that these are the general prin- 
ciples — circumstances modify them. But I do not want to com- 
plicate the subject by stating those modifications at present. 
I wish the reader first to make one clear simple truth his 
own, by thinking of it, and talking about it, when occasion 
offers, for a month — then I may say more. 

But, for the sake of making a clear, distinct impression, let 
us recapitulate : — 

1. The amount of air which a man's lungs can expire at one 

effort can be accurately and uniformly measured, down 
to the fraction of a cubic inch. 

2. The amount of air which a healthy man's lungs hold is 

ascertained by cumulative observations. 



224 HdWs Journal of Health, 

3. That the amount thus contained is proportioned to the 

man's height. 

4. That that proportion is eight cubic inches of air for every 

additional inch of height above a certain standard. 

With these four facts, now admitted as such, inferences may 
be drawn of great interest in connection with other observations, 
which any reader who takes the trouble may verify. 

Observation 1st. — I have never known a man who was in 
admitted consumption, and whose subsequent death and post- 
mortem confirmed the fact, capable of measuring his full standard. 

Observation 2d. — In numerously repeated instances, persons 
have been pronounced to have undisputed consumption, and as 
such were abandoned to die, but on measurement they have 
reached their full standard, enabling me to say that they had 
not consumption, and their return to good health, and their 
continuance in it for years after, and to this day, is an abiding 
proof of the correctness of my decision. 

Observation 3d. — No persons have come under my care, who 
died of consumption within a year, who, at the time of examin- 
ation reached their full lung measurement. 

Observation 4th. — Therefore, any man who reaches his stand- 
ard, has reason to believe that he cannot die of consumption 
within a year, an assurance which, in many cases, may be of 
exceeding value. 

Observation 5th. — As a man with healthy lungs always reaches 
his full standard, and as it is impossible for a consumptive man 
to measure his full standard, then it may be safely concluded 
that a man cannot die of consumption while he gives his healthy 
measure, and also that he who cannot measure full, is in danger, 
and should not rest a single day, until he can measure to the 
full. 

When persons are under medical treatment for deficient lung 
measurement, accompanied with the ordinary symptoms of com- 
mon consumption, they improve from week to week in propor- 
tion as they measure out more and more air from the lungs: on 
the other hand, when they measure less and less from time to 
time, they inevitably die. With this view of the case, the reader 
will perceive that as. a general rule a man can tell for himself, 
as well as his physician, whether he is getting well or not, and, 
as an illustration, an article is copied verbatim from the eighth 



Spirometry. 225 

edition of ''Bronchitis and Kindred Diseases," Kedfield pub- 
lisher, page 361, on 



"the mathematical measurement of the lungs as a 
sign of consumption. 

" The lungs contain air ; and their object is to receive, hold, 
and expel air ; a certain amount of this air is necessary to the 
health of any individual, but that amount must vary in propor- 
tion to the size and age of a person, as much as the healthful 
amount of blood is proportionate to the size and age. 

" It is known how much air a man's lungs, in perfect and full 
healthful operation, should hold, by measuring it as we would 
measure water, by transferring it from a vessel whose capacity 
was not known into one whose capacity was known. If, then, 
I find that every man of thousands, who is in perfect health, 
emits a certain amount of air from his lungs, I conclude that 
any other man, under similar circumstances, who gives from his 
lungs an equal amount of air' must be in good health, as far as 
his lungs are concerned, and every year accumulates its addi- 
tional proofs of the same great fact, and when it is known that 
the lungs work fully and well, an immense burthen is at once 
removed from the mind of the physician, as well as patient, for 
he has less to do — the patient has less to dread. 

" All that the Spirometer does, (or Breath- Measurer, which is 
its literal signification,) is to measure the amount of air con- 
tained in any man's lungs with mathematical certainty and pre- 
cision, down to the fraction of a single cubic inch. Thus far 
the patient can see, as well as the physician, what is his actual 
measure ; and by comparing it with what it ought to be in 
health, he can have some idea of what he has to do, and of his 
present condition. 

" We all must know that if a man's lungs in health should 
hold three hundred cubic inches, they would, if half gone, cer- 
tainly not measure over one hundred and fifty, and so of any 
other proportion, down to an inch. 

li The two important uses to be made of this most invaluable 
principal are — 

First. If a man can only expire his full healthful quota of 
air, he most assuredly cannot have actual consumption, what- 



226 HalVs Journal of Health. 

ever else may be the matter with him, and the knowledge of 
this one fact alone, arrived at by such unmistakable evidence, 
is of incomputable worth to any invalid, not only relieving 
him of the weight of a million mill-stones, but in affording 
him an important means of restoration — hopefulness, for we 
almost all instinctively feel, if it is not consumption there is 
at least a chance of life ; but if it is consumption there is no 
hope. 

" Second. The next important practical deduction is of a two- 
fold character. 

" If the lungs do not give out their full healthful amount of 
air, it is because they are actually affected or are threatened. 
The instrument does not tell this, it must be determined by the 
mature judgment of the experienced physician. 

" If the lungs be in a consumptive decay, the pulse and aus- 
cultation, with the data already afforded by measurement, will 
detect this state of things, with a degree of certainty which is 
most admirable ; and this certainty is made doubly sure, if being 
under treatment a short time, his lungs measure less week after 
week, for then he is certainly dying by inches. 

" But it does not follow, because a man does not measure to 
his full standard, that he is consumptive ; it only shows the one 
thing— that he is defective as to the action and capacity of his 
lungs ; that deficiency may be the result of decay, or debility, or 
from the lungs being crowded with phlegm or other fluids j if 
the deficiency is not from decay, proper treatment will diminish 
that deficiency from week to week, because the treatment invites 
back the action of the lungs. Thus it is that the gradual increase 
in the capacity of the lungs to hold air, when that capacity, by 
any cause, has been diminished, is demonstrative of a return 
towards health. 

" On the other hand, as persons are declining, the measure- 
ment decreases week by week, until there is scarce breath 
enough to enable them to cross the room, and soon they step 
into the grave. 

"A WEIGHTY CONSTDEEATION. 

" Common consumption comes on by slow degrees, and I have 
never known a case that was not preceded, for months, by an 






Spirometry. 227 



inability of the lungs to measure their full standard. I con* 
sider it wholly impossible for a man to have actual consump- 
tion, until he has not been able for months to measure the full 
amount of air. This deficit in the measurement of the lungs 
never fails to exist in any case of clearly defined consumption, 
and inasmuch as it always precedes consumption, its existence 
for some months in succession ought to be considered a symptom 
of consumption in its early stages, and a course of treatment 
should be adopted which would annihilate that deficit at the 
earliest possible moment. 

" To show how certainly this deficit of lung capacity, or lung 
action, is removed, when it exists not as an effect of a decay of 
the lungs, but as an effect of imperfect action, I give here a few 
cases. 

" C. W. F., aged 17, an only son of a wealthy family, was 
placed under my care May 26, 1852. Thin in flesh, pain in 
side, sore throat, tightness across the breast, short breath, diffi- 
cult to fetch a long breath, troublesome running and sniffling of 
the nose, a weak back, with other indications of a weakly con- 
stitution. The measurement of his lungs should have been two 
hundred and twenty -five cubic inches ; their actual capacity was 
two hundred. 

Date. Pulse. Weight. Breathing. Lung Measure. 

"May, 1852, 26, . 72 . 103 . . 16 . . 200 

June 2, . 72 . 103 . . 16 . . 206 

9 . 72 . 103*. . 16 . .216 

24, . 72 . 107 . . 16 . . 238 

July 19, . 88 . 104 . . 20 . . 216 

23, . 82 . 103 . . 18 . . 216 
August 7, . 78 . 105 . . 15 . . 230 

24, . 76 . 107± . . 16 . . 238 
Sept. 29, . 72 . Ill* . . 16 . . 250 
Nov., 1853, 8, . 72 . 121J- . . 16 . . 252 

"The parents of this case, particularly the mother, visited 
me at different times, expressing the deepest solicitude, and ex- 
hibiting an abiding impression that their child, upon whom so 
many hopes were hung, was certainly going into a decline, 
especially as he had grown up rapidly, and was a slim, narrow- 
breasted child. 



228 HalVs Journal of Health. 

H The reader will perceive with what admirable promptness 
the lungs answered to the means used for their development, in 
the very first fortnight, and with that increase of action a cor- 
responding increase in flesh, so that in four months, and they 
embracing the hottest of the year, when most persons lose both 
flesh and strength, he had gained eight and a half pounds, while 
the capacity of his lungs for receiving air had increased one 
fifth, that is, fifty cubic inches, and at the end of a year, when 
he called as a friend, was still gaining in flesh, and strength, and 
vigor, with no indication, apparent or covert, of any disease 
whatever. 

J- 1 What untold treasure would these parents have given, when 
their child was first brought to me for examination, to have 
known that the very next year their son would have been one 
of the most hearty, healthy, manly-looking young men of his 
age in New York ; and yet there can be no doubt that he would 
have dwindled away, like a flower prematurely withered, had 
his case been neglected, in the vain hope of his 'growing out 
ofitP 

" The reader will notice, that on the 13th of July, every 
symptom became unfavorable ; his weight diminished, his breath- 
ing was more rapid, and his lung-measurement declined largely. 
The reason is, that he left the city in June, and spent some 
weeks at Newport and Saratoga, with his parents, intermitting 
all remedial means ; but, as soon as he returned to New York, 
and gave diligent attention to what was required of him, his 
symptoms began at once to abate, and he steadily improved 
to his recovery. ' The Springs' have proved the grave of many 
young people ivith consumptive symptoms, and older consump- 
tives generally get worse there. The high feeding, or get what 
you can system of diet at watering-places, fashionable hotels, 
and boarding-houses, their Lilliputian, one-windowed rooms, 
from one to ' five pair back,' the midnight clatter along inter- 
minable passages, the tardy, or no answer, to bell-call, the look- 
out from your chamber window over some stable, side-alley, or 
neighbor's back yard ; these, with the coldness, and utter want 
of sympathy at such places, would soon make a well man sick, 
and will kill instead of cure the consumptive. They want, 
instead of these, the free, fresh mountain air, the plain sub- 
stantial food of the country farm-house, the gallop along the 



Clerical Letter. 229 

highways, the climbing over the hills by day, and the nightly 
reunions with family and kindred and friends. And yet the 
million stereotype this mistake against all reason and com- 
mon sense. Only now and then one is found to choose the 
better way against troops of remonstrants and opposers, who 
never had experience, who never think for themselves, — and 
that is the brave man who gets well, especially when he is 
determined to do so. 

" Some years ago I published a compact octavo of a hundred 
pages, on ' Throat Ail, Bronchitis and Consumption, their Causes, 
Symptoms and Cure/ giving various illustrations in both cases, 
with the treatment adopted, but like pretty much all who pub- 
lish on their own account, copies enough were not sold to pay 
for the paper, consequently they are yet to be had, mailed post- 
paid to any part of the United States, for one dollar, sent to the 
Editor's address." 



CLERICAL LETTER 

The following communication from a former patient is well 
worthy of lay perusal, and is full of instruction to clergymen. 
It is a beacon hung out as a warning and a guide to theological 
students, and happy they who read it early and well. The 
writer has labored long and hard in the cause to which he has 
devoted himself, and his name is widely known in this and for- 
eign lands. 

One subject is touched, whose importance none but a physi- 
cian can fully estimate, as a cause of clerical disease; it has so 
often forced itself upon my attention in seeing its bearing on the 
health and convalescence of clergymen that I have many times 
earnestly desired to have the ears of the whole Christian Church 
for an hour, in order to wake up their attention to 

ADEQUATE MINISTERIAL SUPPORT. 

There are unavoidable troubles in the ministerial calling, 
sufficient of themselves to keep a conscientious clergyman al- 
most always in a state of painful anxiety. I need not tell them 
what these troubles are, both within themselves and without ; 
but when to all these is added the unnecessary trouble of a 
scanty salary, irregularly paid, seldom fully so, with wife and 
children at home as dear to them as life itself, whose wants must 



230 HalVs Journal of Health. 

be met, and yet every source of meeting them cut off, except by 
the one channel, often compelled to meet these wants by credit, 
and then the subsequent torture to a sensitive mind of possible 
failure to meet the engagement, the weakening of his influence 
among those to whom he preaches, if " the preacher promised to 
'pay and didnH do it," considered almost in the light of a crime, 
when, if the same thing were done'by a man in ordinary busi- 
ness, it would be thought nothing of, and if done by a rich man, 
would not even be mentioned, for fear of giving offence— these 
are things hard, hard to bear, and yet it is a burden which 
Christian men and tender-hearted women in every section of the 
Church are daily imposing by the simple sin of inattention. 
They, in multitudes of instances, take it for granted that their 
minister is well cared for, and would gladly pay a fourth or a 
fifth of his salary themselves rather than allow them to labor 
under such burdens. Church-member, make it your duty this 
hour to see how it is with your minister. 

11 Feb. 15, 
" My Dear Sir, — In consequence of my absence from home, 
the first number of your " Journal of Health" was not received 
until to-day. I had before had no intimations of its existence. 
Immediately upon its reception, I sat down to read it, and read 
it through with interest and profit. It will give me much plea- 
sure to receive and read it regularly, from month to month, and 
also to embrace every suitable opportunity for recommending it 
to others. If it can be the means of promoting a practical ac- 
quaintance with the philosophy of living, I shall rejoice. It 
seems to me there is a deplorable, and. almost universal igno- 
rance on this subject. And as I look back upon the past, and 
consider my own deficiency in this respect, I am tempted to 
wish that I might live my life over again. I commenced my 
professional career fifteen years ago, under the most flattering 
circumstances. Several very eligible situations were open to 
me, and I had a bright prospect of extensive usefulness. But 
all those prospects were soon clouded, and disease seemed to 
put, one after another, my expectations and resolutions to flight. 
" It was not, however, wholly owing to my ignorance of the 
laws of living, that I was prostrated. I am sorry to add — 
what a great multitude of my profession could also do — that 



Curious Epitaph. 231 

not a little of the sad work of physical ruin was done by the 
'people to whom I ministered. I had no personal enemies ; but 
the ceaseless troubles among themselves, and still more, the en- 
tirely inadequate pecuniary support they gave me, and the 
consequent excitement and anxiety of mind, were enough, when 
long continued, to break down the strongest. It seems to me, 
my dear sir, that if you can effectually rouse the public mind, 
in your Journal or elsewhere, upon this most fruitful source of 
the numerous break-downs among ministers, you will accom- 
plish a very great and a very important work. An extensive 
acquaintance with ministers throughout New England enables 
me to speak what Iknoiu on this subject. I speak here of coun- 
try ministers; in the cities there are, so far as I know, more 
correct and adequate notions on the subject. We ministers 
open our hearts to each other about it in secret, but it is very 
seldom that one can be induced, especially if he loves his people, 
and earnestly desires to do them good, to disclose, even to a 
physician, all that bears upon his case as an invalid. While 
I fully assent to what you say of the laws of health, and know 
that ignorance of them is the cause of untold suffering among 
ministers, I also know that the treatment they receive, in the 
matter of worldly support, and steadfast, considerate, sympa- 
thizing moral aid, from those they seek to benefit and save, is 
doing more to cut short their usefulness, happiness, and life, 
than all other agencies combined. Would not your Journal 
be the appropriate medium of an occasional communication on 
this subject? 

" Excuse my prolixity. When I commenced writing, I had 
not the slightest intention of saying anything in this strain. I 
designed merely to express my interest in the Journal, and 
to ask that a copy may be sent me. 

" I am happy to say that I am still better, though tried by 
the inclemency and frequent changes of the weather. My little 
boy also continues better. I enclose one dollar for the Journal, 
to be directed to this place. Yours, truly." 



Cueious Epitaph. — In a country grave-yard in New Jersey 
there is a plain stone erected over the grave of a beautiful young 
lady, with only this inscription upon it: 

"Julia Adams, died of thin shoes, April 17, 1839, aged 19." 



232 



A LESSON TO PARENTS. 



I had been married fifteen years. Three beautiful daugh- 
ters enlivened the domestic hearth, the youngest of whom was 
in her eighth year. A more happy and contented household 
was no where to be found. My wife was amiable, intelligent, 
and contented. We were not wealthy; but Providence had 
preserved us from want ; and we had learned that " content- 
ment without wealth, is better than wealth without content- 
ment." 

It was my custom, when returning home at night, to drop 
into one of the many shops that are constantly open in the 
business streets of the metropolis, and purchase some trifling 
dainties, such as fruit or confectionery, to present to mother 
and the children. I need not say how delighted the little ones 
were at this slight expression of paternal consideration. On 
one occasion I had purchased some remarkably fine apples. 
After the repast, half a dozen were left untouched, and my 
thrifty companion forthwith removed them to the place of 
deposit, where it was her custom to preserve the remains of 
our nick-nacks. A day or two after, when I had seated my- 
self at the table to dine, she said to me smilingly : 

" So, father has found the way to my safety -box, has he ?" 

I was at a loss to understand the meaning, and desired her 
to explain. 

" Have you not been in my drawer?" 
"What drawer?" 

II The upper drawer in my chamber bureau. Did you not 
take therefrom the largest of the pippins I had put away for 
the girls ?" 

"No— I did not!" 

"You did not?" 

"Not I ! I have not seen an apple since the evening I pur- 
chased them." 

A slight cloud passed over the countenance of my wife. 
She was troubled. The loss of the apple was in itself nothing ; 
but we had carefully instructed our children not to appropriate 
to their use, any article whatever of family consumption, with- 
out permission ; and as permission, when the demand was at 
all reasonable, had never been denied them, she was loth to 



233 

suspect any one of them of the offense. "We had a servant- 
girl in the family, but as she was supposed to know nothing of 
the apples, my wife hesitated to charge it upon her. She at 
length broke the silence by saying : 

" "We must examine the affair. I can hardly think one of 
the children would so act. If we find them guilty, we must 
reprove them. "Will you please look into it ?" 

The girls were separately called into my presence; the 
eldest first. 

" Eliza, did you take from your mother's drawer, an apple ?" 

" No, sir." 

" Maria, did you take from your mother's drawer, an apple ?" 

"No/sir.". 

" Mary, did you take from your mother's drawer, an apple ?" 

i No, sir." 

"It must have been taken by the servant; call her to me," 
said I, addressing my wife. 

" Nell, how came you to take from the drawer of your mis- 
tress, without permission, the largest of the apples she had 
placed there?" 

" Wot apples?" 

" Did you take no apple from the drawer of your mistress ?" 

"Nosa." 

Now, it was evident that falsehood existed somewhere. 
Could it be that one of my children had told me a lie ? The 
thought harassed me. I was not able to attend to business. I 
went to the store — but soon returned again. Meanwhile, the 
servant-girl had communicated to her mistress that she had 
seen our youngest go into the garret with a large apple, the 
morning before. On examination, the core, and several pieces 
of the rind were found upon the floor. I again called Mary 
to me, and said to her affectionately : 

" Mary, my daughter, did you not go into the garret yester- 
dav?" 

"Yes, sir." 

"Did you go there with an apple ?" 

"No, sir." 

" Did you notice any thing on the floor?" 

"No, sir." 

I was unwilling to believe my sweet child capable of telling 



234 A LESSON TO PAKENTS. 

me a falsehood ; but appearances were against her. The fault 
lay between her and the servant, and while I was desirous to 
acquit my child, I did not wish to accuse unjustly the negro. 
I therefore took Mary into a room alone, I spoke to her of 
the enormity of lying — -of the necessity of telling the truth — 
of the severe punishment I should be compelled to inflict upon 
her, if she did not confess the whole to me, and with tears in 
my eyes urged her to say that she had done it, if indeed she 
had. Gradually, I became convinced of her guilt ; and now 
I felt determined she should confess it. My threatenings were 
not without effect. After weeping and protesting her innocence, 
and weeping and again protesting, my threatenings seemed to 
alarm her, and falling upon her knees, she said: "Father, I 
did take the apple." 

Never shall I forget that moment. My child confessed that 
she was a liar, in my presence ! 

Suppressing my emotion, I retired; and Mary, rising from 
her position, ran to her mother, and in a paroxysm of grief 
cried out : 

" Mother, I did not take the apple. But father has made me 
confess that I did." 

Here was a new aspect of affairs. Lie multiplied upon lie. 
Could it be possible ! My dear Mary, who had never been 
known to deceive us — so affectionate — so gentle — so truthful 
in all the past — could it be possible that she was a confirmed 
liar ! Necessity was stronger than the tenderness of the father. 
I chastised her for the first time in my life — severely, severely 
chastised her ! It almost broke her heart — and I may add, it 
almost broke mine also. 

Yet Mary was innocent! After-events proved that the 
negro was the thief. She had conjured up the story of the 
garret, knowing that Mary would not deny having been there, 
and to make the circumstances strong against her, had strewn 
apple-rinds on the floor. I never think of the event without 
tears. But it has taught me a useful lesson, and that is never 
to threaten a child into a lie, when it may be he is telling the 
truth. The only lie I ever knew Mary to tell me, I myself 
forced upon her by threatenings. It has also fixed in my mind 
the determination to employ no servant in my family, when I 
can possibly do without. 



hall's journal of health. 235 

The foregoing is a continuation of the article on Parental 
Corrections in the September number. The author is unknown, 
but if such impressive lessons have their due effect on the 
minds of parents, it will save many a pang in after years. "I 
read your September article on Parental Corrections," said a 
sunny-faced, energetic business man the other day. "I had 
just such a case in my own family. The mother was extremely 
impatient at the child; but I took him to his room, soothed 
his spirits as much as possible, and slept with him in his own 
little bed all night." A neighbor of ours, one of the very best 
of men in all the relations of domestic, social, and business life, 
corrected a little son of his with great harshness and severity. 
The next day the boy was taken ill, was sick for a long time, 
and barely escaped the grave. In the apprehension of the 
death of the child, and in the contemplation of his daily suffer- 
ings, he endured such inexpressible mental torture, he declared 
he would never punish a child of his again. This was going to 
the opposite extreme. It is seldom wise, in any domestic man- 
agement, to lay down a Medo-Persian law ; to pass any irrevo- 
cable edict ; to make any unchangeable regulation. . Such 
things are unbecoming in themselves, and indicate a weak 
mind. We are the creatures of circumstances. It is best to 
cultivate force of character, and leave ourselves free to act ac- 
cording to the exigencies of the moment. In reference to any 
action, whether good or bad, there is so much to modify it 
which can not be foreseen, that the highest wisdom is to leave 
one's self free to act when the time for action comes, steadily 
aiming to avoid haste and harshness ; seeking a discreet medium 
between leniency and sternness; between license and liberty. 
But in reference to all our dealings with our children, know- 
ing how fallible we are ; knowing the numerous sources of mis- 
information and mistakes around us, it is well, if error must be 
committed, that it should be on the side of patience, forbear- 
ance, and a loving heart. Our children are unresisting, help- 
less ; they look to us naturally for acts of tenderness and love 
toward them ; and if, instead, they should meet an over-share 
of sternness, of an unrelenting nature, the heart is soon wound- 
ed, the affections chilled, their trustingness crushed, and the 
foundation is laid for a spirit of enmity, dislike, and actual cast- 
ing off of the tie which binds to home and all its endearments ; 



236 HYGIENE OF POETEY. 

and when that is once fairly done, the mischief is without rem- 
edy in all time thereafter. Let parents bear these things in 
mind. A fitful recognizance of their truthfulness is not suffi- 
cient ; the impression should be of an abiding character, for 
none other will be sufficient to restrain the promptings of an 
impetuous nature or of a hasty temperament ; thus is it that, in 
a moment, sometimes an act has been committed or a word ut- 
tered, laying the foundation for life-long remorses. 

■ ' * ^ « — i fc i 

HYGIENE OF POETRY. 

That good poetry, whether in rhyme or blank verse, has a 
power over the mind to raise it to the highest pitch of enthusi- 
asm, or even frenzy, or to calm it ; like oil thrown on troubled 
waters, when it has been carried away by boisterous passion, or 
almost crazed with overwhelming troubles, can not be denied. 
History, as well as individual experience, strongly confirms the 
fact. An old familiar hymn, even the sudden remembrance of 
doggerel rhymes which were learned in innocent childhood, 
sometimes break over the memory with resistless power, when 
half a century has passed away, and act on the mind as ano- 
dynes upon the physical system. There are times to all when 
it is profitable to hie away to some solitary nook, when the 
spirit is in the minor mood or in a perturbed condition, and read 
with deliberation what some wayfarer, who has gone before, 
has penned to calm, it may be, his own sorrow or sadness. 
With this view, the following articles have been selected, which 
may be read with profit from time to time, for many years to 
come, by any intelligent, contemplative mind. 



- 



• ■ ' ■ 
■ 



( X8ft 



THE BLIHD BOY. 

BY REV. FRANCIS L. HAWKS, D.D., LL.D. 

It was a blessed. summer day, 

The flowers bloomed, the air was mild ; 
The little birds poured forth their lay, 

And every thing in nature smiled. 

In pleasant thoughts I wandered on 
Beneath the deep wood's ample shade, 

Till suddenly I came upon 

Two children, who had thither strayed. 

Just at an aged birch-tree's foot 

A little boy and girl reclined — 
His hand in hers she kindly put, 

And then I saw the boy was blind. 

The children knew not I was near — 
A tree concealed me from their view ; 

But all they said I well could hear, 
And I could see all they might do. 

41 Dear Mary," said the poor blind boy, 
" That little bird sings very long ; 
Say, do you see him in his joy? 
And is he pretty as his song ?" 

" Yes, Edward, yes," replied the maid, 
" I see that bird on yonder tree." 
The poor boy sighed, and gently said : 
" Sister, I wish that I could see. 

t; The flowers, you say, are very fair, 

And bright green leaves are on the trees, 
And pretty birds are singing there — 
How beautiful for one who sees ! 

** Yet I the fragrant flowers can smell, 

And I can feel the green leaf's shade ; 
And I can hear the notes that swell 

From those dear birds that God has made. 

" So, sister, God to me is kind, 

Though sight, alas ! he has not given ; 
But, tell me, are there any blind 
Among the children up in heaven ?" 

" No, dearest Edward, there all see — 
But why ask me a thing so odd ?'V 

" Mary ! he's so good to me, ' 

I thought Fdlike to look at God." 






238 



Ere long, disease his hand had laid 
On that dear boy, so meek and mild ; 

His widowed mother wept and prayed 
That God would spare her sightless child. 

He felt her warm tears on his face, 
And said : " Oh ! never weep for me ; 

I'm going to a bright, bright place, 
Where, Mary says, God I shall see. 

And you'll be there, dear Mary, too ; 

But, mother, when you get up there, 
Tell Edward, mother, that 'tis you — 

You know I never saw you here." 

He spoke no more, but sweetly smiled 

Until the final blow was given, 
When God took up that poor blind child, 

And opened first his eyes in heaven.. 



COTTAGE BY THE SEA. 

Childhood's days now pass before me, 

Forms and scenes of long ago, 
Like a dream they hover o'er me, 

Calm and bright as evening's glow, 
Days that knew no shade of sorrow ; 

There my young heart pure and free, 
Joyful hailed each coming morrow, 

In the cottage by the sea ; 
Joyful hailed each coming morrow, 

In the cottage, the cottage by the sea. 

Fancy sees the rose-trees twining 

Round the old and rustic door, 
And below, the white beach shining, 

Where I gathered shells of yore. 
Hears my mother's gentle warning, 

As she took me on her knee ; 
And I feel again life's morning, 

In the cottage by the sea. 
And I feel again life's morning, 

In the cottage, the cottage by the sea. 

What though years have rolled above m% 

Though 'mid fairer scenes I roam, 
Yet I ne'er shall cease to love thee, 

Childhood's dear and happy home ! 
And when life's long day is closing, 

Oh ! how pleasant it would be, 
On some faithful heart reposing 

In the cottage by the sea. 
On some faithful heart reposing 

In the cottage, the cottage by the sea. 



THE SILL BENEATH THE DOOR, 

BY HARBAUGH. 

There is a strange, a mystic spell 

Of memory and love, 
That chains my heart to early days, 

Where'er I rest or rove. 
I see again the old home house, 

I walk across each floor ; 
I go the passage through, and stand 
With farewell words and staff in hand, 
Upon the sill 

That lies beneath the door. 

Each spot around that dear old home, 

Its well-kept treasure gives : 
In every tree, and wall, and chair, 

Some cherished memory lives ; 
But no where beats my heart so high, 

And no where feel I more 
Than here, when musingly I stand, 
With farewell words and staff in hand, 
Upon the sill 

That lies beneath the door. 

What silent years have fled since I 

Looked out from dear old home, 
With hopeful heart, through moist'ning eye^ 

For better days to come ! 
'Twas here I turned to those I left, 

With longing heart once more — 
Here lingered still, where now I stand 
With farewell words and staff in hand, 
Upon the sill 

That lies beneath the door. 

I've passed o'er other thresholds since, 

To grander halls — but still 
I never entered home like this, 

Across another sill. 
Parents and home we have but once, 

When gone they come no more ! 
Oh ! what a moment when we stand, 
With farewell words and staff in hand, 
Upon the sill 

That lies beneath the door. 



-HOOtl , r -: iH T 

YOUTH AND AGE. 

From the Etonian. 

I often think each tottering form 

That limps along in life's decline, 
Once bore a heart as young and warm, 

As full of idle thoughts as mine ! 
And each has had its dream of joy, 

Its own unequaled, pure romance, 
Commencing when the blushing boy 

First thrills at lovely woman's glance. 

And each could tell his tale of youth, 

Would think its scenes of love evince 
More passion, more unearthly truth 

Than any tale, before or since. 
Yes ! they could tell of tender lays, 

At midnight penned in classic shades, 
Of days more bright than modern days, 

And maids more fair than modern maids ; 

Of whispers in a willing ear, 

Of kisses on a blushing cheek, 
Each kiss, each whisper far too dear, 

For modern lips to give or speak : 
Of prospects, too, untimely crossed, 

Or passions slighted or betrayed : 
Of kindred spirits early lost, 

And buds that blossomed but to fade : 

Of beaming eyes and tresses gay, 

Elastic form and noble brow, 
And charms that all have passed away, 

And left them what we see them now. 
And is it thus ? — is human love 

So very light and frail a thing ? 
And must youth's brightest visions move 

Forever on time's restless wing? 

Must all the eyes that still are bright, 

And all the lips that talk of bliss,. 
And all the forms so fair to sight, 

Hereafter only come to this ? 
Then what are earth's best visions worth, 

If we at length must leave them thus ? 
If all we value on this earth, 

Ere long must fade away from ua ? 



■ 



If that one being whom we take 

Prom all the world, and still recur 
To all she said, and for her sake 

Feel far more joy when far from her ; 
If that one form which we adore, 

From youth to age, in bliss or pain, 
Soon withers and is seen no more — 

Why do we love — if love be vain ? 



241 









^—- «^ 



THE DYING WIPE. 

Lay the gem upon my bosom, 

Let me feel the sweet, warm breath, 

For a strange chill o'er me passes, 
' And I know that it is death. 

I would gaze upon the treasure 
Scarcely given ere I go ; 

Feel her rosy, dimpled fingers 
Wander o'er my cheeks of snow. 

I am passing through the waters, 

But a blessed shore appears ; 
Kneel beside me, husband dearest, 

Let me kiss away thy tears. 
Wrestle with thy grief, my husband, 

Strive from midnight until day, 
It may leave an angel's blessing 

When it vanisheth away. 

Lay the gem upon my bosom, 

"Fis not long she can be there ; 
See ! how to my heart she nestles — 

'Tis the pearl I love to wear. 
If, in after-years beside thee, 

Sits another in my chair, 
Though her voice be sweeter music, 

And her face than mine more fair ; 

If a cherub call thee " father !" 

Far more beautiful than this : 
Love my first-born, my husband ! , 

Turn not from the motherless. 
Tell her sometimes of her mother — 

You can call her by my name ! 
Shield her from the winds of sorrow. 

If she errs, oh ! gently blame I 



" WHEN THIS OLD RING WAS NEW." 

Lead her sometimes where I'm sleeping, 

I will answer if she calls, 
And my breath shall stir her ringlets 
. When my voice in blessing falls ; 
Her soft, black eye will brighten, 

And wonder whence it came ; 
In her heart, when years pass o'er her, 

She will find her mother's name. 

It is said that every mortal ., . 

Walks between two angels here ; 
One records the ill, but blots it, r; . 

If, before the midnight drear, 
Man repenteth — if uncanceled, 

Then he seals it for the skies ; 
And her right-hand angel weepeth, 

Bowing low with veiled eyes. 

I will be her right-hand angel, 

Sealing up the good for Heaven: 
Striving that the midnight watches 

Find no misdeed unforgiven. 
You will not forget me, husband, 

When I'm sleeping 'neath the sod ? 
Oh ! love the jewel given us, 

As I love thee — next to God ! 



"WHEN THIS OLD RING WAS NEW." 

BY G. J. BENNETT. 

Your wedding-ring wears thin, dear wife ; ah ! summers not a few, 
Since I put it on your finger first, have passed o'er me and you ; 
And, love, what changes we have seen — what cares and pleasures too— 
Since you became my own dear wife, when this old ring was new. 

Oh ! blessings on that happy day, the happiest of my life, 
When, thanks to God, your low sweet " Yea," made you my loving wife ; 
Your heart will say the same, I know ; that day's as dear to you> 
That day that made me yours, dear wife, when this old ring was new ! 

How well do I remember now, your young sweet face that day ; 

How fair you were — how dear you were — my tongue could hardly say ; 

Nor how I doated on you ; ah ! how proud I was of you ; 

But did I love you more than now, when this old ring was new f 



243 

No — no ; no fairer were you then, than at this hour to me, 
And dear as life to me this day, how could you dearer be ! 
As sweet your face might be that day as now it is, 'tis true, 
But did I know your heart as well, when this old ring was new ? 

partner of my gladness, wife ! what care, what grief is there, 
For me you would not bravely face — with me you would not share ? 
Oh ! what a weary want had every day, if wanting you, 
Wanting the love that God made mine when this old ring was new ! 

Years bring fresh links to bind us, wife — small voices that are here, 
Small faces round our fire that make their mother's yet more dear, 
Small, loving hearts, your care each day makes yet more like to you, 
More like the loving heart made mine when this old ring was new. 

And, blessed be God, all he has given are with us yet; around 

Our table, every little life lent to us, still is found ; 

Though cares we've known, with hopeful hearts the worst we've struggled through ; 

Blessed be His name for all his love since this old ring was new. 

The past is dear; its sweetness still our memories treasure yet; 
The griefs we've borne, together borne, we would not now forget ; 
Whatever, wife, the future brings, heart unto heart still true, 
We'll share as we have shared all else since this old ring was new. 

And if God spare us 'mongst our sons and daughters to grow old, 
We know his goodness will not let your heart or mine grow cold. 
Your aged eyes will see in mine all they've still shown to you, 
And mine in yours all they have seen since this old ring was new. 

And oh ! when death shall come at last to bid me to my rest, 
May I die looking in those eyes, and resting on that breast ; 
Oh ! may my parting gaze be blessed with the dear sight of you, 
Of those fond eyes — fond as they were when this old ring was new. 



EVERMORE. 



I beheld a golden portal in the visions of my slumber, 

And through it streamed the radiance of a never-setting day ; 
While angels tall and beautiful, and countless without number, 

Were giving gladsome greeting to all who came that way. 
And the gates forever swinging, made no grating, no harsh ringing, 

Melodious as the singing of one that we adore ; 
And I heard a chorus swelling, grand beyond a mortal's telling, 

And the burden of that chorus was Hope's glad word — Evermore ? 



EVEKMORE. 

As I gazed and listened, came a slave all worn and weary, 

His fetter-links blood-crusted, his dark brow clammy damp, 
His sunken eyes gleamed wildly, telling tales of horror dreary, 

Of toilsome stragglings through the night amid the fever swamp. 
Ere the eye had time for winking, ere the mind had time for thinking, 

A bright angel raised the sinking wretch, and off his fetters tore ; 
Then I heard the chorus swelling, grand beyond a mortal's telling : 

" Pass, brother, through our portal, thou'rt a freeman evermore !" . 

And as I gazed and listened, came a mother wildly weeping — 

" I have lost my hopes forever, one by one they went away ; 
My children and their father the cold grave hath in its keeping, 

Life is one long lamentation, I know nor night nor day 1" 
Then the angel softly speaking : " Stay, sister, stay thy shrieking, 

Thou shalt find those thou art seeking beyond that golden door !" 
Then I heard the chorus swelling, grand beyond a mortal's telling : 

" Thy children and their father shall be with thee evermore I" 

And as I gazed and listened, came one whom desolation 

Had driven like a helmless bark from infancy's bright land ; 
Who ne'er had met a kindly look — poor outcast of creation — j 

Who never heard a kindly word, nor grasped a kindly hand. 
" Enter in, no longer fear thee ; myriad friends are there to cheer thee ; 

Friends always to be near thee, there no sorrow sad and sore I" 
Then I heard the chorus swelling, grand beyond a mortal's telling : 

" Enter, brother, thine are friendship, love and gladness evermore !" 

As I gazed and listened, come a cold, blue-footed maiden, 

With cheeks of ashen whiteness, eyes filled with lurid light; 
Her body bent with sickness, her lone heart heavy laden; 

Her home had been the roofless street, her day had been the night. 
First wept the angel sadly, then smiled the angel gladly, 

And caught the maiden madly rushing from the golden door ; 
Then I heard the chorus swelling, grand beyond a mortal's telling: 

" Enter, sister, thou art pure, and thou art sinless evermore !" 

I saw the toiler enter to rest for aye from labor ; 

The weary-hearted exile there found his native land ; 
The beggar there could greet the king as an equal and a neighbor ; 

The crown had left that kingly brow, the staff the beggar's hand. 
And the gate forever swinging, made no grating, no harsh ringing, 

Melodious as the singing of one that we adore ; 
And the chorus still was swelling, grand beyond a mortal's telling, 

While the vision faded from me with the glad word— r" Evermore !" 

— Edinburgh Guardian. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH.*' 



Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless: for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 



WE AIM TO SHOW HOW DISEASE MAY BE AVOIDED, AND THAT IT IS BEST, WHEN SICKNESS COMES, TO 
TAKE NO MEDICINE WITHOUT CONSULTING A PHYSICIAN. 



Vol. X.] NOVEMBER, 1863. [No. 11. 

VITAL CAPACITY 

Is the ability which the lungs have for receiving a sufficient 
amount of common atmospheric air, for all healthful purposes. 
The amount which they can receive is measured with mathemat- 
ical accuracy, to the fraction of a cubic inch; and that measure 
is as infallibly correct as would be that of any fluid, with any 
known measuring- vessel ; in short, there can be no mistake about 
it, so that neither the physician nor the patient can be deceived. 

It is not of less importance, in a practical point of view, to 
know how much air a man ought to receive into the lungs hab- 
itually, in order to maintain a healthful condition of the system. 

The first thought which presents itself to the mind in this con- 
nection is, that all persons do not require the same amount of 
lungs, the same " vital capacity." Children need less than grown 
persons ; women than men ; and the requirements of different 
classes must vary according to size, age, etc. But whatever may 
be thought in this direction, must give way to hard fact, to ac- 
tual observation, made thousands of times by educated men of 
both hemispheres, who could neither have temptation nor object 
nor inclination to pervert palpable truths ; and the great, all-con- 
trolling fact, which runs through every experiment and every 
observation, by whomsoever made, is simply this, that the " vital 
capacity/' the amount of air required by each individual, de- 
pends more on the hight of the person than on all things else. 
There are some slightly modifying circumstances, but they all 
together amount to nothing worth consideration against the great, 
fundamental, practical truth, that the hight of a man determines 



-246 hall's journal of health. 

what shall he his " vital capacity -;?' - and not only so — there is 
*a uniform proportion between the different hights; uniform 
enough to warrant the statement, that for ever j additional inch 
in stature, eight more cubic inches of "vital capacity" are re- 
quired. To illustrate : if a man is five feet seven inches high, 
his healthful U vital capacity " is two hundred and twenty -two 
cubic inches; (three 2's, easy of remembrance ;) if he measures 
five feet eight inches, then his " vital capacity " must be eight 
cubic inches of air more; that is, two hundred and thirty. 
Some of these statements were made in the October number, 
under the head of " Spirometry ;" the spirometer being the in- 
strument for "measuring the breath," that is, the "vital capa- 
city " of any individual ; and they are here repeated, in order 
to make a connected but more practical application of this doc- 
trine of " vital capacity." It would seem, that the amount of a 
man's Jungs was determined by the development of his chest, 
by the girth around it ; but the hard fact is, that it is not the 
case. Of two men of equal age and hight, one measuring two 
feet and a half, and the other three feet and a half or four feet, 
the large chest will not have a greater "vital capacity," will 
not deliver, at one full expiration, one cubic inch more of air 
than the smaller-waisted man. This fact is repeated, is con- 
stantly coming under the writer's observation. 

When it is. said that a man five feet seven inches high will, 
if his lungs are sound and are working fully and well, deliver 
two hundred and twenty-two cubic inches of air at one full ex- 
piration, or take in that amount at one full inspiration, it is not 
meant to say that he takes that much air into the lungs at each 
ordinary inspiration, for he really takes in much less, probably 
a pint, or some forty cubic inches ; but the proportions are the 
same between a full breath, whatever that may be, and the or- 
dinary inspiration of each. 

In connection with that wide-spreading malady, "Consump- 
tion," and the great fact that as tMfet disease progresses the breath 
becomes shorter — that is, the " vital capacity " becomes less; 
taking into account, also, that consumption never begins its 
actual inroads on the lungs until the "vital capacity" has for 
weeks and months been less than the. healthful standard, and 
that consumption can not exist without a large diminution of the 
" vital capacity," the great practical fact comes up before the 



VITAL CAPACITY. 247 

mind with striking importance, that the very first thing to be 
determined, in any case of existing or apprehended consumption? 
is, " What is the vital capacity?" or, "What is the actual capacity 
of the lungs for receiving air ?" Then, if it is found to be below 
the healthful standard, there is cause for alarm, and measures 
should be taken to increase this " actual " capacity of the lungs; 
and those measures should not be intermitted for a single day, 
until the desired end is attained, with a margin. 

It is certainly gratifying to know that the decaying power of 
the lungs can be re-developed ; physicians of various schools 
have succeeded in devising means, according to the principles 
of their particular creed. Each one may think his own the best. 
Our method has advantages not to be lightly valued; it does not 
cost a dollar of money, and consequently is available to every 
sufferer, however poor ; it does not confine to the house ; it is 
practicable to all ; it is attended with no pain ; it is combined 
with no mystery ; it is plain to the commonest understanding ; 
and the improvement of the patient, or the fatal progress of the 
disease, is so certainly marked, that neither the patient nor the 
physician can be deceived under any ordinary circumstances. 
But there is an objection to it, which is fatal as to its good ef- 
fects in perhaps nine cases out of ten. Not one person in ten 
has the moral power, has force of character enough to carry it 
out. It would do more or less good in every stage of consump- 
tive disease; can never do any injury whatever; but it is so 
much easier to drink whisky ; to swallow cod-liver oil ; to swill 
porter, ale and beer; to purchase cough-drops and expecto- 
rants ; there is such a preference for alleviants over eradicators, 
that it is hardly worth the trouble to explain the philosophy of 
it to one in ten. Yet, by it, or its substitutes, as a main means, 
persons have attained better health, and lived in considerable 
comfort for two, ten, and twenty years afterward ; and the same 
results must occur in all time to come, for nature's agencies never 
bse their power. It is by the aid of the foregoing principles, to- 
gether with observations made daily on that class of diseases to 
which spirometry, or the doctrine of "vital capacity," is appli- 
cable, that the following results have been attained : 

1st. Persons who have been abandoned to die of consumption 
have been ascertained not to have that disease, and, as a conse- 
quence, are living at this day. 



248 hall's, jouknal of health. 

2d. Others who were not considered to have had that malady, 
have nevertheless applied for an examination and opinion, and 
have been found to be in the last stages of that dreaded ailment. 

3d. The first spirometer ever made for sale in this country was 
made to the order of the writer some fifteen years ago, and no 
case has ever come to his knowledge which, having been pronounced 
hopeless by him, has ever recovered. 

There are too many who claim to have special experience and 
ability in diseases of the air-passages, who pronounce of every 
man who calls, without exception, " Yours is a very bad case ;" 
and on being appealed to, to know to what extent restoration 
can be reasonably expected, they reply almost invariably, and 
in the most decided and confident terms : " I have cured worse 
cases than yours, and can cure you, with the utmost certainty." 
The course of the true physician is widely different ; both his 
honor and a common humanity imperatively call upon him to 
pronounce a plain, candid, and unequivocal opinion. If a hope- 
less case is recklessly declared "curable," time will prove the 
falsehood. If a man is laboring under the impression that he 
has an incurable disease, when on examination it is clear there 
is no approach to it, it is a cruelty and a robbery to keep him 
under the false impression, for the purpose of working on his 
fears, and detaining him from home, under heavy expenses, for 
the alone object of making a heavy bill. 

On the other hand, the cruelty and the robbery are equally 
vile, if, when the patient is known to be in a hopeless condition, 
he is detained with promises of cure week after week, and at a 
heavy, o* to him and his, a ruinous expense, until return to 
home and friends is impossible. 

If a man is not consumptive, and is plainly told so, such a 
burden is sometimes taken from his mind, that a new life is in 
fused into him; he rises above the depressions which were 
crushing him into the grave, throws off disease, and goes forth 
in a few days a new being and a well man. 

On the other hand, if the symptoms are really grave, it is bet 
ter that the patient should know it, than be allowed to consider 
them slight ; for then he will be prevented from making those 
exertions for recovery which are indispensable to his safety. 
No man will work for life if he is assured that life is not in 
danger. 



VITAL CAPACITY. 249 

Last year I was called to see the wife of a New-York mer- 
chant. The husband had been informed by his family physi- 
cian that he had no hope of her recovery ; that she was in a 
decline. No one but a physician can know how closely he is 
watched, from the instant of his entering a house in which a pa- 
tient lies, on whom he is expected to look, and to decide the mo- 
mentous question of life or death. How the servants usher him 
into the bed-chamber with noiseless step and deferential speech ! 
How the children, with mouth agape and open eyes, look into 
the very soul of the medical man, so loudly mute,' so beseech- 
ingly, as if the power of life and death over their mother was in 
his keeping ! How the husband, with compressed lips and con- 
cealed emotion, stands on one side, and under the guise of no 
observation, reads every gesture made, every look given, weighs 
every word uttered ; determines the bearing of every inquiry 
made and question answered! These are ordeals through 
which the city physician is constantly called to pass ; and fortu- 
nate is he who has perfect control over the expressions of the 
usually tell-tale countenance, and withal has the grand, support- 
ing influence afforded by a consciousness of the ability to stand 
in his situation and fill it ; and also that other consciousness of 
an ability of truthfulness under the conviction that deception can 
be of no permanent or ultimate good. After examining the 
merchant's wife, with the care which it seemed to merit, and 
with the earnest desire to make no mistake, it was concluded 
to say, in the very face of the opinion of the attendant physician : 
"I really do not think much is the matter with you." In ten 
days she had made a journey to the National Capital, and spent 
a fortnight thereafter in seeing its sights. "When she returned 
home, she had no special need of any medical advice. 

In passing an opinion as to the nature of any given case of 
consumptive disease, it is so much less troublesome to speak 
truly; is such a relief to be free from the incubus of a false- 
hood;' the incubus of always being on guard against belying 
one's self, that it is wonderful that any man can be found who 
is willing to set himself deliberately to the task of uttering an 
untruth and sustaining it afterward for weeks and even months. 
Nothing can be adequate to such an attempt, but a greed of 
gold so desperate and mean, as to have eaten out every exalted 
principle of our nature. 

Not long ago an only son was brought for an examination. 



250 HALL'S, JOUENAL OF HEALTH. 

It was clear that the youth must die within a month, and that 
nothing could be done which would be equal to the advantages 
of being at home in his father's house, and under a mother's 
care. Any reasonable and even an unreasonable weekly charge 
would have been more than willingly paid, if even an implied 
promise of material benefit could have been extracted ; but one 
always sleeps better under a consciousness of truthfulness, with 
ten dollars in his pocket, than with the conviction that he is a 
mean misleader, with fifty dollars in his "bag." 

Then, again, there is a perfectly delightful feeling which 
comes over a man (every time he thinks of it) in the felt con- 
viction that he is believed in. It is always a sad thing, and a 
hard, hard task, to be compelled to say to a doting parent : " Your 
child can not recover under any conceivable circumstances." 
But pay comes afterward ; when the child has been dead for 
years, and time has soothed the sorrow over his death, the com- 
pensation comes in the saying to this neighbor and that friend 
and the other acquaintance : " The Doctor did not deceive me." 
In the case above, the parents were advised to return home with- 
out delay, as it was probable their child would not live over a 
month. The family physician pronounced the opinion incredi- 
ble, and gave strong assurances of his conviction that he would 
be well in a month. He was well — in the grave ! 

It is reasonable to suppose, when a physician is called upon 
to give his candid opinion of a case, that the family and friends 
would feel themselves under considerable obligations when 
such an opinion was given, although unfavorable, especially 
when that opinion was subsequently found to have been lite- 
rally correct. But this is not always the case. 

I was called last year to see a lady of about sixty years of 
age. All the appointments of the mansion indicated wealth, 
position, and culture. After the examination, and retiring from 
the sick-chamber, I intimated to the friends that the case was a 
very grave one ; that I did not think it was worth while for me 
to prescribe for her, and that she had better remain under the 
care of the family physician. I was then pressed to know how 
long I thought she might live. They seemed incredulous at 
my reply, not having regarded her case so serious as I seemed 
to do. As she possessed considerable property, and I consid- 
ered it of importance so to express myself as not to be misun- 



VITAL CAPACITY. 251 

clerstood, I said to them : " Nothing short of the power that 
made her can keep her alive ten days." She died within the 
time. The family have shown their non-appreciation of a can- 
did opinion ever since. 

The intelligent reader will want to know how is it that a 
physician can tell with such certainty what will be the re- 
sult in cases like the above. In the first place, over twenty 
years' special attention to these ailments would give the dullest 
man facilities of discrimination. 

Again, sometimes men can do things without being able to 
tell how — Barnum's lightning arithmetical calculator for ex- 
ample, and others of that class. I have many times formed an 
opinion of the case of a, stranger entering my office, before 
he has had time to take his seat, and a painfully minute exam- 
ination has but confirmed the original opinion. When a man is 
in the last stages of consumption, there is an indefinable some- 
thing pervading the whole person, combined in action, speech, 
gesture, intonation, and expression of countenance, which, al- 
though hard to be put in words, tells an u o'er true tale." 

A man who is in the decided stages of consumption has not 
one but several symptoms, each one of which is in itself alarm- 
ing, but all combined, make an erroneous opinion in a measure 
impossible. 

A certain set of symptons may exist without the physician 
being able to say positively, " You have consumption ;" if such an 
one has a healthful " vital capacity," it is certain that it can not 
be consumption. Another man may not have as many of 
these bad symptoms, or none of them may be so aggravated, by 
reason of constitution, temperament, duration, etc., yet, if the 
spirometer shows that he is deficient in " vital capacity," then the 
existence of consumptive disease becomes a demonstration. 

When I have ascertained that a man has diminished "vital 
capacity ;" that his pulse is much too fast at any and all hours ; 
that he has been losing in flesh and strength and breath, ex- 
pressed by the complaint of " great shortness of breath ;" that, on 
placing the ear on the chest under the collar-bone, it gives no 
more sound than if it were laid upon a dead wall ; or that it 
gives such a sound as is made by blowing into a large-mouthed 
vial ; or that there is the sound of blowing through a tube into 
a vessel of thick soap-suds, I know that consumption is present 



252 hall's journal of health. 

in the form of the presence of tubercles, fatal in their numbers ; 
or in the form of a dry cavity in the lungs, showing that they 
have been eaten away ; or a partially filled cavity, indicating 
that the lungs are in an actual state of decay ; of consuming, or 
consumption ; and when such is the case, no honest physician 
can hesitate to declare that death will most likely be the result ; 
for when the lungs once begin to decay, giving wasting of flesh, 
strength, and health, the issue is fatal in almost every one of 
a thousand cases. 

But suppose all the above symptoms exist, except that the 
sound given out is like the twittering of many little birds, 
then it is not only not consumption, but it is next to impossible, 
in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, that the person will ever 
have consumption. And why? simply because the bird- 
like twittering heard, when the ear is laid flat on the chest, was 
never known to be given out by a consumptive patient, but is 
always given out by an asthmatic ; and asthmatics seldom die 
of consumption, or of any thing else except of old age ; in a 
sense, they die daily ; suffer a thousand deaths, but wheeze on, 
until they dry up to skin and bone, or become dropsical. 

But suppose all the symptoms enumerated awhile ago were 
present, except the twittering sound and a quick pulse, with a 
"tremendous cough" added, liable to come on any hour of the 
night or day, then it is clear that it is neither consumption nor 
asthma, but common chronic bronchitis, and the man has a good 
chance of living to the age of sixty or seventy years. 

It will be observed that I have not enumerated cough and 
night-sweats as symptoms of consumption ; this is simply be- 
cause they are not always present. " The books " give cases 
where persons were never observed to have had any cough ; 
and yet, when examined after death, the condition of the lungs 
showed that consumption was the sole cause of death. "-Night- 
sweats " are always alarming; this has arisen from- the fact that 
persons in the last stages of consumption frequently have them. 
But this is not always the case ; and, again, "night-sweats " are 
common to several debilitating diseases ; sometimes they arise 
from an anxious state of the mind ; at others from accidental 
circumstances, such as a great change to warmer weather ; an 
over-amount of bed-clothing, or an over-heated room. It al- 
ways leads to false views and false practices, to make any Syxnp- 



VITAL CAPACITY. 253 

torn as an infallible sign of a specific disease, when it belongs 
to several others. Neither night-sweats, cough, nor spitting blood 
are any signs of consumptive disease, in and of themselves ; 
nor can they be signs of consumption, even if all were present 
in the same individual, if the "vital capacity" is at the same 
time up to the natural healthful standard, and the pulse is in a 
satisfactory condition. 

The practical conclusion of the whole matter is simply this : 
every man, sick or well, owes it to his safety against consump- 
tive disease, to know what his vital capacity is, and to take 
proper measures for keeping it up to his healthful standard; 
and to maintain that healthful vital capacity by such means as 
do not involve the taking of medicine, a change of climate, 
change of business, a ruinous expenditure, or a dangerous 
experiment. 

TEMPERANCE TALES, in two beautiful volumes, by 
the American Tract Society, 28 Cornhill, Boston, and J. CK 
Broughton, 13 Bible House, New- York, is one of the most in- 
teresting publications, both for old and young, which the Society 
have lately issued, and is worthy of a place in every family in 
the land. The Society have also published an Index to the Bible, 
with suggestions for the profitable reading of the Scriptures, 
also counsels for prayer, paper cover, about fifteen cents, and 
is exceedingly useful to every Bible reader and student. The 
Hidden Life and the Life of Glory, by Be v. Dr. Winslow, is just 
such a work as will feed and nourish and comfort every Christ- 
ian heart. 

ECONOMY AND COMFORT. — A domestic boon, saving 
time, trouble, work, and money beyond any other similar house- 
hold invention known to us, is Eddy's Kerosene Stove, pre- 
paring tea for a small family for one cent, and a good dinner 
for less than three. Address, Lesley & Elliott, New-York. 



PARENTAL CORRECTIONS: 

With the following illustration, we conclude the subject 
treated of in the two preceding numbers, with the earnest desire 
that they may exert a wholesome and restraining influence on 



254 hall's journal of health. 

the minds of parents, in reference to hasty and tyrannical pun- 
ishments of their little ones, and thus save them from unavail- 
ing sorrows, and vain regrets and eating remorses, at a later 
period of life, when unavoidable troubles come fast enough, 
and at a time when they are less able to bear them, and even a 
" grasshopper is a burden." 

THE MOTHER'S REMORSE. 

The child was so sensitive, so like that little shrinking plant, 
that curls at the breath and shuts its heart from light. The 
only beauties she possessed were an exceedingly transparent 
skin, and the most mournful blue eyes. I had been trained by 
a stern, strict, conscientious mother. I was a hardy plant, 
rebounding at every shock ; misfortune could not daunt, though 
discipline tamed me. I fancied, alas ! that I must go through 
the same routine with this delicate creature ; so one day when 
she had displeased me exceedingly by repeating an offense, I 
was determined to punish her severely. I was very serious all 
day, and on sending her to her little couch, said : 

"Now, my daughter, to punish you, and show you how 
very, very naughty you have been, I shall not kiss you to- 
night." 

She stood looking at me, astonishment personified, with her 
great mournful eyes wide open. I suppose she had forgotten 
her misconduct till then ; and I left her with big tears drop- 
ping down her cheeks, and her lip quivering. Presently I was 
sent for — " mamma ! you will kiss me ; I can't go to sleep 
if you don't," she sobbed, every tone of her voice trembling, as 
she held out her hand. 

Now came the struggle between love and what I falsely 
termed duty. My heart said, give her the kiss of peace ; my 
stern nature urged me to persist in my correction, that I might 
impress the fault upon her mind. Thaftis the way 1 have been 
trained until I was a submissive child, and I remember how 
often I had thanked my mother since for her straightforward 
course. I knelt by her bed, and whispered, " Mother can't 
kiss youj Ellen," though the words seemed to choke me. Her 
hand touched mine ; it was very hot ; but I attributed it to her 
excitement. I blamed myself, as the fragile form shook with 



255 

suppressed sobs ; and saying, ".Mother hopes Ellen will mind 
her better after this," left the room for the night. 

It might have been about midnight when I was awakened 
by the nurse. Apprehensive, I ran to the child's chamber. I 
had a fearful dream. Ellen did not know me. She was sit- 
ting up, crimsoned from the forehead to the throat, her eyes so 
bright that I almost drew back aghast at the glance. From 
that night a raging fever drank up her life — and what do you 
think was the incessant plaintpoured into my anguishing heart, 
" Oh ! kiss me, mother, do kiss me. I can't go to sleep. You'll 
kiss your little Ellen, won't you ? I can't go to sleep. I won't 
be naughty if you'll kiss me. Oh ! kiss me, dear mamma. I 
can't go to sleep." 

Holy little child, she did go to sleep one gray morning, and 
never woke again — no, never ! Her hand was locked in mine ; 
and all my veins icy with its gradual chill. Faintly the light 
faded out in the beautiful eyes — whiter and whiter grew the 
tremulous lips. She never knew me ; but with her last breath 
she whispered: " I will be good, mother, if you will only for- 
give me." 

Kiss her ! God knows how passionate and unavailing were 
my kisses on her cheek after that fatal night. Grod knows how 
wild were my prayers, that she might know if only once that I 
would have yielded up my life could I have asked forgiveness 
of that sweet child. 

Well, grief is unavailing now. She lies in her little tomb ; 
there is a marble urn at her head, and a rose-bush at her feet — 
there grow sweet summer flowers ; there waves the gentle 
grass ; there birds sing their matins and vespers ; there the blue 
sky shone down to-day, and there lies the freshness of my heart. 

Parents, you should have heard the pathos in the voice of 
that sad mother as she said : " There are plants that spring 
into great vigor if the heavy pressure of a footstep crush them ; 
but oh ! there are others that even the pearls of the light dew 
bend to the earth." Mothers and fathers, be kind to the little 
ones. Do not wait till the daisies grow over their bosoms, before 
you learn toxhide them in love. Kiss them before you strike 
them. By and by you must leave them ; but leave no thorns in 
# their memory. — 



256 THE TWO BEVENGES. 



THE TWO BEVENGES. 

Selected. 

Some centuries since, the chief of the -district, Maclean of 
Lochbuy, had a grand hunting excursion. To grace the fes- 
tivity, his lady attended, with his only child, an infant, then 
in the nurse's arms. The deer, driven by the hounds, and 
hemmed in by surrounding rocks, flew to a narrow pass, the 
only outlet they could find. Here the chief had placed one of 
his men to guard the deer from passing ; but the animals rushed 
with such impetuosity, that the poor forester could not with- 
stand them. In the rage of the moment Maclean threatened 
the man with instant death ; but his punishment was com- 
muted to a whipping, or scourging in the face of the clan, 
which in those feudal times was considered a degrading pun- 
ishment, fit only for the lowest of menials, and the worst of 
crimes. The clansman burned with anger and fierce revenge. 
He rusjied forward, plucked the tender infant, the heir of 
Lochbuy, from the hands of the nurse, and bounding to the 
rocks, in a moment stood on an inaccessible cliff, projecting over 
the water. The screams of the agonized mother and chief at 
the awful jeopardy in which their only child was placed, may 
easily be conceived. Maclean implored the man to give him 
back his son, and expressed his deep contrition for the degra- 
dation he had in a moment of excitement inflicted on his 
clansman. The other replied that the only conditions on 
which he would consent to the restitution were, that Maclean 
himself should bare his back to the cord, and be publicly 
scourged as he had been. In despair the chief consented, say- 
ing he would submit to any thing, if his child were but re- 
stored. To the grief and astonishment of the clan, Maclean 
bore this insult, and when it was completed, begged that the 
clansman might return from his perilous situation with the 
young chief. The man regarded him with a smile of demo- 
niac revenge, and, lifting high the child in the air, plunged 
with him into the abyss beneath. The sea closed over them, 
and neither, it is said, ever emerged from th# tempestuous 
whirlpools and basaltic caverns that yawned around them, and 



257 

still threaten the inexperienced navigator on the shores of 
the Mull. 

Two men, living in the southern part of Africa, had a quar- 
rel, and became bitter enemies to each other. After a while 
one of them found a little girl belonging to his enemy, in the 
woods, at some distance from her father's house. He seized 
her and cut off both her hands ; and, as he sent her home 
screaming with her bleeding wrists, he said to her : " I have 
had my revenge." 

Years passed away. The little girl became a Christian, and 
had grown up to be almost a young woman, when, one day 
there came to her father's door a poor, worn-out, gray-headed 
old man, who asked for something to eat. She knew him at 
once as the cruel man who had cut off her hands. She went 
into the hut, and ordered the servant to take him bread and 
milk, as much as he could eat, and sat down and watched him 
eat. 

When he had finished, dropping the covering that hid her 
handless wrists from view, and holding them up before him, 
she exclaimed: "I have had my revenge I" The man was 
overwhelmed with surprise and humiliation. But the blessed 
Saviour had said: "If thine enemy hunger, feed him; if he 
thirst, give him drink." 



ILL-NATURE REBUKED. 



A great many years ago, when I was a little girl, I started 
to take a journey to see my aunt — not in the cars — they had 
never thought of such a thing then — but in the stage. Now I 
felt very proud to be going away off without papa, or mamma, 
or nurse to take care of me, and only my Uncle Charlie alone, 
who was a gay, pleasant young man in college. Now I sat 
snugly tucked beside uncle on the back seat, sitting very straight, 
and wondering very much in my silly little heart if the gen- 
tleman on the front-seat would not think I was a young lady 
— father said I was so large of my age — and then more silly, 
may be he would think I was grown up, and was Uncle Char- 
lie's wife. Oh ! how absurd it was, was it not, children, that I, 



258 rXL-NATTJRE REBUKED. 

only nine years old, should have ever thought of such a thing? 
My grown-up consequential feelings did not last long, though, 
for soon the stage stopped, and a very feeble-looking old man 
with a little girl, whose hood covered up her whole face, got 
in. The old man saw Uncle Charlie's pleasant face, and said : 
" If you please, sir, take your little girl on your lap, and I will 
mine. I like to ride on the back-seat, the others make me 
sick." " Certainly, sir." And my dignity was very summarily 
disposed of, by uncle's lifting me, without another word, into 
his lap. He only laughed, because he had no little girl, and it 
was a funny mistake. But I did not laugh. I pouted and 
made uncle very uncomfortable with my fidgeting about, and 
sour, hateful looks. I happened to look up in a few minutes, 
and I saw the child, sitting on the old man's lap, had her hood 
taken off, but her eyes all covered up with a great, thick ban- 
dage. Soon she spoke in the sweetest voice to the old man : 
" Grandpa, may be we could sit somewhere else, and let the lit- 
tle girl sit here." How I wonder that she knew I was cross 
about it, with her eyes all covered up, so she could not see my 
face, and I had been ashamed to say any thing. " Oh ! no," 
said I, sorry, and forgetting my ill-humor in wondering why 
she kept her eyes covered all up that way. 

Again I said : " Please don't be hurt at me, but won't you 
tell me what ails your eyes ?" " Oh ! yes," she said, very sweetly, 
" I was coming down-stairs with the scissors in my hands, and 
I put my eye out, and then the other got blind, too, and now 
I can never see out of either any more. But I am going to 
Boston to try and have the doctor there do something for them, 
so that they won't hurt me so badly." My eyes filled with 
tears for the poor blind girl. " Can she never see again ?" said 
my uncle. "No, there is no hope of that," said the old man 
very sadly. " Grandpa says I can see when I get to heaven,'* 
said she in a very low whisper, and looking very cheerful and 
bright as she said it. " Is she happy that way, always?" said 
my uncle. "Yes, always. Every one calls her 'happy 
Mary.' " 

She got out soon, said grandma — taking off her spectacles, 
and even then wiping her eyes — and I never saw her again, 
but I never forgot her ; but I always remembered, when I was 



259 

inclined to be cross over little things, poor blind Mary, who 
would never see till she got to heaven ; and yet whom every 
one called " happy Mary." — Western Churchman. 



THE IDEA OP WEALTH. 



It is said that John Jacob Astor, who never was worth half 
as much as his son now is, advised a man who had made a 
good start in life, not to try to be wealthy, adding : "It's only 
a vexation ; a man who has four or five hundred thousand 
dollars is as well off as if he were rich." The millionaire was 
right, or if he erred, it was in the hight of his estimate. We 
can use a little money for our personal needs — -not much ; and 
as to the rest, we can give away a little — not a great deal, if 
we give it wisely. After that, the remainder is a burden — a 
sheer load, which wears a man out in the care of it. Suppose 
the case of a man worth between forty and fifty millions of 
dollars, and there are not a few such in the world. He would 
receive on this property, if it were made productive, a round 
income of five per cent, or $2,250,000 per annum. Now we 
have no clearer idea of two millions of dollars than we have 
of forty millions. It is a great deal of money ; we must 
reduce it again, to make it manageable. 

We will suppose that the income of the reader is $2400 per 
annum, which is much above the average. If he receives it 
regularly at the end of his day's work, it will be six dollars 
and sixty-seven cents per diem — a sufficient sum, on which a 
large family may be supported and children educated, with 
something to spare for the poor. The difference between this 
amply -provided person and Mr. Astor, is, that the latter re- 
ceives something more than $6000 every day. 

If the six dollar man thinks he works any harder than he 
of the six thousand, he is much mistaken ; if he thinks that 
the other enjoys more substantial comfort, he is equally in 
error. 

We should have a great deal of consideration and sympathy 
for rich men. Their roses have thorns, and are finer to look 



260 THE IDEA OF WEALTH. 

at than to have in the hand. The owner of the shining par- 
terre is, after all, not as well off as the careless passer-by, who 
enjoys all its beauties without one of its responsibilities. 
There is the responsibility of benevolence, for example. 
Every body says that a rich man ought to give away a great 
deal of money. This requires no small degree of good judg- 
ment. A wide and indiscriminate almsgiving does no good ; 
on the contrary, much harm. The laws of God and nature as 
to private thrift are identical. There is a niggardliness, to be 
sure, which is easily strengthened in the human heart, and 
which turns it, at length, into a parchment money-purse. But 
no man's heart needs to fall into this shriveled condition. 
There are safe outlets for money enough to save the thriftiest 
of men from such a drying up. Even Mr. Croesus Bags, bur- 
dened as he is by involuntary accumulations, could find the 
means of saving himself. But the notion that a man ought 
to give away every thing that he gains, beyond the comfortable 
support of himself and his immediate dependencies, is a hurt- 
ful fallacy. A man who is in health, is not morally entitled 
to any thing which he does not earn. And, as all moral laws 
are found to be consistent with each other, it is ascertained 
that the acquisition of unearned money is almost uniformly a 
damage rather than a benefit. The moment a man is thus 
endowed, nature struggles to restore her standard of equili- 
brium by dispossessing him, and reducing him to his former 
position. The brief stay of inherited possessions, in the ab- 
sence of legal protection for the mere inheritance of fraudulent 
gains, and of wasteful charities is the evidence. There are 
plentiful instances of real need, of cases in which palliative 
help is necessary, and in which it may not be rightly withheld. 
Those who are ready to perish from want ; those who are in 
circumstances of spiritual destitution ; those who are earnestly 
helping themselves against odds ; tho se who are unwilling to 
receive alms, and can scarcely be induced to take it — are to 
be found every where, and afford an ample opportunity to de- 
plete dangerous wealth. Nor should we always turn away 
from the whining mendicant, whether he come in cravat and 
broadcloth or in rags; sometimes even he may have a claim 
upon us. We should hear and j udge. 



261 

"Wealth belongs to some men, just as intellect belongs to 
others. They would be rich any where, just as their envious 
neighbors would be poor any where. At an agrarian meeting 
in this city about twenty years ago, a gentleman of 
property obtained a hearing and forcibly argued this point. 
Addressing a sailor near him, who had been prominent in the 
proceedings, he asked : 

M What would you have me do with my money?" 

" Divide it equally among us all," replied Jack. 

? That would give us about $10 each, and to-morrow I 
should have $9.50 of mine left, while yours would be gone. 
What then ?" 

" Shiver my timbers!" exclaimed the sailor, in perplexity, 
" why — then divide again !" — N". Y. Times. 



Manners. — I wish cities would teach their best lesson, of 
quiet manners. It is the foible, especially of American youth, 
— pretension. The mark of the man of the world is absence 
of pretension. He does not make a speech ; he talks in a 
low business tone, avoids all brag, is nobody, dresses plainly, 
promises not at all, performs much, speaks in monosyllables, 
hugs his fact. He calls his employment by the lowest name, 
and so takes from evil tongues their sharpest weapon. His 
conversation clings to the weather and the news, yet he allows 
himself to be surprised into thought, and the unlocking of his 
learning and philosophy. How the imagination is piqued by 
anecdotes of some great man passing incognito, as a king in 
gray clothes ! of Napoleon affecting a plain suit at his glitter- 
ing levee ! of Burns, or Scott, or Beethoven, or Wellington, 
or Goethe, or any container of transcendent power, passing 
for nobody ! of Epaminondas, " who never says any thing, 
but will listen eternally !" of Goethe, who preferred trifling 
subjects and common expressions in intercourse with strangers, 
worse rather than better clothes, and to appear a little more 
capricious than he was ! There are advantages in the old hat 
and box-coat. I have heard that throughout this country, a 
certain respect is paid to good broadcloth ; but dress makes a 
little restraint: men will not commit themselves. But the 



262 BE AGREEABLE. 

box-coat is like wine ; it unlocks the tongue, and men say what 
they think.— Kalph Waldo Emerson. 

Another writer says : The young should be mannerly, but 
they feel timid, bashful and self-distrustful the moment they 
are addressed by a stranger or appear in company. There is 
but one way to get over this feeling, and acquire easy and 
graceful manners, and that is, to do the best they can at home 
as well as abroad. Good manners are not learned so much as 
acquired by habit. They grow upon us by use. We must be 
courteous, agreeable, civil, kind, gentlemanly, and manly at 
home, and then it will become a kind of second nature every 
where. A coarse, rough manner at home begets a habit of 
roughness, which we can not lay off if we try, when we go 
among strangers. The most agreeable persons in company 
are those who are most agreeable at home. Home is the 
school for all the best things. 

Be Agreeable. — In journeying along the Eoad of Life, it 
is a wise thing to make our fellow-travelers our friends. The 
way, rough as it may seem, may be pleasantly beguiled with 
an interchange of kindly offices and pleasant words. Suavity 
and forbearance are essential elements of good companionship, 
and no one need expect to pass pleasantly through life who 
does not habitually exercise them in his intercourse with his 
fellows. The Ishmaelite, whose hand is against every man, 
may die in a ditch without a finger being outstretched to save 
him. And why should we rudely jostle and shoulder our 
neighbors ? Why tread upon each other's toes ? The Christ- 
ian gentleman is always careful to avoid such collisions, for 
courtesy and loyalty to his race are a portion of his moral and 
religious creed ; to be loved and honored of all, his highest 
earthly ambition. He seeks to turn away wrath with a soft 
answer, and if a brawler obstinately beset his path, he steps 
aside to avoid him, saying, as "My Uncle Toby" said to the 
pertinacious fly : " Gro thy ways ; the world is wide enough for 
thee and me !" 

There is another and meaner view of the subject, which we 
commend to the consideration of the worldly-wise and selfish. 
It always pays to be courteous, conciliating, and mild of 
tongue. — Ledger. 



263 

Style. — Some men of vigorous minds, but more conversant 
with things than with words, and who, having never studied 
composition as an art, have not learned that real force of style 
must be effortless, and consists mainly in its simplicity and 
appropriateness ; they fancy that common words are not half 
strong enough to say what they want to say ; and so they try 
to strengthen them by writing them in a different character. 
Men of science do this ; for words with them are signs, which 
must stand out to be conspicuous. Soldiers often do this ; for, 
though a few of them are among the most skillful in the drilling 
and maneuvering of words, the chief part have no notion that 
a word may be louder than a cannon-ball, and sharper than a 
sword. Cobbett is profuse of italics. This instance may be 
supposed to refute the assertion, that the writers who use them 
are not versed in the art of composition. But, although Cob- 
bett was a wonderful master of plain speech, all his writings 
betray his want of logical and literary culture. He had never 
sacrificed to the graces ; who can not be won without many 
sacrifices. He cared only for strength ; and as his own bodily 
frame was of the Herculean, rather than the Apollonean cast, 
he thought that a man could not be very strong unless he dis- 
played his thews. Besides, a Damascus blade would not have 
gashed his enemies enough for his taste ; he liked to have a 
few notches on his sword. 

Music-Lessons. — Porpora, one of*the most illustrious 
composers of Italy, entertained a great feeling of friendship for 
a young man, a pupil of his. He asked his youthful acquaint- 
ance whether he thought he possessed courage enough to follow 
constantly the road he, Porpora, traced out for him, however 
wearisome it might appear. On receiving an affirmative reply, 
Porpora wrote down, upon a piece of ruled paper, the diatonic 
and chromatic scales, both ascending and descending, skips of 
thirds, fourths, fifths, etc., to teach him to master the intervals 
and sustain the sound, besides shakes, groups, appogiaturi, and 
other vocal exercises of various kinds. This one sheet of 
paper furnished both master and pupil occupation for a year ; 
the following year also was devoted to it. The pupil began 
to murmur, but the master reminded him of his promise. The 
fourth year passed, the* fifth year followed, and still trfere was 



Ab<± THE LOSS OF CHILDREN. 

the same eternal sheet of paper. Even during the sixth year 
it was not given up, though lessons in articulation, pronuncia- 
tion, and declamation were added. At the end of the year, 
the pupil, who thought he was only engaged on the elements 
of his art, was surprised at hearing his master say: "There, 
my dear boy, you have nothing more to learn ; you are the 
first singer in Italy." Porpora spoke the truth, for the singer 
was Caffarelli. 

The Influence of Temper on Health.— Excessive 

labor, exposure to wet and cold, deprivation of sufficient quan 
tities of necessary and wholesome food, habitual bad lodging, 
sloth, and intemperance, are all deadly enemies to human life ; 
but they are none of them so bad as violent and ungoverned 
passions. Men and women have survived all these, and at last 
reached an extreme old age ; but it may be safely doubted 
whether a single instance can be found of a man of violent and 
irascible temper, habitually subject to storms of ungovernable 
passion, who has arrived at a very advanced period of life. It 
is, therefore, a matter of the highest importance to every one 
desirous to preserve " a sound mind in a sound body," so that 
the brittle vessel of life may glide down the stream of time 
.smoothly and securely, instead of being continually tossed about 
amidst rocks and shoals which endanger its existence, to have 
a special care, amidst all the vicissitudes and trials of life, to 
maintain a quiet possession of his own spirit. 

The Loss Of Children. — Those who have never pass- 
ed through this fiery furnace, which tries the inmost heart, can 
not sympathize with bereaved parents whose hearts bleed over 
their children dead. To describe the anguish which rends 
their hearts, as they gaze upon the loved forms on whom their 
fondest hopes and highest aspirations had rested so firmly, 
now cold and lifeless in their coffin-home, would require a pen 
dipped in the very essence of the sublimest sorrow itself. 
None but the parents can feel it, and none buT; those who have 
mourned like them, can sympathize with those who mourn the 
death of their children. The loss no power on earth can make 
good or even alleviate. No power on earth can bring them back, 
and place them again beneath their parents' loving gaze and 
fond care. From earth they have taken their final departure, 



265 

never, never to return. The little chair they occupied, the lit- 
tle plate and the knife and fork they used, will be to them of 
service no more — but merely lonely mementoes of their exist- 
ence. The patter of their little feet upon the floor, and the 
music of their sweet, sweet voices, will greet the parents' ear 
never again on earth. All will be a recurrence of all that is 
dreary and dismal. But hope, plumed by religion, points to 
a happy meeting in another and better world. 

Secret of Eloquence.— I owe my success in life to 

one single fact, namely : At the age of twenty -seven I com- 
menced, and continued for years, the process of daily reading 
and speaking upon the contents of some historical or scientific 
book. These off-hand efforts were made sometimes in a corn- 
field, at others in the forest, and not unfrequently in some 
distant barn, with the horse and cow for my auditors. It is to 
this early practice in the great art of all arts that I am indebted 
for the primary and leading impulses that stimulated me for- 
ward, and shaped and molded my entire subsequent destiny. 
Improve, then, young gentlemen, the superior advantages you 
here enjoy. Let not a day pass without exercising your powers 
of speech. There is no power like that of oratory. Caesar 
controlled men by exciting their fears ; Cicero, by captivating 
their affections, and swaying their passions. The influence of 
the one perished with its author ; that of the other continues 
to this day. — Henry Clay. 

Christianity Aggressive. — The defensive armor of a 
shrinking or timid policy does not suit her. Hers is then aked 
majesty of truth ; and with all the grandeur of age, but with 
none of its infirmities, has she come down to us, and gathered 
strength from the battles she has fought and the victories she 
has won in the many conflicts of many generations. With 
such a religion as this, there is nothing to hide. All should 
be above board ; and the broadest light of day should be made 
freely to circulate through all her secresies. But secrets she 
has none. To her belong the frankness and simplicity of con- 
scious greatness ; and whether she grapple it with pride of 
philosophy, or stand in front opposition to the prejudices of 
the multitude, she does it upon her own strength, and spurns 
all the props and all the auxiliaries of superstition away from 
her. — Dr. Chalmers. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 176. 



POSTURE IN WORSHIP. 



Of all the lazy folks in creation, old-school Presbyterians take the lead in refer- 
ence to the manner in which they conduct religions worship on the Sabbath-day. 
Every principle of physiology and common-sense is subverted ; every instinct of 
propriety, respect, reverence, and devotion are all sacrificed to the Moloch of per- 
sonal idleness and ease. The people go in, squat down on benches, and sit and git 
and sit for two mortal hours, neither kneeling nor standing until two or three minutes 
previous and preparatory toward taking their hats and marching oivt. Some de- 
nominations have the decency to kneel in prayer, which seems very appropriate and 
becoming ; the Presbyterian leans forward, spreads out his elbows along the pew- 
back for about a yard, leans his forehead on his hands and goes to sleep, becomes 
semi-comatose, or lays plans for next day. Some of them, the women, doubtless 
are devout as far as persons can be who can' scarcely keep their eyes open. Does it 
not defy criticism, that keeping one position for nearly two hours predisposes to 
sleep, which is further cherished and invited by leaning forward, as just described, 
and closing the eyes. Episcopalians are called •formal by some, and ceremonious, by 
their frequent change of position in sitting, standing, and kneeling ; others derisive- 
ly speak of it as a bobbing up and down all the time," so that a stranger can't tell 
what's what, as sometimes they sit when they sing, at others stand when they 
sing ; now the minister recites, and they stand ; again he recites, and they sit ; a 
third time, and they lean forward ; sometimes he says, " Amen !" and they lean on, 
take no notice of it ; at another time he says, " Amen !" and " as you were" seems 
to be the order of the day. We never fail to get mixed up entirely when we. go to 
hear the Episcopals preach ; nor have we any chance of going to sleep. Who ever 
sits squat down two hours at a stretch at home, abroad, anywhere on the face oFthe 
earth, except a Presbyterian at public worship ? It is the more irrational, in propor- 
tion as the worshiper is a laboring man, or is actively engaged in business during 
the week, for the blood will tend to stagnation from the long one position,, the body 
becomes uneasy and cries out for change, as is evidenced plainly enough by the in- 
cessant wriggling about in the pew ; while the brain is oppressed by the stagnating 
blood, and the mind works sluggishly and sleepily. The good old-fashioned Metho- 
dist plan is the best, the most rational, devout, and becoming ; to sit when they 
listen to man ; to kneel when they address the Great I Am ; to stand when they 
praise before the Saviour of all. But homely old Methodism is getting out of date 
now ; it isn't decorous in these times to " shout aloud" and show that the worship- 
er is a wide-awake Christian, p .""Vving man ; they don't sing in these times as if 
they would split their throats or., n with the gushing unction of their songs, but they 
are getting to be put . in strait- ] ekets like other people, with "steepelows" to their 
churches, and doors to their pews, as if to keep out the uncireumcised and the stran- 
ger-; while their foretime soul-singing has dwindled down to a prim squeak, like o 
penny whistle that had the croup. What would good old John Wesley say, if he 
could be resurrected ? 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 177. 



C A. 1ST C E R 

Is the Latin word for " Crab," and was applied to that kind of sore which has the 
spraggling look of that ugly animal. The essence of cancer is in a depraved condi- 
tion of the blood ; it is hard, soft, or yielding as a sponge ; it is a loathsome and 
thus far an incurable disease. It is worse than incurable, because if healed up, or 
cut out at one place, it is sure to sprout up in a dozen others. Sometimes a sore is 
cured, that looks like a cancer, and the pretended curer is willing enough that it 
should be considered a real one, hence ingenious impositions have been practiced 
on many and many hearts sickened to death by false hopes.' Cancer is developed 
in two ways almost always. First, nature makes an effort to pass out of the system, 
through some gland, matters, the presence of which is hurtful; " thwarted, the 
gland under certain conditions becomes cancerous, becomes an eat' running sore, 
which, if let alone, will always secure a longer life than if it is no lowed to run, 
by " healing it up," or cutting it out. Second, when a gland is injured by a cold 
settling in it, or by a bruise, cancerous disease begins to develop itself when the 
blood is in a depraved condition. The same cold or bruise would, have passed off 
without iujury, had the individual possessed vigorous health. Cancer is confined 
chiefly to females, because of their in-door life, so promotive of a poisoned blood 
from want of exercise and from the routine nature of their existence. Its common- 
est seat is the left breast, first appearing an undiscolored hard lump the size of a 
marble or pea, growing very slowly, and as it becomes more active, giving the char- 
acteristic star-like pains; pains which shoot out or lancinate in every direction 
like the rays of a star. Any pain of this sort, confined to one spot, should be always 
regarded with apprehension. After a while the skin assumes a puckered appear- 
ance, sometimes with heat, soon breaks and throws out a thin fluid, with more or 
less blood, next emitting a most offensive smell as the fungus mass springs forth 
and eats its horrible way into the very vitals. 

Cancer of a more superficial character sometimes attacks the nose, the lower lip, 
and the corner of the eye, looking at first like a u fever-blister," or a wart with an 
uneven surface ; at other times it comes with a dry scale, which falls, or is picked 
off; another and another comes, each going deeper, until the' hateful sore assumes 
its characteristic appearance. It is admitted the world over, because statistical ta 
bles prove it, that " cutting out a cancer," especially from the breast, is fatal in 
nine cases out often. Whether that tenth case may not be a cancer only in appear- 
ance, is a question. As all acknowledge that cancer arises from a depraved condi- 
tion of the blood, those who fear cancer, with or without cause, should use means to 
keep the general system in the highest health possible, as a means of purifying the 
blood, and thus indefinitely postpone the breaking out of the cancerous sore ; keep- 
ing it in its hard state as it were ; just as tuV wcles in the lungs, which are hard 
lumps there, and which are not capable of oau'ng common consumption as long as 
they remain hard, may be kept in abeyance foi'a long lifetime by a vigorous fol- 
lowing out of those activities which the experienced physician has so often seen to 
pe efficient in such cases. Meanwhile, if any person has an actual sore which 
seems to be of a cancerous character, ^ry any body and any thing reasonably prom- 
ising even a slight benefit. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 178. 



WEATHER SIGNS. 



Sudden changes of weather are the immediate cause of the sickness and death 
of multitudes, hence all persons owe it to themselves to study to some extent the 
portents of the heavens, from their own observation, as to the localities in which 
they live, paying but little attention, and relying not at all, on the signs of the 
weather as read in books, or detailed by others. Rules for farming and weather 
bigns are proverbially uncertain and conflicting, arising from the one cause of ap- 
plying observations of one locality to those of another. A wind blowing from the East 
brings rain to the Atlantic States, because it comes from the sea ; but a wind from 
the West brings rain to San Francisco, because it comes from the sea. The dates 
for planting in Minnesota would not answer in Louisiana. There are, however, 
some general signs which are applicable to all lands. Parents should begin early to 
draw the attention of their children to the weather signs of their individual locali- 
ties ; this habit of observation will be largely valuable in other directions, in prac- 
tical life. 

The following lines are attributed to Dr. Jenner, written on declining an invita- 
tion to an excursion ; these signs can be readily explained on strictly scientific prin- 
ciples : 



The hollow winds begin to blow, 

The clouds look black, the glass is low, 

The soot falls down, the spaniels sleep, 

And spiders from their cobwebs creep. 

Last night the sun went pale to bed, 

The moon in halos hid her head ; 

The boding shepherd heaves a sigh, 

For see ! a rainbow spans the sky. 

The walls are damp, the ditches smell, 

Closed is the pink-eyed pimpernel. 

Hark ! bow the chairs and tables crack ; 

Old Betty's joints are on the rack ; 

Her corns with shooting pains torment her, 

And to her bed untimely send her. 

The smoke from chimneys right ascends, 

Then spreading back to earth it bends. 

The wind unsteady veers around, 

Or settling in the south is found. 

The tender colts on back do lie, 

Nor heed the traveler passing by. 

In fiery red the sun doth rise, 

Then wades through clouds to mount the skies. 

Loud quack the ducks, the peacocks cry, 

The distant hills are looking nigh. 

How restless are the snoring swine ! 

The busy flies disturb the kine. 

Low o'er the grass the swallow wings ; 



The cricket, too, how loud it sings ; 
Puss, on the hearth, with velvet paws, 
Sits smoothing o'er her whiskered jaws. 
Through the clear stream the fishes rise, 
And nimbly catch the incautious flies. 
The sheep were seen, at early light, 
Cropping the meads with eager bite. 
Though June, the air is cold and chill ; 
The mellow blackbird's voice is still ; 
The glow-worms numerous and bright, 
Illumed the dewy dell last night. 
At dusk the squalid toad was seen, 
Hopping, crawling o'er the green. 
The frog has lost his yellow vest, 
And in a dingy suit is dressed. 
The leech, disturbed is newly risen, 
Quite to the summit of his prison. 
The whirling wind the dust obeys, 
And in the rapid eddy plays. 
My dog, so altered in his taste, 
Quits mutton-bones, on grass to feast. 
And see yon rooks ! how odd their flight ! 
They imitate the gliding kite ; 
Or seem precipitate to fall, 
As if they felt the piercing ball. 
'Twill surely rain. I see with sorrow, 
Our jaunt must be put off to-morrow." 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH, 



Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless: for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 



WE AIM TO SHOW HOW DISEASE MAY BE AVOIDED, AND THAT IT IS BEST, WHEN SICKNESS COMES, TO 
TAKE NO MEDICINE WITHOUT CONSULTING A PHYSICIAN. 



Vol. X.] DECEMBER, 1863. [No. 12. 

HOW AN AUTOCRAT DIES. 

A high degree of worldly prosperity leads most men, who 
have been unused to it, to forget Grod. On the other hand, a 
high position, as to money or power, continued for generations, 
often inclines men to seek the solaces of religion. The poor are 
prone to think that in riches there is happiness. The rich 
know that riches do not secure happiness, and hence look to 
religion as the only source left for enduring pleasures, and the 
hopes of heaven. Hence, most of the greatest of earth's rulers 
this day, recognize the claims of Christianity as they understand 
it, and more or less square their lives by its precepts. 

The King of Hanover is afflicted with blindness, but we are 
pleased to learn from the News of the Churches that "the eyes 
of his understanding have for years past been enlightened ;" 
that he is not only a believer in the Lord Jesus, but a confessor 
of his name, and neither ashamed to own himself a disciple, nor 
to defend the cause of his Lord before high and low. On the 
occasion of the laying of the corner-stone of a new church in 
his capital, he made some remarks which indicated a heart ex- 
perienced in spiritual things. He said in concluding : 

" Furthermore, I entreat the Almighty to permit that the 
Gospel of his dear Son may be transmitted from this church to 
all heathen lands, it being my desire and resolve, that hence- 
forth al] Hanoverian missionaries shall receive ordination with- 



270 

in the walls of this Christ church, which may thus become a 
well of salvation, not only to its own congregation, but to the 
"nations of the farthest regions of the globe." 

The late Nicholas of Eussia, the Autocrat of sixty millions 
of subjects, was one of these, as would seem from incidents oc- 
curring in his last and brief illness, the authority being from a 
source very near the throne. 

" Towards night the last glimmer of a chance of recovery dis- 
appeared. On being made acquainted with the fact, the Em- 
press, like a Christian wife, went to his bedside promptly, to 
impart the important intelligence to her dying husband, he 
being ' all unconscious that he was even dangerously ill. The 
Emperor was not prepared for this visit. She bent down over 
his bed and said to him tenderly and gently.'" It should be re- 
membered here that, a few days before, while partaking of the 
Holy Sacrament, a feeling of debility or exhaustion came over 
the Emperor, so that he could not proceed with it. Under these 
circumstances, it is wonderful with what adroitness and affec- 
tionate delicacy and presence of mind the Empress made use 
of the fact. " My dear, you were not able to finish your devo- 
tions, so as to commune together with us, as on former occa- 
sions. Why should you not do it now ? You know that for a 
Christian there is no better medicine, and many have even been 
recovered by it from their sickness." 

"How!" replied the Emperor quickly, "would you have 
me commune in bed ? I am always happy, always desirous to 
perform this duty. Am I then in danger?" 

The Empress embraced him, and asked : 

" Do you love me now as ever ? as in old time?" 

"Love you? yes! How should I not love you? The day 
we saw one another for the first time, my heart said to me, 
There is one who is to be your guardian angel throughout 
life, and this prediction of my heart has been accomplished. 
You are weeping!" Her tears flowed apace, and she began to 
repeat the Lord's Prayer in a low tone. The Emperor followed 
the words, and added, in a firm voice, when the Empress pro- 
nounced, " Thy will be done !" " Yes, in all things and always." 

The Emperor understanding all, turned a firm and scrutini- 
zing look on the physician, saying : 

" Tell me, then, what is it? Am I dying ?" 



NICHOLAS THE FIRST. 271 

Choked with emotion, the physician said : "• Yes, sire !" 

After a brief silence, the Emperor, inquired : 

" What have you discovered in me with your stethescope ? 
Abscesses ?" . 

"No; but the commencement of paralysis of the lung." 

" And you have had the courage, thereupon, to pronounce 
my sentence — to condemn me definitively to death?" 

His physician reminded him that he acted in accordance with 
a promise exacted by the Emperor a year and a half before, 
when the Emperor said to him : 

" I require of you to tell me the whole truth, and in time, 
when you see that there is need." 

The Emperor listened with calm attention, and replied : " I 
thank you." 

At the Emperor's request, the family were called in. After 
prayers, the Emperor said, "I pray the Lord to receive me in 
his arms," and partook of the Sacrament with the utmost calm- 
ness and devout fervor. , After having first rendered to God 
the things that are God's, Nicholas next turned his attention to 
the affairs of his vast empire. He ordered telegrams to the 
chief cities to say, " The Emperor is dying," adding, " The 
Emperor bids adieu to Moscow." He ordered his funeral to be 
conducted with as little expense as possible, as it would fall 
ultimately on his people. 

He spoke or sent kind words of remembrance to every mem- 
ber of his immediate household, not forgetting a child or a 
grandchild. But his tenderest and most constant attention was 
centered on her who had so long traversed with him the vicisi- 
tudes of life and empire. Addressing her, and pointing to his 
children present, he said : " You must live for them." And to 
his children : " Live always, as now, in the closest union of fam- 
ily affection." 

A courier arrived from the Crimea, bringing letters and dis^ 
patches from his sons, the Grand Dukes Nicholas and Michael. 
" Are they well ?" inquired the Emperor. " The rest is nothing 
to me now. I belong wholly to God." 

He then asked his physician with a smile ; 

11 When do you mean to let me go ?" 

"Not yet." 

" Shall I not wander, or become insensible ?" 



272 

" I hope, sire, # that all will pass quietly." 

Then embracing his son and successor, the present Emperor, 
he said : 

"I could have wished to have taken upon myself all that is 
difficult and painful, and to have left you an empire at peace, 
happy and flourishing. Providence has ordered it otherwise. 
Now I go to pray in the other world for Russia, and for you, 
who are, after Russia, that which I have most loved in this 
world." 

When, having no longer strength to speak, he made a ges- 
ture between his almoner and his successor and the Empress, 
with what meaning must be left to conjecture ; most likely it 
was : " Stand by one another." From that time he held their 
hands in his, pressing them from moment to moment, until he 
ceased to breathe. 

From the last will of Nicholas the First, every affectionate 
family may learn a practical lesson of great value, in all cases, 
showing what a close affection existed in the royal house- 
hold. It was written nearly eleven years before, to wit, on 
Ascension Day, May 4, 1844. 

The great Autocrat, whose word and will were law to sixty 
million souls, seems, in the contemplation of death, although in 
perfect health, to have divested himself of all factitious great- 
ness, and to have felt he was but a man ; so he entitled the 
document his "Last Wishes." After the invocation to God 
the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost, come 
these words : 

" In June, 1831, at the time of the breaking out of the cholera, 
I wrote down hastily my last wishes. The Lord in his mercy 
has not only been pleased to preserve my family, but further 
to permit that, since then, it should be considerably increased. 
These happy circumstances are of a nature to change, in part, 
my intentions. I desire that my wife be left in possession, for 
her use, of her apartments in the Winter Palace, of the Palace 
of Jelagin, and in the New Palace. Further, although by right 
of inheritance the Amtchkoff Palace belongs to my eldest son, 
I leave it to my wife, to enjoy it during her life, if she pleases. 

" I adjure and beseech my children and grand-children to 
love and honor their mother, to be attentive to her comfort, to 
anticipate all her wishes, and to strive to console her in her old 



NICHOLAS THE FIEST. 273 

age by their affection and devotion. They ought never to un- 
dertake any thing of importance without having first asked her 
advice and her motherly blessing. Such of my children as are 
under age are to remain entirely dependent upon her will until 
they attain their majority." 

It is delightful to contemplate that after the Emperor had 
provided for his own blood and kindred, he turns himself with 
an affectionate remembrance to his servants and the teachers 
and guides of his youth, and of "my invalids," as he calls them. 
And seeming at the moment of writing the words to regard 
himself as no longer on the throne, he says : "I beg the 
Emperor to be so good as to take care of my old invalids. I 
wish that they should keep during their lives, in the Imperial 
House, the places which they filled during my time, unless it 
please my son to find them any thing better. 

"Since my childhood, two friends and companions have re- 
mained at my side, and their friendship for me has been invaria 
bly the same. I loved the General Aid-de-camp, Adlerbergh, 
as my brother, and I hope to have in him a friend to the end 
of my life. His sister, Julia, has educated my three daughters 
like a good and tender parent. I bequeath to them a pension 
of fifteen thousand silver rubles, besides the pension they have 
already. I thank them once more, for the last time, for their 
brotherly affection. 

" I thank Count Benkendorf and Count Orloff for their un- 
changeable friendship, for their constant attachment to my per- 
son, and for the activity and zeal which they have shown in 
the execution of my orders." 

Speaking of his sister, Maria Paulovina, he thus expresses 
himself: 

" I have ever professed, from my childhood, the most sincere 
gratitude for all her goodness to me. Later in life her friend- 
ship has been still more precious to me. In her I put my great- 
est trust. I respected her as a mother, and confessed to her all 
my feelings, all the thoughts of my heart. I declare to her, for 
the last time, my tender gratitude for all the happy moments I 
have passed with her. 

" I beg the Emperor and all my family to love and honor 
my brother and sincere friend, Michael Pauloviteh. He is a 
pattern of that affection with which a brother ought to serve his 



274 

brother. I beg him not to cease to lend his good advice to my 
children, whom I recommend always to his good- will. I conjure 
my children to love their Emperor with all their love, to honor 
him and serve him faithfully, indefatigably, and unresistingly, to 
the last drop of their blood, to their last breath ; to remember 
that they ought to be examples to the rest of his subjects, as 
they are his first subjects. 

"lam convinced that iny son, the Emperor Alexander, will 
be always towards his mother a dutiful son, as he has been to 
me. This duty will become more sacred from the moment she 
is left alone. In her bereavement it is right that she be com- 
forted by the love and tender attachment of her children and 
grand-children. In his relations with his brothers, the Emperor 
my son should strive to unite that indulgence which their 
youth requires, with necessary firmness, as a father of a family, 
and never tolerate any misunderstanding or family quarrel, nor 
any thing which may become prejudicial to them or the state. 

" I thank all who have loved and served me. I forgive all 
who have hated me, and I pray all whom I may have uninten- 
tionally offended to forgive me. I have been a man, and sub- 
ject to a man's weaknesses. I have striven to correct myself in 
what I perceived to be amiss in me ; I have succeeded in doing 
this in some respects ; I have not succeeded in others. I pray 
all, with all my heart, to forgive me. 

" I die with my heart full of gratitude for all the good that 
it has pleased God to grant me in this transitory life, full of 
ardent love for our glorious Kussia, which I have served accord- 
ing to my ability, with faith and sincerity. It is in thee, 
Lord I that we trust— so may we never be put to confusion !" 

A year later he adds : 

" On the 29th of July, 1844, it pleased God to take to himself 
our beloved daughter Alexandra. We endure, without mur- 
muring, bowing before the decree of the Lord, this terrible 
blow, being fully assured, that if such was the will of God, it 
was for the good of our dear daughter ; and full of hope that 
she is now more happy in heaven than she could have been 
here on earth." 

With such a view of the inner life of the great Nicholas the 
First of Russia, it can scarcely be doubted that he was a Christian 
man ; while the clear exhibitions of his forgiving nature towards 



275 

his enemies, and of his tender affection to every member of his 
family, his children, his grand-children, his brother, his sister, 
his teachers, his servants, his counselors and friends, and more 
than all, that tender love which he manifested towards his wife, 
the unlimited confidence which he had in her wisdom and sound 
judgment, and his steady solicitude that every effort should be 
made for her comfort and happiness when he was gone, all these 
show that Nicholas of Kussia was a noble man ; noble by nature as 
well as by birth; and that for the things named he is worthy to 
be held up for all time to the admiration of the world, as a 
bright example to succeeding generations. 

Let the great and wise Emperor's views as to the family rela- 
tion make an ineffaceable impression on every father's heart in 
making his will. 

First : Keep the children as long as possible entirely depend- 
ent on the will of the mother. 

Second : Inculcate, persuade, command, and adjure, that the 
members of the family are to stand by one another faithfully, 
encouragingly, and affectionately, under all conceivable circum- 
stances to the very end, when not incompatible with clearly 
higher duties ; to stand up for one another, in case of need, 
against a universe besides : they who do it not, be they men or 
women, parents or children, brothers or sisters, husbands or 
wives, are unworthy of the name or relationship. 

The want of this loving fidelity to one's own blood has broken 
many an innocent and striving heart ; has caused life-long ani- 
mosities in large family connections, theretofore loving and 
united ; and has deluged nations in blood. 



276 hall's jouknal of health. 



THE YOUNG SUICIDE. 

Within a month, a young collegian of twenty, who had the 
love and respect of his teacher and his classmates, for his dili- 
gence in his studies, his high classical position, and his gener- 
ous nature, was found in his bed-room dead, the arteries of his 
arm having been severed, and his throat cut from ear to ear; 
an empty vial was found on the floor, labeled "Poison." A 
note on the stand read thus : 

"Forgive me, my dearest parents, for this dreadful deed, but 
I am unworthy and unfit to live. May God forgive me ! Fare- 
well." 

There are scores of such deaths every year, and the inquiry 
arises in every thoughtful mind : " What could have been the 
reason for such a terrible act ?" This youth was the only child 
of rich parents ; and the uninitiated vainly look around for an 
adequate motive for a deed so dreadful. A physician, especial- 
ly a city physician, and more particularly the editor of a jour- 
nal, treating of health and disease, is at no loss to unravel the 
mystery. The key to the sad history is found in the three 
facts, the victim was a man — young, unmarried. As an editor 
and a physician, we are constantly receiving letters like the fol- 
lowing : " Can you save me from an ignominious grave ? O 
God I that some one would give a cure for those unfortunates 
who have been so foolish. Will you, in God's name, give a cure 
in your next issue ? and you will have the prayers of thou- 
sands." A day or two later came the following : "Dear Sir: 
In the midst of despair, I earnestly address you, thinking that 
perhaps my sorrow may by your skill be turned into joy. I 
have by indulgence ruined myself. I have applied to many 
without permanent benefit ; hence the cause of despair. Now I 
feel the consequence of my crime to a very great extent men- 
tally, in consequence of which I have been obliged to give up 
all employment and do nothing, and of late I am totally unfit 
for -any thing. I have now before me a copy of your Jouknal 
of Health, volume nine, for October, 1862. Hence I address 
you, hoping you may be able to suggest some means for regain- 
ing health and happiness. I feel as if I would surely die, if I 
do not obtain some active and immediate remedy." While su- 



THE YOUNG SUICIDE. 277 

pervising these lines for the press, a letter is received from a 
young gentleman of high position, untarnished reputation, and 
of high moral worth, active, energetic, and faithful in all the 
offices of trust in which he has been placed, and which he has 
never failed to fill with honor to himself, and credit to his 
friends. Such an one writes :" I am satisfied that hell is my 
portion in robbing.' nature, and robbing God, my Creator. My 
mind is giving way to despair. I am ashamed of myself 
before my fellow-men and before God. And if I am dealt 
with according to my deserts, I am doomed." The prac- 
tical question, and one which very nearly concerns every par- 
ent who has an unmarried son over fifteen years of age, is, 
What can produce such states of mind? They arise in all 
cases from a vicious reading ; from perusing books which are 
sent gratis and post-paid by cart-loads, to all parts of the coun- 
try every year, through the agency of the newspapers, with ad" 
vertisements headed in this wise — taking a city daily, at this pres" 
ent writing — and which are copied, for large "consideration," 
by the country press, (nor are all of our religious papers guilt- 
less of the damning iniquity :) u To the Unmarried," " Marriage 
Guide," " Physiology," "The Benevolent Association," "Physi- 
ological Inquiries," "Young Man's Book," " Warning to Young 
Men," "Manhood," " Physical Debility," with a variety of 
other headings. These publications have the same aim, object 
and end, and the midnight depravity which indites them stands 
out in every page. It is not necessary here to enter into minute 
details, but to make use of the general facts. The programme 
marked out by all of them is essentially the same. First, 
to pander to the vitiated curiosity of boys and youth, not 
only by the "pictorial illustrations drawn from life," but by 
speciousness of argument and reasoning and statements, to mis- 
lead the mind, inflame the imagination, corrupt the heart, and 
eventually degrade the whole character. It is an often remark- 
ed fact, that among the young gentlemen who attend a first 
course of medical lectures, there are a large number who im- 
agine themselves the victims of each successive disease, as it 
is presented in course by the lecturer. And any person not 
versed in medicine can scarcely read any book on any disease ? 
without beginning to imagine that he has more or less of its 



278 hall's journal of health. . 

symptoms. In fact, medical biography abounds with notices 
of the deaths of men from the very diseases, the successful 
treatment of which made them famous ; leaving us to sup- 
pose that imagination has something to do in causing, or at 
least in aggravating, some human maladies. It is not surprising, 
then, that youths in their teens, or just entering manhood 
should, in reading a treatise strongly depicting the ultimate 
effects of certain symptoms, alleged to be connected with cer- 
tain conditions of the system, should run riot in their fears, and 
throw themselves helplessly into the hands of those who seem 
to know so much on the subject, and by their own accounts 
have had such remarkable success in their line. In every one 
of these books, without exception, certain symptoms are men- 
tioned (not peculiar to any one disease, but common to a num- 
ber, or which may exist, and if let alone, would in time disap- 
pear of themselves) as peculiar to a state of the system indica- 
tive of "a want of capabilities." Among these the most ste- 
reotyped are, dimness of vision, loss of memory, incapability of 
mental concentration, no steadiness of purpose, depression of 
spirits, etc. Then certain physical appearances are noted as 
corroborative of the existence of the malady in question. The 
youth, not having opportunities of comparing himself with 
others ; not knowing that a good many of these very appearances 
are natural, and are not incompatible with perfect health, be- 
comes alarmed, and in his fright appeals to the author of the 
book he has been reading, to save him by all means from the 
impending ruin and disgrace. A fee is extorted, which is up to 
the utmost ability of the victim to raise. Eemedies are used. 
They do not change the condition of things ; simply because the 
conditions are in many cases not unnatural ; but the patient is 
made to believe that it is because the case is more desperate 
than was imagined, and that more powerful and more expen- 
sive remedies must be used. These are alike unavailing ; mean- 
while, weeks and months pass away ; the victim has spent all 
the money he can "rake and scrape," "beg, borrow, or steal" 
literally, and then writes to some known physician in the strain 
of the letters already quoted, to make at least one more attempt 
at rescue ; or if he does not this, he settles down in the despair 
which leads to suicide. 



THE YOUNG SUICIDE. 279 

But there is sometimes a more dreadful ending, so far as men- 
tal and bodily suffering is concerned ; we say more dreadful 
with design ; for it is more so in proportion as it is more of a 
calamity to die on the rack than by a cannon-ball. When the 
sharper has obtained all the money possible from his victim, 
and wishes to get rid of him, he says in plain language: 
" There is no help for you but in marriage." But often this is 
an impossible remedy, and even if it were practicable, the pa- 
tient has such a view of his condition, that he would consider it 
dishonorable and even infamous to impose himself upon a con- 
fiding woman. The sharper is prepared for this, and with prac- 
ticed depravity, advises an illegal connection, not only as a test 
of capabilities, but as a remedy for certain symptoms observed 
to occur in the early morning, or at the close of certain natu- 
ral actions. Human nature can seldom withstand the motives 
presented in cases like these. Six months ago a gentleman 
applied for advice under the following circumstances. He had 
been led, by reading a book on " physiology," to believe that in 
connection with certain practices a deplorable state of things was 
induced. He placed himself under the care of the writer of the 
book in question, and in two or three years had expended a 
considerable amount of money, without adequate results. He 
was then told that he must form a criminal liason, which he 
did with inconceivable loathing, and which he maintained un- 
til he found himself the victim of a degrading disease, show- 
ing itself on the face and hands. To escape the inquiries of 
relatives and friends, he left home and came to us, the embodi- 
ment of despair, the mind hopeless, the body ruined, the con. 
stitution a wreck. This disease the writer has never treated 
in a single case ; and it is always turned over to other hands, 
the usual advice being, when there is any hope of restoration, 
to have recourse to the family physician at home, who would 
be more likely than any other to take a deep interest in the 
case, and exercise those sympathies which are so requisite un- 
der the circumstances. 

Cases of this kind are of daily occurrence, and are constantly 
coming under the notice of city physicians, by hundreds and 
thousands every year. Some practical lessons of an import- 
ance which can not perhaps be over-estimated, may be drawn 
from this subject : 



280 

1. Allow no paper or magazine to enter your house which 
offers, by advertisement, to send any book on health and dis- 
ease free of cost. No man can afford to print a book for noth- 
ing, and then to pay postage on it, unless he afterward finds 
his pay in the manner above described. 

2. Let all parents encourage the early marriage of their sons : 
as soon after twenty-one as circumstances will permit ; it is a 
less evil than to be exposed to the dangers above referred to, 
by putting it off to the more physiologically appropriate age of 
twenty-five. 

3. Let no youth of intelligence ever consult a man at a dis- 
tance, for the ailments which have been alluded to, or the sup- 
posed symptoms of impossible things. It is a thousand times 
better to consult the family physician at home ; him you can 
trust with safety, as to body and reputation ; a thing which is 
never to be done by men who send books free of charge, 
which treat of any form of disease. 

As to the symptoms and debilitations of the early morning, 
and which have such a depressing influence on mind and body, 
second only to those of dyspepsia, nothing can be more certain 
than that there is no remedy, safe and efficient in drugs ; but 
it must be sought in the diligent following out of some active 
industrial pursuit, force of will, and the cultivation of a high 
and manly moral power, which looks with angry and impa- 
tient contempt on all that is vicious, corrupting, and degrading, 
whether in deed or word or thought ; this is the only efficient, 
the only infallible remedy, and is worthy of the mature reflec- 
tion of every high-minded and generous-hearted youth. See 
the editor's book on " Sleep " for more full details. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 179. 

STAMMERING. 

It is often observed that persons in a state of intense excitement are incoherent, 
do not express themselves connectedly ; this is simply acute stammering, result- 
ing from a too great an amount of nervous power or influence going out in a 
specific direction by the mind being too intently fixed on one thing, on one 
idea, on one effort. The always . efficient remedy is to divide the mind's attention 
in any way that will cause deliberation or composure. Twenty years ago it was 
considered a great surgical feat in the amphitheater of the University of New- 
York to bring in the most inveterate stutterer, and in five minutes he would go 
away before the wondering eyes of the students, perfectly cured, simply by having 
had a common knitting-needle, or its substitute, thrust through the tongue. The 
philosophy of this was, that unless the tongue was moved with deliberation more 
or less pain was excited ; but the misfortune was, that as soon as the thrust was 
healed, the man stammered as before. 

It is related in physiological works, that a laborer, the most inveterate stam- 
merer in London, became possessed with the idea that he would make a good 
play-actor, and nothing that his friends could say or do could induce him to 
forego his resolve. The unusual circumstance gave a crowded house, and the 
young man went through his part without the stammer of a single syllable ; be- 
cause, while one effort of the mind was to remember the words and the gestures, 
another, a divided one, was to the utterances of his part. 

My son, at the age of six, stammered inveterately. He was very impulsive 
and of a highly nervous temperament. Holding the views of this article, I would 
not allow him to be scolded or ridiculed, or have the infirmity remarked upon 
by any member of the family, because either of these would but increase the em- 
barrassment or want of presence of mind ; but whenever he came to me for any 
thing, I would say in a kindly, encouraging way : " Now, Bobby, if you will ask for 
it in a sloio, plain way, you shall have it." Then, without any instruction, he would 
say : " "Will fa-ther please give Rob-ert a piece of can-dy ?" thus distinctly enunci- 
ating every syllable. I noticed at the same time, that the little fellow, at each sylla- 
ble, would make a motion to strike his hand against his thigh as he stood. Here 
was nature's instinct coming to his aid ; part of the mind, as it were, was directed 
to the hand keeping time to each syllable, another part to obtaining the object in 
view. No one ever stammers in singing, because the attention is divided between 
the music and the sentiment. In a few weeks little Robert ceased to stammer al- 
together, and has never since had the slightest trouble in that direction. Hence, 
the only cure for stammering is to cultivate mental deliberation in the way most 
easily available to each particular person. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 180. 



CHILDREN'S FEET. 

Life-long discomfort, disease, and sudden death often come to children through 
the inattention, ignorance, or carelessness of the parents. A child should never be 
allowed to go to sleep with cold feet ; the thing to be last attended to, in putting a 
child to bed, should be to see that the feet are dry and warm ; neglect of this has 
often resulted in a dangerous attack of croup, diphtheria, or fatal sore throat. 

Always, on coming from school, on entering the house from a visit or errand in 
rainy, muddy, or thawy weather, the child's shoes should be removed, and the 
mother should herself ascertain if the stockings are the least damp ; and if so, 
should require them to be taken off, the feet held before the fire and rubbed with 
the hand until perfectly dry, and another pair of stockings be put on and another 
pair of shoes, while the other stockings and shoes should be placed where they can 
be well dried, so as to be ready for future use at a moment's notice. 

There are children not ten years of age suffering with corns from too close-fitting 
shoes, by the parent having been tempted to " take " them because a few cents 
were deducted from the price, while the child's foot is constantly growing. A shoe 
large enough with thin stockings is too small on the approach of cold weather and 
thicker hose, but the consideration that they are only half worn is sufficient some- 
times to require them to be worn, with the result of a corn, which is to be more or 
less of a trouble for fifty years perhaps ; and all this to save the price of a pair of 
half-worn shoes ! No child should be fitted with shoes without putting on two pair 
of thick woolen stockings, and the shoe should go on moderately easy even over 
these. Have broad heels, and less than half an inch in thickness. 

Tight shoes inevitably arrest the free circulation of the blood and nervous influ- 
ences through the feet, and directly tend to cause cold feet ; and health with 
habitually cold feet is an impossibility. 

That parent is guilty of a criminal negligence who does not always see to it that 
each child enters the church and school-house door with feet comfortably dry and 
warm. Grown persons of very limited intelligence know that, as to themselves, 
damp feet endanger health and life, however robust ; much more so must it be to 
the tender constitution of a growing child. 

I have never known a shoemaker, whether in sending home a pair of new shoes 
or old ones repaired, to fail leaving several pegs or iron nails to project through 
the sole on the inside. The result is, that often in a single day, the excitement o* 
play preventing a child from noticing any discomfort, the stockings are cut through 
in several places and ugly sores are made in the soles of the feet, to be an annoy- 
ance and a trouble for a week afterward ; beside the unnecessary work given to an 
already overtasked mother in mending the stockings. To avoid the results of such 
inexcusable neglect, and also to make it more sure that pegs and nails should not 
"work through" by the shrinkage of the leather, and also to keep the feet dry, 
there should be worn between the leather of the shoe and the stocking a piece of 
cork, or soft, thick pasteboard, lined at the bottom with a piece of oiled silk, and on 
the upper-side touching the stocking the lining should be of Canton flannel ; each 
person should have two pair of these, to be worn on alternate days. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 181. 



GEUELS A2STD SOTXPS. 

BY MRS. MATTIE M. JONES. 

Wheat-Meal Gruel. — Mix two tablespoonfuls of wheat-meal smoothly with a gill of cold wa- 
ter ; stir the mixture into a quart of boiling water ; boil about fifteen minutes, taking off whatever 
scum forms on the top. A little sugar may be added if desired. 

Indian-Meal Gruel. — Stir gradually into a quart of boiling water two tablespoonfuls of Indian 
meal ; boil it slowly twenty minutes. This is often prepared for the sick, under the name of " wa- 
ter-gruel." In the current cook-books, salt, sugar, and nutmeg are generally added. Nothing of 
the sort should be used, except sugar. 

Oatmeal Gruel — Mix a tablespoonful of oatmeal with a little cold water; pour on the mixture 
a quart of boiling water, stirring it well ; let it settle two or three minutes ; then pqur it into the 
pan carefully, leaving the coarser part of the meal at the bottom of the vessel ; set it on the fire, 
and stir it till it boils ; then let it boil about five minutes, and skim. 

Farina Gruel.— Mix two tablespoonfuls of farina in a gill of water ; pour very gradually on the 
mixture a quart of boiling water, stirring thoroughly, and boil ten minutes. 

Tapioca Gruel. — Wash a tablespoonful of tapioca, and soak it in a pint and a half of water 
twenty minutes ; then boil gently, stirring frequently, till the tapioca is sufficiently cooked, and 
sweeten. 

Sago Gruel. — Wash two tablespoonfuls of sago, and soak it a few minutes in half a pint of cold 
water ; then boil a pint and a half of water, and, while boiling, stir in the farina; boil slowly till 
well done, and sweeten with sugar or molasses. 

Currant Gruel. — Add two tablespoonfuls of currants to a quart of wheat-meal or oatmeal 
ground, and, after boiling a few minutes, add a little sugar. 

Groat Gruel. — Steep clean groats in water for several hours ; boil them in pure soft water till 
quite tender and thick ; then add boiling water sufficient to reduce to the consistency of gruel. 
Currants and sugar may also be added. 

Arrow-root Gruel. — Mix an ounce of arrow-root smoothly with a little cold water ; then pour 
on the mixture a pint of boiling water, stirring it constantly ; return it into the pan, and let it boil 
five minutes. Season with sugar and lemon-juice. 

Rice Gruel. — Boil two ounces of good clean rice in a quart of water until the grains are quite, 
soft ; then add two tablespoonfuls of sugar, and boil two or three minutes. Currants make a good* 
addition to this gruel. 

Tomato Soup. — Scald" and peel good ripe tomatoes; stew them one hour, and strain through a 
coarse sieve ; stir in a very little Avheaten flour to give it body, and brown sugar in the proportion 
of a teaspoonful to a quart of soup ; then boil five minutes. This is one of the most agreeable and 
wholesome of the "fancy dishes." Ochre, or gumbo, is a good addition to this and many other 
kinds of soup. 

Rice Soup.— Boil one gill of rice in a pint of water till soft ; then add a pint of milk, a teaspoon- 
ful of sugar, and simmer gently five minutes. 

Split Peas Soup.— Soak the peas all night; then cook them three or four hours, or till perfectly 
soft. Add a little sweet cream just before they are done. 

Green Peas Soup. — Take three pints of peas, three common-sized turnips, one carrot, and the 
shells of the peas. Boil one quart of the largest of the peas, with the shells or the pods, till quite 
soft ; rub through a fine colander ; return the pulp into the pan, add the turnips, a carrot, sliced, 
and a quart of boiling water ; when the vegetables are perfectly soft, add the young or smaller 
peas, previously boiled. 

Split Peas and Barley Soup. — Take three pints of split peas, half a pint of pearl-barley, half 
a pound of stale bread, and one turnip, sliced. W ash the peas and barley, and steep them in fresh 
water at least twelve hours ; place them over the fire ; add the bread, turnip, and half a tablespoon- 
ful of sugar ; boil till all are quite soft ; rub them through a fine colander, adding gradually a quart 
of boiling water ; return the soup into the pan, and boil ten minutes. 

Barley Soup. — Take four ounces of barley, two ounces of bread crumbs, and half an ounce of 
chopped parsley. Wash the barley, and steep it twelve hours in half a pint of water ; boil slowly 
in a covered tin-pan five hours, and about half an hour before the dish is to be served add the 
parsley. 

Green Bean Soup. — Take one quart of garden or kidney beans, one ounce of spinach, and one 
ounce of parsley. Boil the beans ; skin and bruise them in a bowl till quite smooth ; put them in 
a pan with two quarts of vegetable broth ; dredge in a little flour ; stir it on the fire till it boils, 
and put it in the spinach and parsley, (previously boiled and rubbed through a sieve.) 

Vegetable Broth. — This may be made with various combinations and proportions of vegeta- 
bles. For example — four turnips, two carrots, one onion, and a spoonful of lentil flower. Half 
fill a pan with the vegetables, in pieces ; nearly fill up the vessel with water ; boil till all the vege- 
tables are tender, and strain. 

Barley Broth. — Take four ounces of pearl-barley, two turnips, three ounces of Indian-meal, 
and three ounces of sweet cream. Steep the pearl-barley (after washing) twelve hours ; set it on 
the fire in five quarts of fresh water, adding the turnips ; boil gently an hour ; add the cream ; stir 
in the meal ; thin it, if necessary, with more water, and simmer gently twenty minutes. 

Vegetable Soup. — Two good-sized turnips and Irish potatoes each ; one carrot, parsnip, sweet 
potato, and onion each ; a little parsley, chopped fine, and three tablespoonfuls of rice or pearl- 
barley. Slice the vegetables very thin ; put them in two quarts of boiling water ; let them cook 
three hours ; then add the rice, and cook one hour longer. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 182. 



MEDICAL MELANGE. 

Blistered Hands and Feet. — The speediest remedy is to light a tallow candle and 
let the melted tallow drop in cold water, then mix the tallow with strong spirits and 
rub it thoroughly into the palms or soles ; this is both a preventive and curative. 

Concentrated Potatoes. — A bushel of potatoes averages sixty pounds ; when all 
the water is absorbed five pounds of nutritive material are left, which, when ground, 
looks like Indian (corn) meal. A factory in Maine " concentrates " a thousand 
bushels of potatoes a day for the army. 

Reading whilst Traveling fatigues the eyes, as every observant person well 
knows ; this induces headache, sometimes pains around the eyes, with a slight con- 
gestion of the retina, which, when the habit becomes inveterate, and the subject is 
over fifty or of a weak constitution, is liable to end in an attack of apoplexy. Lon- 
don medical journals have reported several very obscure, painful, and complex 
maladies which have entirely disappeared, and very promptly too, on the discontinu- 
ance of the custom of reading on rail-cars while in motion or' of riding long dis- 
tances to business daily, namely, thirty or forty miles every day. 

Poisoned Ivy or Oak-Vines. — Some persons are so susceptible of being poisoned 
in passing through the woods, that a breath of air passing from the vine toward any 
exposed part of the body is sufficient to produce severe skin disease, and which is 
very difficult of cure in some constitutions. An item has been going the round of 
the papers lately to the effect that if the person will chew and swallow even half a 
leaf of the ivy itself it effects a speedy cure. But the public should be on their 
guard in using this remedy, for one case at least is given where swallowing a single 
leaf was followed by most distressing symptoms, and the person barely escaped 
with life. 

Hydrophobia is said to be cured promptly and effectually by swallowing a decoc- 
tion of thorn-apple, that is the plant known as the Jamestown or Jimson weed, put- 
ting the patient in a furious rage as soon as swallowed. When it is known that 
this weed is a deadly poison under ordinary circumstances, and that children 
have frequently died after having eaten a few seeds, persons are counseled not 
to make the experiment, and to let poison-oak and the thorn-apple alone ; it is 
always better to apply to a physician. 

Taking Colds. — Some persons can almost tell in an instant when they have taken 
cold, generally by the disagreeable feeling of chilliness and the difficulty of getting 
comfortably warmed. Sometimes a person after exercising actively finds himself a 
little chilled before he knows it. In both cases an available, instantaneous, and al- 
most always efficient remedy is at hand — simply walk, run, or work until free per- 
spiration is produced, the sooner the better, and when the exercise is over, go to a 
room of seventy degrees Fahrenheit, or drink several cups of hot drink, taking care, 
if not in a warm room, to cease exercising by degrees. 

Impressions on the Retina after Death. — This is a beautiful thought ; too beau- 
tiful to be true. Impressions do not remain an instant in life, for another one 
comes as fast as presented. How, then, can they remain after death ? The last 
impression in life does remain some time, if the eye is immediately closed, as Sir 
Isaac Newton describes in his own experience, in a letter to the philosopher Locke ; 
but to do that it was necessary that he should fix the mind on it, or as Sir Isaac 
expressed himself, " intend my fancy," but such an intending can not exist after 
death. 

Diphtheria is said to be speedily arrested and cured by swallowing lumps of ice, 
continuously, until relief is afforded ; let them as much as possible melt in the throat. 
Common sore-throat is cured in the same way, sometimes. 

Epilepsy, or falling sickness, is reported to be successfully treated by Dr. John 
Chapman, of London, editor of the Westminster Review, by the application of ice 
and hot water, in India-rubber bags, at various parts of the spinal column. 



NOTICES. 285 



Personal Notice. — The editor has opened an office for consultation and 
business temporarily, at 831 Broadway, New- York, where he may be found 
daily, from ten to one o'clock p.m. He does not wish to be seen at any other 
time, for the present. Persons who can not call upon him within ten 
hours specified, are requested to address a note to him a day or two before- 
hand, to arrange an interview for some other hour. By this arrangement, 
our business will be concentrated to a smaller portion of the day, leaving 
us more time to write for the Journal without innumerable interruptions ; 
to play with the children, and look in at the shop-windows incog, in glorious 
old Broadway. It is not good for any body's health to be confined to one 
room from daylight to bedtime ready for calls, as has been the case with us 
for so many years past in this city ; and although we can not remember the 
day when we omitted to eat a meal for want of an appetite, and are gener- 
ally as lively as a cricket and playful as a little lamb or kitten, still, by the 
new arrangement, we are satisfied that our readers, pur patients, and our 
children will be benefited; and our health and happiness be promoted; 
and all this, without incommoding any one in any way. 

" The Soul of Things." By Wm. and Elizabeth M. F. Denton. Published 
by Walker, Wise & Co., Boston. It purports to be a volume of " Psycho- 
metric Eesearches and Discoveries." It commences with quotations from 
Newton to Locke and others, and follows these up with tom-fooleries more 
absurd than any thing ever written or imagined by any body we have 
ever heard of before. It beats every thing else in the nature of biology,, 
mesmerism, phrenology, steam doctoring, water-cure, and witchcraft. The 
very queerness of the book will make it be read with profit by cultivated 
minds. The great point of the volume, as we understand it, is this : it has 
been said that the human eye, or the retina, retains for a few minutes after 
death the image of the last person or thing seen when dying. A sweet, a 
beautiful idea, if true, for often do the dying speak as if they ' saw angels 
ascending and descending,' and dear kindred and friends who had gone be- 
fore. So the book argues, that to highly sensitive or impressible persons 
even the rocks of any locality will reveal the history of all that has passed 
in their presence, as it were, of which nearly a hundred illustrations are 
given, purporting to be facts. The lady closes with this practical applica- 
tion : " May we not reasonably hope for less of wrong and more of right, 
when we shall have learned that all on which our shadows rest become re- 
cording angels, faithfully transcribing their deeds, their thoughts, nay, the 
very motive of our hearts?" But suppose we never "learn" these things, 
what then ? 

But let us turn to something better, to books full of practical, tangible 
truths, all warm with the realities and loves and benevolences of life, such 
as can be read, with satisfaction and confidence, by happy families around 
the firesides of dear old Christmas-times ; books full of truthful teachings 
about life and death, and an eternity of blissful realities beyond the grave,, 
and how to attain them with a certainty that " passeth knowledge." 



286 hall's journal of health. 

Among such books are some of the issues of the Carter Brothers, publish- 
ers and booksellers, 530 Broadway, New- York, to whom the public are so 
much indebted for the sterling publications which they nave been scatter- 
ing broadcast over the country every year, for almost an age past. Well 
may that house feel a noble pride when they look over the long list of their 
issues, not one of them against good morals or against a sound Christian 
doctrine. 

"The Three Cripples," pp. 202, 16mo, taken from London life, and is 
admirably adapted to engage the attention, and instruct the minds, and 
warm the hearts of children. So is No. 2, entitled " The Last Shilling 
and the Oiled Feather," by Rev. Philip Bennett Power, A.M. No. 3. 
11 The Two Brothers and the Two Paths," by the same, a powerful illus- 
tration of what infidels term "Destiny," but which the humble Christian 
delights in considering the Providence of God, and the importance, especial- 
ly to the young, of seeking the course and guidance of Him who hath 
said : " It is not in man that walketh to direct his steps." Price fifty cents 
each. No. 4. " Faithful and True ; or, The Evans Family," 357 pp., 12mo 
with nineteen chapters of most interesting incidents of practical every-day 
life. No. 5. "The Safe Compass, and How it Points," by Rev. Richard 
Newton, D.D., 318 pp., 12mo, containing ten practical lectures, admirably 
adapted to be read of winter evenings around the center-table. Not a child 
or parent could possibly go to sleep during any one of these stirring read- 
ings. Price of last two, ninety cents each. No. 6. " The Jewish Taberna- 
cle and its Furniture, in Their Typical Teachings," by Rev. Richard 
Newton, D.D., 393 pp., 12mo, $1.50. How we long for the return 
of the good old times when Christian people would feed with delight 
on books like this, which practically explain the types and the 
antitypes of the Mosaic dispensation, looking forward to the coming 
of the Son of Man, his first and his last. No. 7, 12mo, pp. 264, $1, 
is an "Essay on the Improvement of Time," by John Foster, author 
of that grand essay, on " Decision of Character." This volume is 
edited by J. E. Ryland, M.A., with a Preface by John Sheppard, and 
needs no eulogy. Every young man and woman should read it. A bare 
list of the subjects treated will procure many a purchaser a value of time 
capacity of time, swiftness of time, ultimate object of the improvement of 
time; indolence, intervals, solitary life. We will send this most valuable 
book, free of charge, to any one who will send us three new subscribers 
to Hall's Journal of Health for 1884. 

Presbyterian Board of Education, 821 Chestnut Street, Philadel- 
phia. — We wish very much that we could send a catalogue of the books 
and tracts, with the prices, of this noble Christian institution. What mul- 
titudes of luscious feelings would be excited in the young of our land, if 
half a dozen of these publications could be thrown in upon each family 
group on Christmas eve, by that famous myth, Chris Kringle, or Santa 
Claus. Five of the " series for youth," have been sent us for notice, 16mo, 
averaging 200 pages each. No. 1. "The Three Homes;" 2. "Rebella; 



NOTICES. j 287 

or, The Shining "Way ;" 3. " Rays of Light " — being instructive tales for 
youth ; 4. " Lessons in Flying," a title which does not convey an adequate 
idea of the many instructive things found in its pages ; 5. " Blind Annie 
Lorrimer," a sad and beautiful story. These books are from thirty to forty 
cents each. 

Any books we notice, now or hereafter, will be sent to such as choose to 
take any trouble to obtain subscribers to the Journal of Health for 1864, 
at the rate of one dollar's worth of books, for three new subscriptions. 

The American Tract Society, Boston, and Bible House, New- York, have 
issued a very interesting and instructive little volume, 16mo, 160 pp., en- 
titled " Plants," illustrating in their structure the wisdom and goodness of 
God ; with numerous engravings. None can read it attentively without ben- 
efit to both mind and heart. Also, " Elton "Wheatly, the Stammerer ; or, 
Like Other Folks," by Ellen Derry ; twenty-five cents. Also, "Happi- 
ness," 16mo., pp. 232, fifty cents ; being discourses at Geneva, by Count 
De Gasparin ; translated by Mary L. Booth, with an introduction by Rev. 
E. N. Kirk, D.D., who well remarks : " M. De Gasparin, in this little vol- 
ume, appears before the American people in a new light ; not as a states- 
man or a political philosopher, but as a moralist and Christian teacher, a 
disciple of the crucified Redeemer." 

Agricultural. — Not only practical and scientific farmers, but the whole 
country, is greatly indebted to the laborious industry, energy, and judi- 
ciousness of the Hon. Isaac Newton, the Commissioner of Agriculture, for 
his report presented to Congress for 1862, under the act to establish a De- 
partment of Agriculture. This is the first report under the new Depart- 
ment, 617 pp., 8vo, with a most copious and satisfactory index of con- 
tents. Besides invaluable and suggestive statistical tables, showing the 
quantity of farm products of different States, there are many articles of 
practical value, written by eminent men, on the wheat-plant, sorghum cul- 
ture, cotton, flax, tobacco, fruits, vines, sheep, cattle, eggs, sugar, coal-oil, 
farm implements, preservation of food and timber. No small "part of the 
value of this report is justly attributed to the persevering industry of 
James Grinnell, Esq., of Mass., Chief Clerk. 

Clinton Hall Literary and Educational Course. — Course of English 
literature, consisting of readings from Authors, in prose and verse, hy Mrs. 
H. Bronson Williams. . This excellent and accomplished lady never appears 
before a New- York audience without eliciting the heartiest plaudits of her 
hearers, and none of our readers can fail to derive both instruction and 
amusement from any one of her " Readings." 

The American Sunday-School Union, now venerable for its age and grand 
in its long years of usefulness, sends out, from 1122 Chestnut street, Phila- 
delphia, and 599 Broadway, New- York, u The Children of Blackberry 
Hollow," in uniform library binding, of six volumes, in a case, being stories 
of "Red Shoes," "White Frock," "Tom Lane's Cent," "The Little 
Brown House," "Little Lights," and "New Bonnet." Also an admirable 
little volume, " An Appeal to the Young on the Importance of Religion," 



288 hall's joubnal of health. 

by that eminent writer John Foster, author of " Decision of Character." It 
is a permanently valuable Christmas present for all young people. Also 
"Leonard, the Lion Heart," " Second Book of One Hundred Pictures," 
"The Little Sea-Bird," and " The Peasant and his Guest, Illustrat- 
ing the History of Four Boys." Any one of these volumes will make 
the children's eyes fairly dance with delight, if presented around the Christ- 
mas-eve fires, with the more solid good of their reading to come after. 

Posture in Worship. — An old-school Presbyterian brother and corre- 
spondent blazes away most furiously at us for writing Health Tract No. 
176, showing that the universal sitting posture during the entire Sabbath 
service, in cities and large towns, is not only unbecoming, but that, on phy- 
siological principles, it unfits the hearer for taking that interest in the serv- 
ices of the sanctuary which all ought to show, simply because it inevitably 
promotes sleepiness — our correspondent taking his standpoint from a one- 
acre lot, his own country church ; we from New-York, the metropolis of a 
continent, the head-quarters of all creation. "We speak what we know 
and testify what we have seen " every day in the churches. The evil has 
become so general that the General Assembly of our Church has had their 
attention drawn to the subject, and in obedience thereto, has earnestly 
urged upon the churches the importaice of breaking up so unseemly a cus- 
tom. Our church on Fifth Avenue numbers nearly eight hundred commu- 
nicants. We have never been able to number two per cent of the entire 
congregation who stood during any part of the service, except during the. 
Doxology and the Benediction. 

General Notice. — Inducements to subscribe for the Journal of 
Health for 1864. 

Almost every subscription to this Journal ends with this December num- 
ber, 1863. We have not a dun to,make, as the Journal is not sent unless 
payment is made in advance. We hope all our present subscribers will 
find it convenient to renew their subscriptions, and remit the accustomed 
dollar before the issue of our January number, which will be about the fif- 
teenth of December. And as we have not increased the size or subscription 
price, although paper and labor have so largely increased in price, we sug- 
gest that each subscriber spend an hour or two among his or her friends, in 
getting new subscriptions for us. We as an editor and physician are often 
asked and expected to spend hours of valuable time in looking into cases 
and listening to details and writing letters — for nothing ! We make no 
such request from any reader ; but say to them that for three dollars sent 
for three new subscribers, to as many addresses, we will send any book we 
have published, free of cost ; or we will send, post-paid, a dollar's worth of 
any book or books which we have noticed in this or previous numbers, or 
we will send, post-paid, the Photographic Magnifier for three new subscrib- 
ers. This instrument through one glass gives a greatly increased beauty 
and interest to any photographic picture, and always affords a sweet and 
quiet delight when looking at the pictures of the loved or lost. When 
both glasses are used on double pictures— that is, stereoscopic views— the 



notices. 289 

same pleasurable results are experienced. We ourselves never weary in 
using one of them on the photographs of the members of our family, or 
the Photographic Albums which contain the cartes de visite of our friends. 
The Photographic Magnifier is a source of perennial satisfaction and quiet 
delight to every person who owns one and has the taste or culture to own a 
photograph album. 

Russia and the Russians. — The first article of this number, on the death 
of Nicholas the First, of Russia, was written by us several years ago for an- 
other publication, and is reproduced here as a subject of fresh interest, from 
the fact that the Russian fleet is in our harbor, and its officers are receiv- 
ing the cordial hospitalities of the principal cities of the nation. The au- 
gust Emperor's death was the result of a little cold, which we have private 
means of knowing was taken by encountering exposures, against the vain 
remonstrances of a faithful and skillful physician ; just as multitudes of our 
daughters lose their lives by disregarding the counsels which their more 
experienced mothers give them, in affectionate solicitude, for their highest 
interest and happiness. " It won't hurt me," says the daughter, as she 
bounds away to the ball, of a winter's evening^ scarcely half-clad. " It 
won't hurt me," said the "Czar" to his watchful physician, as he went to 
the " review " of his troops, on that bitter cold day ; but let it be under- 
stood by all, that potentates and powers ; that youth and beauty ; that pro- 
fessional eminence and social distinction, are alike subject to the great 
laws, of our being ; that the king in his palace, any more than the 
peasant in his hut, or the slave in his cabin, can not trifle with physiological 
laws, and that their infraction will always, sooner or later, meet with a 
due punishment. Many persons, especially clergymen, sometimes encoun- 
ter exposures, which result in death, under an indefinable impression that 
their motives or their work will, somehow or other, secure them an impu- 
nity against their effects. 

We recently attended the religious services of the Greek Church, on the 
Sabbath-day, on board the Osclaba, and were greatly pleased with the seri- 
ous and becoming and respectful attention of the four hundred sailors who 
participated in the. services ; they stood during the whole time, which was 
mostly passed in a sweetly plaintive rehearsal of portions of scripture ; it 
was a kind of chanting which fell sweetly on the ear. We shall always re- 
member the scene with great satisfaction and a higher appreciation of Rus- 
sian civilization and religion. And we are quite sure that our eldest daugh- 
ter Ellen is more enthusiastic than ourselves at the " civilization" part, hav 
ing spent eleven hours on board the Alexander Nevsky, the Russian flag 
ship, the other day and evening, at a grand entertainment given by the 
officers of the fleet. One of the daily papers, in describing the entertain- 
ment, says: "The tenth of November, 1863, will long be remembered by 
those who participated in the festivities. In homely language, all who 
were there can not fail to say: We had a splendid time. Nor will it alone 
be remembered here. The memory of that day will be borne over the sea, 



290 hall's journal of health. 

taken to Russia, and its anniversary may in years to come be the theme oi 
conversation, on both continents, around the home fireside." 

The Russians here are as white as our own sailors and naval officers, 
of medium height, perhaps rather under that, on an average, with flaxen 
colored hair, many of them, compact frames, and very courteous ; these 
statements are particularly true of the officers, which is the point of most 
interest to our young lady readers. The hair is cut short, and the face 
more or less cleanly shaven. 

The grand ball at the Academy of Music was open to any one who was 
willing to pay twelve dollars. Money could not purchase admission to 
the festivities on the Russian flag-ship ; hence they were characterized by 
an elevation, a refinement, and a propriety worthy of all praise. 

Concentrated Economy. — W. D. Russell, 206 Pearl street, New- York, 
not only furnishes a stove which will cook a good breakfast for several per- 
sons at a cost of two cents, but sells a lamp which will not only furnish 
abundant light for sewing or study for a whole evening for a penny, but 
will, at the same time, without interference, boil water, make a cup of coffee, 
chocolate, or tea, and toast bread, secundem artem. 

Farmers. — The most extraordinary case of success in an enterprise that 
is unquestionably of sterling and permanent and general utility, is found 
in the energy and business tact of Orange Judd, the editor and proprietor 
of the American Agriculturist, New-York, $1 a year. When he took hold 
of it, it had but a few hundred subscribers, and was dying daily ; now it 
has a circulation of fifty thousand greater than any similar publication in 
the world. It is sent monthly to ninety thousand actual subscribers. 
Whoever wants it for nothing, and has never taken it, let him send three 
dollars for three new subscribers to Hall's Journal op Health. 

To Every Lady of taste and culture ; to every housekeeper ; to every 
mother, Godey^s Lady y s Booh, $3 a year, Philadelphia, is of sterling value. 
The industry, ability, and judgment with which it is edited, is worthy of 
all praise, and has made it the most popular family monthly in the nation. 
January, 1864, begins the sixty-eighth volume. 

Photographic — We never fail to be pervaded with a deep and quiet 
and intense satisfaction when we look at the photographs of our dear little 
ones, or of the loved and absent, through the Photographic Magnifier and 
Pocket Stereoscope sold by P. 0. Godfrey, 831 Broadway, New- York, at 
$1, $1.50, and $3. Sent by mail free at same prices. 

Rewards. — The two bound volumes of Hall's Journal of Health for 
1862 and 1863, containing, among other reading pertaining to health and 
disease, all the "Health Tracts" published to this date, one hundred and 
eighty in number, can be .had for $1.25 each : they will be given to any one 
who will obtain seven new subscribers for our Journal for 1864. 

Subscribers who have failed to receive any number of the Journal for 
1863, will be supplied with the same free of charge on application by letter, 
or at the office of publication, 831 Broadway, New-York. Any past num- 
ber of the Journal, from No.'l, Vol. I. to date, will be supplied for ten cents- 



NOTICES. 291 

The two volumes for 1862 and 1863, containing one hundred and eighty 
" Health Tracts " bound in muslin, will be delivered at the office of publi- 
cation for two dollars, or sent by express at purchaser's charge for the same 
amount. 

Help for "Women. — Messrs. Walker, Wise & Co., 285 Washington street, 
Boston, have issued a timely volume for $1.25, on " The Employments of 
Women," being a Cyclopaedia of Women's Work, by Virginia Penny. At no 
time of our country's history have so many women been thrown on their 
own exertions. The book contains over five hundred articles descriptive of 
occupations available to women, the effect of each on health, rate of wages, 
time necessary for women to learn them. It is an invaluable work, a work 
of humanity, and precisely adapted to the emergencies of the times. We 
will send it post-paid to any one who will send us three new subscribers to 
Hall's Journal of Health for 1864. 

The bound volume for 1863 will be given for the loose numbers (if in good 
condition) and twenty-five cents for binding. We shall probably issue the 
subsequent numbers in white paper binding, each number containing about 
twenty -four pages of reading matter ; the extra pages will be devoted to ad- 
vertisements. 

Seven copies of the Journal of Health for 1864 will be sent for five dollars 
sixteen copies for ten dollars. Ladies who desire to consult the Editor pro. 
fessionally, are requested to do so by a prearrangement of the hour. 

The Presbyterian Historical Almanac for 1863 should be in the library of 
every clergyman in the whole Presbyterian family ; it embodies a vast amount 
of important statistical and historical matter, beside the biographies and por- 
traits of ministers who lived and labored and loved and died in their Mas*" 
ter's service. This, the fifth volume, contains nineteen ministers' portraits, 
engraved upon steel by Sartain and Whitchurch ; also eight engravings 
of churches, colleges, and seminaries; 495 pages 8vo, $2. Either of the 
first four volumes will be furnished for $1.50, by addressing its indefatigable 
and self-sacrificing compiler, Joseph M. Wilson, No. Ill South Tenth street 
Philadelphia. 

The following was taken verbatim from a tomb-stone at Williamsport, 
Pa., last summer, by a son of Rev. Dr. R s of New- York : 

Sacred to the 

memory of 

HENRY HARRIS, 

Born June 27, 1721. 

of Henry Harris and Jane » 

His wife, died on the 4th of 

May, 1737, by the kick of a 

Colt in, his bowels, peaceable 

And quiet, a friend to his 

Father and Mother, and respected 

By all who knew him. 

And went to that world 

where horses can't kick, and 

where sorrow and weeping 

is no more. 



The Photographic Magnifier 

Is a source of never-failing satisfaction and a pure delight as often as the pho« 
tographs of 

THE LOVED, THE ABSENT, OR THE LOST ! 

are examined by it. It so enlarges the picture and brings out the distinctive 
features of the original, that we love, or smile or weep whenever the portrait is 
taken up for examination. Sent free by mail for $1, $1.50, and $3. 

GAS IN EVERY HOUSE. 

THE ATMOSPHEEIC-PRESSURE LAMP ; 

OR THE 

NO -CHIMNEY LAMP! 

Adapted especially for Kerosene and Petroleum, or any other burning-fluid, i3 
one of the most important inventions of the times of a domestic nature. 

NO WICK, NO SMOKE, NO MAOHINEEY. 

The oil is converted into a pure gas, which burns with a beautiful flame, as 
white and as brilliant, as that given out by any gas-works in the land. This 
Lamp will burn for five, ten, or twenty-four hours, according to the size, without 
any adjustment whatever. For lighting 

Parlors, Factories, Public Buildings, Rail-Cars, 
Steam- Vessels, and all Mines 

where there is no fire-damp, it is the cheapest, most convenient, and most per- 
fect light ever invented. No ordinary wind can blow it out. It can be carried 
in the hand unprotected, by the hour, through rain and wind and storm, with- 
out being extinguished. It is not easily put out of order, and is readily re- 
"paired. Price, $4 and upward. 

HULL'S BUCKEYE BURNER, . 

Patented in August, 1863, has a chimney three inches long ; it burns a broad 
wick v and affords as clear and beautiful and abundant light as any other lamp 
of its size, or as a common gas-burner. It will supersede all others, because 
it is sold at the same price, while the chimney, by being so short, is so much 
less liable to breakage, that it will in a short time save its cost in this item alone. 

VERMIN EXTERMINATOR. 

By simply wetting the hair thoroughly with this liquid, the comb will in a 
few minutes afterward bring away every living parasite without any more 
injury to the head than if so much water had been applied. It is a purely 
vegetable, liquid preparation, containing neither oil, grease, larkspur, opium, mer- 
cury or any other mineral, and is, under all circumstances, a safe, cleanly, and 
agreeable preparation. It is used exclusively by the Commission of Public Chari- 
ties' of New-York in all the institutions under its control. It is as efficient for 
the relief of all domestic animals, and is • i* 

AN INFALLIBLE BED-BUG RIDDANCE. 

It will destroy the vermin (called body-lice) which infest the clothing, without 
the slightest injury to the garment. As all travelers, school-children, sailors, 
and soldiers are liable to become infested accidentally, Dodge's Infallible Ex- 
terminator should be found in every family, in every barrack, in every asylum, 
in every ship, in every camp, and in every traveler's trunk. Twenty-five cents 
a Bottle. Quart Cans for domestic animals and public institutions, $2.50. 

For any article named on this page, call on, or address, P. C. GODFREY, 
Agent, 831 Broadway, New-York. 



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